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Description of key information

No repeated toxicity study was available on 1,3 -dibutylthiourea.

However two oral studies of 7 weeks in rats and mice were available in an analogue substance: 1,3 -diethylthiourea (DETU). The aim of these studies was to establish the maximum tolerated concentrations of DETU for administration to dosed animals in the chronic studies. Animals were exposed to DETU in diet during seven weeks to 147, 215, 316 and 464 ppm for rats, and 680, 1000, 1470, 2160 and 3150 ppm for mice.
The target organ of DETU is the thyroid of rat. The LOAEL for thyroid toxicity is 6.25 mg/kg bw in rat (= 125 ppm).
No target organ is showed in the mice.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Repeated dose toxicity: via oral route - systemic effects

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
It's a range finding test for carcinogenicity test. In order to establish the maximum tolerated concentrations of DETU for administration to dosed animals in the chronic studies, subchronic toxicity tests were conducted.
Mice were exposed to DETU during seven weeks.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Test material information:
Composition 1
Species:
mouse
Strain:
B6C3F1
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River breeding Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Massachussets
- Age at study initiation: around 6 weeks-old
- Weight at study initiation: no data
- Fasting period before study: no data
- Housing: in polycarbonate cages suspended from aluminium racks.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Wayne Lab-Blox (Allied Mills, Inc. Chicago, Ill.), ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): aciduled water (pH 2.5) was suplied to animals in water bottles filled in an automated metering device, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22-26°C
- Humidity (%):45-55%
- Air changes (per hr):12-15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): fluorescent lighlting 8h/day (9.00 am to 5.00 pm)

Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on oral exposure:
no
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Duration of treatment / exposure:
7 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Dose / conc.:
680 ppm
Dose / conc.:
1 000 ppm
Dose / conc.:
1 470 ppm
Dose / conc.:
2 160 ppm
Dose / conc.:
3 150 ppm
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 males + 5 females per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
Post-exposure period: 1 week
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Individual body weights and food consumption data were recorded twice weekly throughout the study.
Sacrifice and pathology:
Upon termination of the study, all survivors were sacrified and necropsied.
Other examinations:
no
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Details on results:
At 680 ppm, the mean body weight gain was decreased among males (-10%) and females (-8%) compared to control group.
=> The high concentration selected for administration to dosed mice in the main study was 500 ppm.
Dose descriptor:
other: maximum tolerated dose
Effect level:
500 ppm
Basis for effect level:
other: 500 ppm x 0.05 (assumed rodent food consymption per bw) = 25 mg/kg bw/d
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
500 ppm
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects were observed at 500 ppm. 500 ppm x 0.05 = 25 mg/kg bw/d
Critical effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
According to this study, the maximum tolerated concentration was 500 ppm of DETU in diet for the mice.
Executive summary:

It's a range finding test for carcinogenicity test. In order to establish the maximum tolerated concentrations of DETU for administration to dosed animals in the chronic studies, subchronic toxicity tests were conducted.

Mice were exposed to DETU during seven weeks to 680, 1000, 1470, 2160 and 3150 ppm in diet.

At 680 ppm, the mean body weight gain was decreased among males (-10%) and females (-8%) compared to control group.

=> The high concentration selected for administration to dosed mice in the main study was 500 ppm.

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
study well documented, meets generally accepted scientific principles, acceptable for assessment
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
It's a range finding test for carcinogenicity test. In order to establish the maximum tolerated concentrations of DETU for administration to dosed animals in the chronic studies, subchronic toxicity tests were conducted.
Rats were exposed to DETU during seven weeks.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Test material information:
Composition 1
Species:
rat
Strain:
Fischer 344
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Frederick Cancer Research Center, Frederick, Maryland.
- Age at study initiation: around 6 weeks-old
- Weight at study initiation: no data
- Fasting period before study: no data
- Housing: in polycarbonate cages suspended from aluminium racks.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Wayne Lab-Blox (Allied Mills, Inc. Chicago, Ill.), ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): aciduled water (pH 2.5) was suplied to animals in water bottles filled in an automated metering device, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22-26°C
- Humidity (%):45-55%
- Air changes (per hr):12-15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): fluorescent lighlting 8h/day (9.00 am to 5.00 pm)
Route of administration:
oral: feed
Duration of treatment / exposure:
7 weeks
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Dose / conc.:
147 ppm
Dose / conc.:
215 ppm
Dose / conc.:
316 ppm
Dose / conc.:
464 ppm
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 males + 5 females per dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent no treatment
Details on study design:
Post-exposure period: 1 week
Positive control:
no
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
Individual body weights and food consumption data were recorded twice weekly throughout the study.
Sacrifice and pathology:
Upon termination of the study, all survivors were sacrified and necropsied.
Other examinations:
no
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
not examined
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not examined
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
not examined
Details on results:
- At 316 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain increased by 3 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 11% in female rats. 1 female rat died and another had an arched back and rough coat.
- At 215 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain decreased by 10 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 1% in female rats.
=> The maximum tolerated concentration was around 250 ppm.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
other: Maximum tolerated dose
Effect level:
250 ppm
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: 250 ppm x 0.05 (assumed rat food consumption per bw) = 12.5 mg/kg bw/d
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
147 ppm
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Changes of bw were observed at 215 and 316 ppm. 147 ppm x 0.05 = 7.35 mg/kg bw
Critical effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
According to this study, the maximum tolerated concentration was 250 ppm of DETU in diet for the rats.
Executive summary:

