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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
04 Oct 2017 - 22 January 2018
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
04 Oct 2017 - 22 January 2018
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
At current, studies in laboratory animals provide the best available basis for extrapolation to humans and are required to support regulatory submissions. Acceptable models which do not use live animals currently do not exist.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
2016
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA OPPTS 870.3650, Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test
Version / remarks:
2000
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: See below under Principles of method if other than guideline
Principles of method if other than guideline:
In addition, the procedures described in this study plan essentially conform to the following
guidelines:
- OECD 421, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, 2016.
- EPA OPPTS 870.3550, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, 2000.
- EC No 440/2008, B.7 Repeated Dose (28 days) Toxicity (oral), 2008.
- OECD 407, Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, 2008.
- EPA OPPTS 870.3050, Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, 2000.
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Justification for study design:
At current, studies in laboratory animals provide the best available basis for extrapolation to humans and are required to support regulatory submissions. Acceptable models which do not use live animals currently do not exist.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Purity/Composition correction factor: 2.10 (based on solid content)
pH: 8 - 9
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl: WI(Han)
Details on species / strain selection:
The Wistar Han rat was chosen as the animal model for this study as it is an accepted rodent species for toxicity testing by regulatory agencies. Charles River Den Bosch has general and reproduction/developmental historical data in this species from the same strain and source. This animal model has been proven to be susceptible to the effects of reproductive toxicants.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany
- Females nulliparous and non-pregnant: yes
- Age at study initiation: 10 weeks (males) and 13 weeks (females)
- Weight at study initiation: 275 - 307 g (males) and 198 and 241 g (females)
- Fasting period before study: No
- Housing: On arrival and following the pretest (females only) and pre-mating period, animals were group housed (up to 5 animals of the same sex and same dosing group together) in Macrolon cages. During the mating phase, males and females were cohabitated on a 1:1 basis in Macrolon cages. During the post-mating phase, males were housed in Macrolon cages with a maximum of 5 males/cage. Females were individually housed in Macrolon cages. During the lactation phase, females were housed in Macrolon plastic cages. Pups were housed with the dam, except during locomotor activity monitoring of the dams, when the pups were kept warm in their home cage using bottles filled with warm water. In order to avoid hypothermia of pups, pups were not be left without their dam or a bottle filled with warm water for longer than 30-40 minutes. During locomotor activity monitoring, animals were housed individually in a Hi-temp polycarbonate cage without cage enrichment, bedding material, food and water.
- Diet: Pelleted rodent diet (SM R/M-Z from SSNIFF® Spezialdiäten GmbH, Soest, Germany), ad libitum . The feed was analyzed by the supplier for nutritional components and environmental contaminants.
- Water: tap water, ad libitum. During motor activity measurements, animals had no access to water for a maximum of 2 hours. Periodic analysis of the water was performed.
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-22
- Humidity (%): 42-73
- Air changes (per hr): at least 10
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES: From 04 Oct 2017 To 27 Nov 2017
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Test item dosing formulations (w/w) were homogenized by swirling to visually acceptable levels at appropriate concentrations to meet dose level requirements. Bulk formulations sufficient for one week of dosing were prepared once a week as clear colorless solutions.
After homogenizing the bulk formulations to a visibly acceptable level, each (bulk) formulation was then divided into 7 aliquots for daily dosing and stored in the refrigerator protected from light (maximum storage in the refrigerator for 8 days after preparation). The dosing formulations were removed from the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes before dosing for adjustment to room temperature.
On each day of use the test item dosing formulations were kept at room temperature until dosing. To avoid foam formation and optimal homogeneity, the dosing formulations were swirled shortly before use for dosing. An adjustment was made for specific gravity of the test item and a factor 2.10 was used to correct for the purity/composition of the test item.

