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Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
secondary literature
Justification for type of information:
Data from secondary source

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Human & Environmental Risk Assessment on ingredients of European household cleaning products .
Author:
HERA risk assessments
Year:
2003
Bibliographic source:
HERA targeted risk assessment . May, 2003

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: As mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Reproductive and developmental toxicity study of test material was performed on rats.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Justification for study design:
No data available

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (IUPAC name): 2,2'-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyldivinylene)bis(benzenesulphonic) acid
- Common name: 4,4'-Bis(2-sulfostyryl)biphenyl
- Molecular formula: C28H20Na2O6S2
- Molecular weight: 562.572 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1(c2ccc(\C=C/c3c(cccc3)S(=O)(=O)[O-])cc2)ccc(\C=C/c2c(cccc2)S(=O)(=O)[O-])cc1.[Na+].[Na+]
- InChl: 1S/C28H22O6S2.2Na/c29-35(30,31)27-7-3-1-5-25(27)19-13-21-9-15-23(16-10-21)24-17-11-22(12-18-24)14-20-26-6-2-4-8-28(26)36(32,33)34;;/h1-20H,(H,29,30,31)(H,32,33,34);;/q;2*+1/p-2/b19-13-,20-14-;;
- Substance type: Organic
Specific details on test material used for the study:
No data available

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Tif:RAI f (SPF) hybrid
Details on species / strain selection:
No data available
Sex:
female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source:
- Age at study initiation:9 weeks
- Weight at study initiation:
- Fasting period before study: Females were caged individually in Macrolon cages containing standardized soft wood bedding material.
- Housing:
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): standard pelleted rat food (Nafag No. 890; Gossau, Switzerland) ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum):water ad libitum
- Acclimation period:7 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20±3 °C
- Humidity (%):30-70%,
- Air changes (per hr):
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): daily cycle of 12 hours light

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (0.5% w/w).
Details on exposure:
Details on exposure
Test material dissolved in aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (0.5% w/w).
VEHICLE
- Justification for use and choice of vehicle (if other than water): Test material dissolved in aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (0.5% w/w).

- Concentration in vehicle:0,1000mg/kg bw/day
- Amount of vehicle (if gavage): 20ml/kg
- Lot/batch no. (if required): No data available
- Purity: No data available
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage:one male rat was housed with 3 females
- Length of cohabitation: No data available
- Proof of pregnancy: [vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear] referred to as [day 0 / day 1] of pregnancy:vaginal lavage showed spermatozoa or a vaginal plug was observed; this was designated as gestation day zero
- After ... days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: [no / yes (explain)]No data available
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged (how): an individual
- Any other deviations from standard protocol:No data available
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
10 days (6 through day 15 of gestation)
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Details on study schedule:
No data available
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
0, 1000mg/kg bw/day
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Total :48
0 mg/kg :24 female
1000mg/kg:24 female
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
No data available
Positive control:
No data available

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule:
- Cage side observations checked in table [No.?] were included.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes / No / No data
- Time schedule:

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations:

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study): yes
- Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg body weight/day: Yes / No / No data
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes / No / No data

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No data
- Time schedule for examinations:

OTHER:
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
No data available
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
No data available
Litter observations:
No data available
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
All animals survived to necropsy on gestation day 21
GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of [external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.]

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated in Table [#] were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
- The F1 offspring not selected as parental animals and all F2 offspring were sacrificed at [#?] days of age.
- These animals were subjected to postmortem examinations (macroscopic and/or microscopic examination) as follows:

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of [external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.]

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGTHS
About one-half of each litter was taken for visceral evaluation by the Wilson slicing technique after fixation. The remaining fetuses from each litter were fixed, cleared with KOH solution and then treated with alizarin red S for examination of skeletal features.
Statistics:
No data available
Reproductive indices:
No data available
Offspring viability indices:
No data available

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental animals)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no remarkable cage-side observations during the study.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not specified
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No effect on survival of treated rats were observed as compared to control.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No effect on body weight of treated rats was observed as compared to control.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No effect on food consumption of treated rats was observed as compared to control.

Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not specified
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified
Immunological findings:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
All animals survived to necropsy on gestation day 21, except for one dam from the treated group, found dead on gestation day 15. Necropsy revealed no pathological findings. Necropsy of all other animals did not reveal adverse effects or abnormal findings
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not specified
Other effects:
not specified

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not specified
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not specified
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
2.The number of implantation sites and preimplantation losses were comparable in the two groups. Early resorption rate was not affected by treatment, and there were no late resorptions, abortions or dead fetuses. Thus, the number of viable fetuses was comparable in the two groups. Statistical analysis of these endpoints did not show significant differences from the control group.
There was no evidence for an impairment of reproductive functions in animals

Effect levels (P0)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
mortality
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
histopathology: non-neoplastic
reproductive performance
Remarks on result:
other: No effects on reproductive performance

Target system / organ toxicity (P0)

Critical effects observed:
not specified
System:
other: not specified
Organ:
not specified
Treatment related:
not specified
Dose response relationship:
not specified
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
not specified
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not specified
Mortality / viability:
not specified
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
body weights were not affected by treatment.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not specified
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
not specified
Haematological findings:
not specified
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not specified
Urinalysis findings:
not specified
Sexual maturation:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The findings observed during fetal examinations were of equal frequency in the control and treated groups; thus, treatment-related effects on fetal external, visceral, or skeletal development did not occur in this study.
Histopathological findings:
not specified
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Fetal sex ratios were not affected by treatment.

Developmental neurotoxicity (F1)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not specified

Developmental immunotoxicity (F1)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
not specified
Basis for effect level:
viability
mortality
body weight and weight gain
gross pathology
Remarks on result:
other: No developmental toxic effects observed

Target system / organ toxicity (F1)

Critical effects observed:
not specified
System:
other: not specified
Organ:
not specified
Treatment related:
not specified
Dose response relationship:
not specified
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
not specified
Treatment related:
not specified
Relation to other toxic effects:
not specified
Dose response relationship:
not specified
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In reproductive and developmental toxicity study , NOAEL was considered to be 1000mg/kg bw/day as no effects on reproductive and developmental parameters were observed . When female rats were treated wtih test material orally.
Executive summary:

In reproductive and developmental toxicity study , femaleTif:RAI f (SPF) hybrid ratsrats were treated wtih test material in dose concentration 0,1000mg/kg orallyfrom day 6 through day 15 of gestation, inclusive.Test materialwas administered by gavage in an aqueous solution of carboxymethylcellulose (0.5% w/w). The control group received the vehicle solution. The dose volume in both groups was 20 ml/kg body weight, based on the daily body weight.24 females in each group, a proven fertile male rat of the same strain was placed in a mating cage with 3 females each. The female was removed and indicated as pregnant if vaginal lavage showed spermatozoa or a vaginal plug was observed; this was designated as gestation day zero.All the animals observed for body weight ,food consumption and mortality. There were no remarkable cage-side observations during the study. Maternal body weights and food consumption were not affected by treatment. All animals survived to necropsy on gestation day 21, except for one dam from the treated group, found dead on gestation day 15. Necropsy revealed no pathological findings. Necropsy of all other animals did not reveal adverse effects or abnormal findings.Three animals in the control group were not pregnant, and one in the treated group died on gestation day15. Thus, the number of pregnant animals with viable fetuses at necropsy was 21 and 23 for the control and treated group, respectively.

The number of implantation sites and preimplantation losses were comparable with the control groups. Early resorption rate was not affected by treatment, and there were no late resorptions, abortions or dead fetuses. Thus, the number of viable fetuses was comparable with control groups. Statistical analysis of these endpoints did not show significant differences from the control group.Fetal sex ratios and body weights were not affected by treatment. The findings observed during fetal examinations were of equal frequency in the control and treated groups; thus, treatment-related effects on fetal external, visceral, or skeletal development did not occur in this study.Hence,NOAEL was considered to be 1000mg/kg bw/day as no effects on reproductive and developmental parameters were observed. When female rats were treated wtih test material orally