It's a range finding test for carcinogenicity test. In order to establish the maximum tolerated concentrations of DETU for administration to dosed animals in the chronic studies, subchronic toxicity tests were conducted. Rats were exposed to DETU in diet during seven weeks to 147, 215, 316 and 464 ppm.

- At 316 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain increased by 3 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 11% in female rats. 1 female rat died and another had an arched back and rough coat.

- At 215 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain decreased by 10 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 1% in female rats.

=> The maximum tolerated concentration was around 250 ppm.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
6.25 mg/kg bw/day
Study duration:
chronic
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
Reliable study (klimish score of 2)
System:
endocrine system
Organ:
thyroid gland

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: inhalation - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - systemic effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Repeated dose toxicity: dermal - local effects

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Mode of Action Analysis / Human Relevance Framework

Additional information

7 -weeks study in rats and mice on analogue substance (1979):

Rats were exposed to DETU in diet during seven weeks to 147, 215, 316 and 464 ppm.

- At 316 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain increased by 3 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 11% in female rats. 1 female rat died and another had an arched back and rough coat.

- At 215 ppm concentration: Mean body weight gain decreased by 10 % among male rats compared to control group while it decreased by 1% in female rats.

=> The maximum tolerated concentration was around 250 ppm, and the NOAEL is 147 ppm (7.35 mg/kg bw/d).

Mice were exposed to DETU during seven weeks to 680, 1000, 1470, 2160 and 3150 ppm in diet.

At 680 ppm, the mean body weight gain was decreased among males (-10%) and females (-8%) compared to control group.

=> The high concentration selected for administration to dosed mice in the main study was 500 ppm (=NOAEL).

Carcinogenicity tests on rats and mice.

Rats were exposed to DETU in diet during 103 weeks at 125 and 250 ppm (6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg bw/d respectively).

No mortality, no clinical signs and no change of body weight gain were observed during this study.

This study shows that thyroid is a target organ of DETU at the higher dose (250 ppm). A relatively high incidence of thyroid tumors (in particular thyroid follicular-cell carcinomas and follicular-cell adenomas) was noted and appeared to be related to the dietary administration of N,N'-diethylthiourea.The LOAEL for carcinogenicity and thyroid toxicity is 125 ppm (6.25 mg.kg bw/d).

Mice were exposed to DETU in diet during 103 weeks at 250 and 500 ppm (12.5 and 25 mg/kg bw/d respectively).

No mortality, no clinical signs were observed during this study, but decrease of body weight gain was observed at each dose.

No effects on thyroid were observed in this study at any dose.

The NOAEL for general toxicity is smaller than 12.5 mg/kg bw/d.

Study of Astwood (1945) : Effects of DETU on thyroid function (section 7.9.3.)

DETU was tested in rats for capacity to interfere with the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. Test substance was administered to young rats by mixing it with the food at 37 mg/kg bw. At the end of ten days the thyroid glands were examined grossly and microscopically, and the relative activities of the compounds were then roughly compared on the basis on the minimal dose required to produce a noticeable effect.

The weight of thyroid was increased in rat treated with DETU compared to control rats. Thyroid iodine concentration in treated rats was smaller than concentration of control rats. Therefore, an antithyroid activity of DETU was observed in the rats treated with DETU compared to the control rats (treated with thiouracil) at 37 mg/kg bw.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the available data, 1,3 -dibutylthiourea should be classified for repeated toxicity according to the Regulation EC.N°1272/2008 : STOT RE 1 (thyroid) - H372 "Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure".

Justification: the LOAEL for thyroid toxicity (hyperplasia, antithyroid activity) is 6.25 mg/kg bw/d (<10 mg/kg bw/d).