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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
08/04/2011 - 09/06/2011
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other:
Remarks:
This study was conducted in accordance with OECD guideline 202, with analytical confirmation of exposure concentrations and GLP standards were maintained throughout.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: other guideline
Version / remarks:
Test method relating to new chemical substances "Alga growth inhibition test, Daphnia sp. acute immobilisation test, and fish acute toxicity test" (Japanese notification, Yakushokuhatsu 0331 No.7, Heisei 23.03.29 Seiyoku No.5, Kanpokihatsu No. 110331009)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
IUPAC name: Aluminium titanium oxide
CAS No.: 12004-39-6
Molecular weight: 181.83
Purity: 99.9%
Melting point: 1860oC
Solubility in water: <50 mg/ml
Appearance: White powder
Stability: Stable for 5 years at room temperature
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples of test solutions were taken at the beginning (0 and 24h) and end (24 and 48h) of each renewal period. Mid-water samples of freshly prepared test solutions were taken from the the vessles used to monitor test conditions, and samples of expired media were taken from one replicate vessel per test group.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test solutions were prepared by adding an appropriate amount of the test material to dilution water, followed by ultrasonification for 30 minutes, stirring for 48 hours, then filtering (membrane filter, HA, 0.45um, Millipore corporation) and transfering the filtrate to the test vessels.Test concentrations used in this study were 0 (control) and 100 mg/L. Test solutions were renewed after 24 hours.
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Test species: Daphnia magna
Source: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
Growth stage: Juvenile
Age: Less than 24 hours
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
None.
Hardness:
52 mg CaCO3/L
Test temperature:
20± 1oC
pH:
6.7 - 8.7 mg/L
Dissolved oxygen:
6.7 - 8.7 mg/L
Salinity:
Not appropriate.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Loading rates: 0, 100 mg/l
Mean measured test concentrations of the test substance were 0.824 mg/L based on aluminium analysis and 0.687 mg/L based on titanium analysis.
Details on test conditions:
See method below
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
The sensitivity of the daphnids was checked in a separate study performed on 2011-01-11 with the reference substance potassium dichromate
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
> 0.687 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
No immobilisation or abnormal symptoms were noted in the control or test solution.
The 48hr EC50 based on aluminium analysis was >0.824mg dialuminium titanium pentaoxide/L
The 48hr EC50 based on titanium analysis was >0.687 mg dialuminium titanium pentaoxide/L
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The 48-h EC50 of potassium dichromate was 0.80 mg/L (95% CL: 0.67-1.00 mg/L), compared to a 13-yr laboratory mean of 0.74+/-0.12 mg/L (n=26)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
As this is a limit test the EC50 of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide was determined in relation to the single applied concentration rather than by statistical methods.

Table 1.         Concentrations of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide derived from measured concentrations of dissolved aluminium during a 48 hour acute toxicity test with D. magna under semi-static conditions. 

Loading rate, mg test substance/L

Measured concentration (mg dialuminium titanium pentaoxide-equiv/L), based on dissolved aluminium analysis

0 h

fresh

24 h

expired

24 h

fresh

48 h

expired

mean

0 (control)

[0.0766]

[0.0914]

[0.0996]

[0.0832]

-

100

[0.806]

[0.803]

[1.03]

[1.01]

-

100, background-corrected

0.729

0.712

0.930

0.926

0.824

LOD:      Limit of detection (0.04 mg-equiv/L).

[  ]          Measured concentration including background measured in control.

 

 

Table 2.         Concentrations of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide derived from measured concentrations of dissolved titanium during a 48 hour acute toxicity test with D. magna under semi-static conditions. 

Loading rate, mg test substance/L

Measured concentration (mg dialuminium titanium pentaoxide-equiv/L), based on dissolved titanium analysis

0 h

fresh

24 h

expired

24 h

fresh

48 h

expired

mean

0 (control)

[< 0.04]

[< 0.04]

[< 0.04]

[< 0.04]

< LOD

100

[0.595]

[0.602]

[0.778]

[0.775]

-

100, background-corrected

0.595

0.602

0.778

0.775

0.687

LOD:      Limit of detection (0.04 mg-equiv/L). 

[  ]          Measured concentration including background. 

 

 

Table 3.         Effects on D. magna following 48 hour exposure to dialuminium titanium pentaoxide under semi-static conditions

Loading rate,

mg test substance/L

Immobilisation (%)a

24 h

48 h

0 (control)

0

0

100b

0

0

a             Based on 20 daphnids per treatment. 

b             Achieved exposure was 0.687 mg-equiv/L and 0.824 mg-equiv/L, based on mean measured concentrations of dissolved titanium and dissolved aluminium, respectively. 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 48hr EC50 of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide was determined to be >0.687 mg/L, the maximum soluble concentration achieved under the test conditions at a loading rate of 100 mg/L, based on the mean measured concentration of dissolved titanium. The 48hr EC50 was >824 mg/L based on the mean measured (background-corrected) concentration of dissolved aluminium.
Executive summary:

The acute toxicity of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide toDaphnia magnawas determined in a study which was carried out in accordance with OECD guideline 202 ''Daphniasp., Acute Immobilisation Test''. As the test substance is a poorly soluble inorganic compound, test organisms were exposed to the test substance dissolved at the maximum saturation level separated by filtration from a system loaded at a nominal rate of 100 mg/L. Concentrations of dissolved aluminium and titanium were determined by ICP-MS and were then used to calculate equivalent concentrations of the test substance. Test solutions were renewed every 24 hours.

After 48 hours of exposure no immobilisation or abnormal symptoms were observed. The 48hr EC50of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide was determined to be >0.824 mg/L based on aluminium analysis and >0.687 mg/L based on titanium analysis. All validity criteria were met and this study is considered reliable without restriction.

Description of key information

A key study is provided for the assessment of short-term toxicity to Daphnia. The study was conducted in accordance with GLP and OECD test guidelines with no deviations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.687 mg/L

Additional information

The acute toxicity of dialuminium titanium pentaoxide to Daphnia magna was determined in a study carried out in accordance with OECD guideline 202 ''Daphni asp., Acute Immobilisation Test''. As the test substance is a poorly soluble inorganic compound, test organisms were exposed to test solution prepared at its maximum achievable saturation level. Concentrations of aluminium and titanium were determined by ICP-MS and were then used to calculate equivalent concentrations of the test substance. The loading rate used in the test was 100 mg/L. Test solutions were replaced every 24 hours.

After 48 hours of exposure no immobilisation or abnormal symptoms were observed. The 48hr EC50 was determined to be >0.824 mg/L based on aluminium analysis and >0.687 mg/L based on titanium analysis. All validity criteria were met and this study is considered reliable without restriction.

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