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EC number: 236-860-0 | CAS number: 13518-93-9
A semi-static test of the acute and subacute effects of melamine to Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was conducted over a 28 day period. The test concentrations were: 3000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 750 ppm and zero ppm for control. The length to weight relationships, condition factors and growth rates were computed and analyzed using data collected at the start of this test and at its termination.
The results show that the growth in length is not affected by melamine while growth in weight is affected.
The statistical no-effect level based on mortality and sublethal effects is 1500 ppm of melamine. The estimated 28 day LC50 is >3000ppm of melamine. All observed mortalities occurred in the 3000 ppm test group. The first mortality occurred on day 10 into the test, the second on day 18 and the final mortality on day 22 into the assay.
The short term toxicity to fish endpoints are:
NOEC 96h: 3000 mg/L
LC50 96h: 3000 mg/L
After 96 hours exposure to a saturated melamine solution in water (4.4 g/L) the mortality was less than 10%, and it appeared to be impossible to establish an LC50.
An acute toxicity test with guppies was performed. After 96 hours exposure to a saturated melamine solution in water (4.4 g/L) the mortality was less than 10%, and it appeared to be impossible to establish an LC50.
The LC50,48h (Oryzias latipes) is >1000 mg/L.
LC50 48h > 500 mg/L.
After 96 hours 3 fish in the two lower concentrations and 4 fish in the highest concentration had died.
A fish acute toxicity test for Melamine was conducted with Poecilia reticulata. After 96 hours of exposure to 0, 1.14, 2.31, and 4.59 g/L Melamine a mortality rate of 20 % was observed in the highest test substance group.
Therefore the LC50 value is above 4.59 g/L.
Table 1. Cumulative mortality of Oryzias latipes
Nominal concentration (mg/L)
Mean measured concentration (mg/L)
Number of organisms tested
Cumulative number of dead fish
* ND : Not detected
Table 2. Symptoms of intoxication of the test substance to Oryzias latipes
Symptoms of Intoxication
* ND : Not detected
* ( ) : Number of fish
* NOR : Normal
No toxic effects on fish were recorded within the limit of water solubility of the substance.
Data on the acute toxicity of the target substance diphosphoric acid, compound with 1,3,5-triamine (1:2) to fish are not available. The evaluation of the acute toxicity to fish is based on a weight of evidence approach studies conducted with available data on the source substances melamine (CAS 108-78-7) and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate (CAS 7757-93-9). Whereby melamine represents the 1,3,5-triamine moiety of the target substance. The source substance calcium hydrogenorthophosphate was selected to assess the toxicity of the pyrophosphate moiety. The read across approach is in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, Annex XI, 1.5. Further justification is given in the analogue justification in IUCLID section 13.
Two reliable studies on the acute toxicity of melamine (CAS 108-78-1) are available. One of the studies investigated the acute toxicity of the substance to Oryzias latipes in a semi-static test system. After an exposure period of 48 hours a LC50 (48 h) >1000 mg/L (nominal) was determined (NITE, 2010). The second study investigated the acute and sub-acute effects on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a semi-static test. The fish were exposed to test substance concentrations of 750, 1500 and 3000 ppm over a total exposure period of 28 days. The test media was exchanged once at 48 h and then every fifth day thereafter. Mortality or behavioural changes were recorded every 24 hours. The determined LC50 (96 h) was > 3000 mg/L (nominal) (Goodrich & Lech, 1984). The results are supported by three further tests rated with a low reliability (4) due to the limited available documentation. The determined LC50 values were: LC50 (48 h) >500 mg/L for Leuciscus idus (Pagga, 1979) and LC50 (96 h) >4400 mg/L for Poecilia reticulate (Jansen, 1978; Vaessen, 1982) respectively.
The acute toxicity of the source substance calcium hydrogenorthophosphate (CAS 7757-93-9)to fish was investigated in a study following OECD guideline 203 (Kim et al. 2013). The test was set up as a limit test under static conditions. Fish of the species Oryzias latipes were exposed to a nominal test substance concentration of 100 mg/L. The analytical recovery rate of the test substance was 13.0-14.2% of the nominal concentration. During the test period of 96 hours mortality and abnormal behaviour of the test organisms were examined after 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Mortality or adverse effects of the test substance were not observed. Based on the mean measured concentration a LC50 (96 h) > 13.5 mg/L (nominal: LC50 (96 h) >100 mg/L) was determined.
Based on the available data for the source substances the target substance diphosphoric acid, compound with 1,3,5-triamine (1:2) is considered not acutely toxic to fish.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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