Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Hazard for aquatic organisms

Freshwater

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (freshwater)
PNEC value:
1 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

Marine water

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC aqua (marine water)
PNEC value:
0.1 mg/L
Assessment factor:
100
Extrapolation method:
assessment factor

STP

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC STP
PNEC value:
20 mg/L
Assessment factor:
10

Sediment (freshwater)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (freshwater)
PNEC value:
952 mg/kg sediment dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Sediment (marine water)

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC sediment (marine water)
PNEC value:
95.2 mg/kg sediment dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Hazard for air

Air

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Hazard for terrestrial organisms

Soil

Hazard assessment conclusion:
PNEC soil
PNEC value:
380 mg/kg soil dw
Extrapolation method:
equilibrium partitioning method

Hazard for predators

Secondary poisoning

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no potential for bioaccumulation

Additional information

DTPMP and its salts are phosphonic acid substances of very high water solubility, and low octanol-water partition coefficient. The phosphonic acid groups are multiply ionised at pH values relevant to biological and environmental systems. Ionisation gives them the ability to form stable complexes with metal ions, particularly polyvalent ones. Phosphonates are found to adsorb strongly to inorganic matrices, and hence they adsorb strongly to sewage sludge and to soil. They will be removed to a high extent in biological waste water treatment by adsorption.

 

The toxicity of DTPMP and its salts to environmental species is presented and interpreted in terms of the concentration of active DTPMP acid in the test media. As such the results of tests conducted on DTPMP and its salts are directly comparable, because the ionisation state will depend only on the pH of the test medium. Section 1 describes the pKa values for the ionisation of DTPMP. Ten pKa values, of 1.03, 2.08, 3.11, 4.15, 5.19, 6.23, 7.23, 8.30, 11.18 and 12.58 are reported. At environmentally-relevant pH values DTPMP will be ionised typically around seven times, and will form stable complexes with metal ions.

 

The substances have the potential to cause effects on aquatic plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation caused by complexation of trace metals. As complexing agents, these substances could remobilise metals in the environment; however, their high degree of adsorption to sediments suggests that this is unlikely to occur. The substances are acids and when present at high concentration they have the potential to cause local effects on aquatic organisms as a consequence of lowered pH.

 

Effects on aquatic organisms arising from exposure to the acid form of the substance are thought to result from a reduction in the pH of the ambient environment (arising from an increase in the H+concentration) to a level below their tolerable range. It is not considered appropriate or useful to derive a PNEC with studies in which pH deviations may have been attributable to the cause of effects seen because any effects will not be a consequence of true chemical toxicity and will be a function of, and dependent on, the buffering capacity of the environment.

Please refer to IUCLID Section 13 and Annexes 4 and 5 of the CSR for justification of read-across within the DTPMP category, and from the ATMP category.

 

Open sea PNEC

DTPMP and its salts are used in some scenarios (offshore oilfield) in open sea. The methodology of CHARM (2005 and van der Wal, 2003) has been used to derive the PNEC for risk characterisation in this setting. These can be found in the CSR.

The acid and salts in the DTPMP category are freely soluble in water and, therefore, the DTPMP anion is fully dissociated from its cations when in solution. Under any given conditions, the degree of ionisation of the DTPMP species is determined by the pH of the solution. At a specific pH, the degree of ionisation is the same regardless of whether the starting material was DTPMP-H, DTPMP (1-3Na), DTPMP (5-7Na), DTPMP (4-8K), DTPMP (xNH4) or another salt of DTPMP.

 

Therefore, when a salt of DTPMP is present in test media or the environment, the following is present (separately):

1. DTPMP is present as DTPMP-H or one of its ionised forms. The degree of ionisation depends upon the pH of the media and not whether DTPMP-H, DTPMP (1-3Na), DTPMP (5-7Na), DTPMP (4-8K), DTPMP (xNH4), or another salt was used for testing.

2. Disassociated ammonium, potassium or sodium cations. The amount of ammonium, potassium or sodium present depends on which salt was added.

3. Divalent and trivalent cations have much higher stability constants for binding with DTPMP than the sodium, potassium or ammonium ions so would preferentially replace them. These ions include calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and iron (Fe3+). Therefore, the presence of these in the environment or in biological fluids or from dietary sources would result in the formation of DTPMP-dication (e.g. DTPMP-Ca, DTPMP-Mg) and DTPMP-trication (e.g. DTPMP-Fe) complexes in solution, irrespective of the starting substance/test material.

Conclusion on classification

Hazards to the aquatic environment (acute/short-term): not classified on the basis of the lowest E(L)C50 in short-term test results in fish, invertebrates and algae being >10 mg active acid/L (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

Hazards to the aquatic environment (long-term): not classified on the basis of the lowest NOEC or E(L)C10 in long-term test results in fish, invertebrates and algae being ≥10 mg active acid/L (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).