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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1986
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The article is well written. The study was performed according to the EEC soil test method (Edwards, 1983), which is the very same as OECD 207 guidelines (Edwards is one of the author of the 207 guideline and the present report is cited within those guidelines). M&M contains sufficient details and results are clearly presented. Regarding the results, the main criterion of acceptability is met: less than 10% mortality in the control group. However, because some details are yet not given (e.g. test concentrations) and the study is not GLP, this study is quoted Klimisch 2c.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
Analytical monitoring is not requested by the OECD 207 guideline.
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
It is not clear wether acetone, chloroform or no vehicle was used to dissolved N-nitrosodiphenylamine. However, the use of these vehicles is accepted by the OECD 207 guidelines.
Test organisms (species):
other: Eudrilus eugeniae
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Eudrilus eugeniae
- Source: Grown in laboratory, Department of agricultural engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): not mentioned
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): not mentioned

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: not mentioned
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
6.0
Moisture:
35%
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): covered glass dishes 6.5 cm high and 12.5 cm diameter
- Amount of soil or substrate: 400 g dry weight
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
Artificial soil:
- % fine sand: 69%
- % finely ground sphagnum peat: 10%
- % kaolinite clay: 20%
-% pulverised carbonate calcium: 1%

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: not mentioned
- Light intensity: not mentioned

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : Mortality after 14 days

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: unkown
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Not mentioned.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
109 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 75-159 CL95%
Results with reference substance (positive control):
None.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
The LC50 value was calculated according to Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae were exposed to N-nitrosodiphenylamine in artificial soil. After 14 days, LC50 was 109 mg/kg soil (dry weight).
Executive summary:

The present report follows the OECD 207 guidelines. However, some details are lacking (e.g. tested concentrations) and it was probably not conducted under GLP, which makes it classified as Klimisch 2c. Eudrilus eugeniae were exposed to a graded series of N-nitrosodiphenylamine in artificial soil for 14 days at 20°C. Mortality was recorded at the end of the experiment, according to the procedure described in the OECD 207 guidelines. LC50 was 109 mg/kg (dry weight, nominal concentration).

Description of key information

Eight results on 4 different earthworm species are available for the acute toxicity to soil macroorganisms. Half of the results are from a 2-day experiment on cotton paper while the other half is issued from a 14-day experiment on artificial soil. The 14-day experiments were considered for PNEC determination. The most sensitive species was Eudrilus eugeniae with a LC50 of 109 mg/kg dry soil.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Short-term EC50 or LC50 for soil macroorganisms:
109 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

Eight results on 4 different earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus, Allolobophora tuberculata) are available for the acute toxicity to soil macroorganisms. Half of the results are from a 2-day experiment on cotton paper while the other half is issued from a 14-day experiment on artificial soil.

For the 2-day experiment, results are:

E. eugeniae LC50 = 0.0025 mg/cm²

P. excavatus LC50 = 0.0035 mg/cm²

A. tuberculata LC50 = 0.0035 mg/cm²

E. fetida LC50 = 0.0024 mg/cm²

For the 14-day experiment, results are:

E. eugeniae LC50 = 109 mg/kg dry soil

P. excavatus LC50 = 128 mg/kg dry soil

A. tuberculata LC50 = 155 mg/kg dry soil

E. fetida LC50 = 161 mg/kg dry soil

The 14-day experiments were considered for PNEC determination. The most sensitive species was Eudrilus eugeniae with a LC50 of 109 mg/kg dry soil.