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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
01/19/1993-04/23/1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP study according to Official Jounal of the European Communities No. L251 Part C: C1 Acute toxicity for Fish
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 50, 17, 5, 2, 0.7 mg/L
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: all samples were analyzed on the day taken
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: Test material and dilution water were stirred in sealed vessels for 24 hrs. The mixture was then allowed to settle for 1 hr. The aqueous phase was then drawn off and used as the test medium.
- Controls: diluent water only
- Evidence of undissolved material (e.g. precipitate, surface film, etc): Excess test material was noted after stirring at all concentrations of 2 mg/l and above.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Rainbow trout
- Source: Zeals Trout Farm, Wiltshire
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): fingerlings
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 3.3 to 4.4 cm, mean 3.8 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.38-0.94 g, mean 0.67 g
- Feeding during test: no


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 9 days
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): same as test conditions for 7 days preceding test
- Type and amount of food: Mainstream Trout Food No. 03, BP Nutrition Ltd.
- Feeding frequency: not fed 24 hrs prior to test
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): fish not used for testing if mortality exceeds 5% or if there is apparent disease

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
96 hrs
Hardness:
196-248 mg/l CaCO3
Test temperature:
14.8-15.3 °C
pH:
7.4-8.0
Dissolved oxygen:
6.3-9.8 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal: 50, 17, 5, 2, 0.7, 0 mg/l
Measured: 22.4, 9.3, 2.8, 1.2, <1.0, <1.0 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel:
- Type (delete if not applicable): sealed with glass plates
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 11 l glass tanks completely filled with test medium
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): daily
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 1

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: Received as laboratory main supply from Mid Kent Water Company, chlorinated to 0.1 mg/l. Water is then passed through a 10 µm filter, activated carbon, and finally aerated to remove chlorine.
- Particulate matter: 364 mg/l
- Metals: ~120 mg/l
- Chlorine: <0.2 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 264 mg/l
- Ca/mg ratio: 110/2.6
- Conductivity: 522 µS/cm
- Intervals of water quality measurement: approx. 6 months


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hrs light/8 hrs dark
- Light intensity: artificial light

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : mortality, toxicity at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
9.2 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 5.5 - 15 mg/l
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: All fish at the 5.0 mg/l concentration showed toxic symptoms beginning at the 6 hr observation. By the 24-hr observation these fish were swimming abnormally. By the 96-hr observation, the fish had recovered. All fish at the 17.0 mg/l and 50.0 mg/l concentrations died by the first observation.
- Mortality of control: No
- Other adverse effects control: No

Summary of other short-term fish toxicity studies.

End Point Study Reference  
REACH requirement IUCLID Section Study Name Data Waiving Waiving Justification Species Study Result Type Test Guideline/Qualifier Test Guideline/Guideline Test Guideline/Deviations Reliability Rational For Reliability GLP Compliance Test Materials/Identity Study Result Reference Type Reference Author Reference Year Reference Title Bibliographic Source Testing Laboratory Reference Report No. Owner Company Company Study No. Report Date Data access
9.1.3 Short term aquatic toxicity on fish 6.1.1 Acute Fish Toxicity Test with Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss experimental result According to  FIFRA 72-1 1 Well-documented GLP study. yes C8-C10 Aromatics, Predominantly C9 Alkylbenzenes 96-hr LL50 = 18.0 mg/L (WAF) study report ANON 1992 Acute Fish Toxicity Test with Rainbow Trout HSPA0158 Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. ExxonMobil Petroleum & Chemical BVBA 111758 yes
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
The 96-hr LL50 for fish is 9.2 mg/L (WAF).
Executive summary:

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of Hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics to the fish O. mykiss. Groups of 10 fish were exposed to 0, 0.7, 2.0, 5.0, 17.0, or 50.0 mg/L (WAF) of test substance. The fish were exposed for 96 hrs, in a semi-static exposure. Animals were examined for mortality and signs of toxicity at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs of exposure. All animals in the 17.0, and 50.0 mg/l exposure groups died by the first observation at 6 hrs. All other animals survived.

Based on mortality, the 96 -hr LL50 for fish is 9.2 mg/L (WAF).

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1993
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The study was given a reliability rating of 1 because it followed a standard test guideline, which describes a procedure to evaluate this endpoint, and the results were reviewed for reliability and assessed as valid. The study was also conducted under GLP.
Justification for type of information:
Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
However, analysis of the test media was restricted to the media produced at higher loading rates. All media produced at loading rates less 2mg/L
were not analysed because they were below the limit of determination (2.5 mg/L) of the analytical method.
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Individual treatment solutions were prepared as Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs). This included adding test substance to glass vessels,
which contained laboratory dilution water and mixing for approximately 24 hours with a magnetic stirrer to produce a series of geometrically-
spaced loading rates (mg/L). After mixing, the WAFs were allowed to settle for an hour. The aqueous phase was then drawn off and transferred
to 11 litre full-volume, spherical glass vessels which were completely filled. An additional vessel received dechlorinated water only and
served as a control.

Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
O.mykiss fingerlings were supplied by Exmoor Trout Farm, North Molton, Devon, UK; mean wt. = 0.96 g; mean total length = 4.4 cm.
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
Water hardness during the test ranged from 280 - 314 mg/L as CaCO3.
Test temperature:
Test temperature was 15 – 16 ºC with a 16 h : 8 h light : dark lighting regime.
pH:
The pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 during the test.
Dissolved oxygen:
Dissolved oxygen = 9.4 to 10.5 mg/L for "new" solutions and 7.5 to 9.3 mg/L for "old" solutions.
Salinity:
freshwater
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal treatment levels were: control, 0.2, 0.7, 2.0, 5.0, 17 and 50 mg/L. Analysis confirmed concentrations at t=0 of 4.3, 7.5 and 9.5 mg/L for the
nominal loading rates of 5.0, 17 and 50 mg/L, respectively. As there were fish mortalities at these loading rates, no further samples were available
for analysis. All media produced at loading rates less than 2mg/L were not analysed because they were below the limit of determination (2.5 mg/L)
of the analytical method.
Details on test conditions:
7 fish were placed in each test vessel, which was then sealed with a glass plate, ensuring that all air was excluded. New WAFs for each treatment
were prepared as described above for each daily renewal. Surviving fish were transferred to the vessel containing freshly prepared WAF. The fish
were not fed during the test.

Test temperature was 15 – 16 ºC with a 16 h : 8 h light : dark lighting regime. Dissolved oxygen = 9.4 to 10.5 mg/L for "new" solution and 7.5 to
9.3 mg/L for "old" solution. The pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.5 during the test. Water hardness during the test ranged from 280 - 314 mg/L as CaCO3.
The water used was harder than the preferred range (10 - 250 mg/L) . However, the hardness measured is normal for this laboratory and does
not affect fish survival.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LL50
Effect conc.:
>= 2 - <= 5 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
See Table Below
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Statistical Method: None required

Loading rates causing a 50% effect were determined by visual inspection of the data. They are expressed as being within a range bounded by
loading rates that were tested. This is considered more appropriate for test materials that are mixtures of substances of different solubilities
than is an interpolative statistical technique

Nominal Loading Measured Fish Total Mortality
Conc. (mg/l) Conc. (mg/l) (@ 24, 48, 72, 96 hrs)
     
Control Control 0, 0, 0, 0
0.2 < LoD 0, 0, 0, 0
0.7 < LoD 1, 1, 1, 1
2.0 < LoD 0, 0, 0, 0
5.0 4.3 0, 7, 7, 7
17.0 7.5 7, 7, 7, 7
50.0 9.5 7, 7, 7, 7
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, produced a 96-hour LL50 value between 2 and 5 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.
Executive summary:

Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, produced a 96-hour LL50 value between 2 and 5 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Description of key information

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene are a combination of Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics. Read across data is available for Hydrocarbons, C9 Aromatics and Hydrocarbons, C10-C12 Aromatics and the worst case scenario for each end point has been presented.

The acute toxicity of hydrocarbons, C9 aromatics as measured by mortality to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in freshwater. Under the conditions of the study, C9 aromatics hydrocarbons produced acute lethal toxicity to Oncorhynchus mykiss at 9.2 mg/L, based on nominal loading of the test substance in water.

 

Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, produced a 96-hour LL50 value between 2 and 5 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In a supporting study, water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, produced a 96-hour LL50 value of 14 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

This data is used for read across to Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C9, aromatics, produced a 96-hour LL50 value of 9.2 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

 

Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C10, aromatics, >1% naphthalene, produced a 96-hour LL50 value between 2 and 5 mg/L with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

 

Hydrocarbons, C9-C10, aromatics, >1% Naphthalene is a hydrocarbon UVCB that, based on available read across data, poses an acute aquatic hazard. The hydrocarbon block method is used for environmental risk assessment (see REACH guidance, R7, app.13-1). Aquatic PNECs for hydrocarbon blocks have been derived using the HC5 statistical extrapolation method and the target lipid model using representative structures. See Product Library tab in PETRORISK spreadsheet attached to Section 13 of the dossier. Given the large database of freshwater organisms included in the target lipid model, an assessment factor of one has been applied to the HC5.