Dosed volume: 5 mL/kg bw
Details on mating procedure:
After 14 days of treatment, animals were cohabitated on a 1:1 basis within the same treatment group, avoiding sibling mating. Detection of mating was confirmed by evidence of sperm in the vaginal lavage or by the appearance of an intravaginal copulatory plug. This day was designated Day 0 post-coitum. Once mating had occurred, the males and females were separated. Detection of mating was not confirmed in first instance for one female. Apparently, mating was overlooked in the assessment of the vaginal lavage in first instance. The mating date of this animal was determined a few days later based on detection of sperm cells on the vaginal lavage. Consequently, this couple was separated 4 days after the actual mating date.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Stability analyses performed previously in conjunction with the method development and validation study demonstrated that the test item is stable in the vehicle when prepared and stored under the same conditions at concentrations bracketing those used in the present study.
Concentration and homogeneity analyses were performed by using a validated analytical procedure. Duplicate sets of samples (approximately 500 mg) for each sampling time point were collected. Concentration results were considered acceptable if mean sample concentration results were within or equal to ± 10% for solutions of target concentration. Homogeneity results were considered acceptable if the coefficient of variation (CV) of concentrations was ≤ 10%.
Samples were taken in week 1 for concentration determination (all groups) and homogeneity (low and high dose groups, the homogeneity results obtained from the top, middle and bottom for the low and high dose group preparations were averaged and utilized as the concentration results.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). Females that delivered offspring were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and at least 14-16 days of lactation (for 50-54 days). Females that failed to deliver pups were treated for 41 days, with the exception of females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group that were euthanized or found dead (one female) at the end of the premating period or during the post-coitum period due to adverse clinical observations.
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
A dose range finder was conducted to select dose levels for the main study, and to determine the peak effect of occurrence of clinical signs after dosing. No guidelines were applicable as this study was intended for dose level selection purposes only. The test item and vehicle were administered to 3 females/group by single daily oral gavage for 10 days.
Examinations:
Clinical Observations: At least daily from Days 1-10, at 0-15 minutes, 1 hour (±15 minutes) and 3 hours (± 30 minutes) after dosing.
Body Weights: On Day 1 prior to dosing and on Days 5 and 10.
Food Consumption: Over Days 1-5 and 5-10.
All animals were subjected to an external, thoracic and abdominal examination on Day 10 after the last observation of clinical signs (scheduled necropsy). Animals were not deprived of food prior to necropsy. Terminal body weight, kidney and liver weight were determined at scheduled necropsy. No organs were fixed and histopathological examination was not performed.

Positive control:
Not included
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Once daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Prior to first dosing, and weekly thereafter. Mated females were weighed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on PND 1, 4, 7, and 13. A fasted weight was recorded on the day of necropsy.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption was quantitatively measured weekly, except for males and females which were housed together for mating and for females without evidence of mating. Food consumption of mated females was measured on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on PND 1, 4, 7, and 13.

WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes
- Subjective appraisal was maintained during the study, but no quantitative investigation was introduced as no effect was suspected.

GENERAL REPRODUCTION DATA:
From the mating period onwards, the following parameters were recorded for each female: male number paired with, mating date, confirmation of pregnancy and delivery day. Females were allowed to litter normally. Postnatal day (PND) 1 is defined as the day when a litter is found completed (i.e. membranes and placentas cleaned up, nest built and/or feeding of pups started). The day prior to PND 1 is considered to be the day when the female started to deliver and is defined as PND 0 and used for recording of delivery. Females that were littering were left undisturbed. Cage debris of pregnant females was examined for evidence of premature delivery and pregnant females were examined to detect signs of difficult or prolonged parturition or deficiencies in maternal care.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Estrous cycles were evaluated by examining the vaginal cytology of samples obtained by vaginal lavage.
Daily vaginal lavage was performed for all females beginning 14 days prior to treatment (pretest period), the first 14 days of treatment and during mating until evidence of copulation was observed. Vaginal lavage was continued for those females with no evidence of
copulation until termination of the mating period. On the day of necropsy, a vaginal lavage was also taken to determine the stage of estrous. This was done for all females, except for females that had to be euthanized in extremis or died spontaneously.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
For the testes of all selected males (n=5) of the control and the high dose group, and all males that failed to sire, a detailed qualitative examination was made, taking into account the tubular stages of the spermatogenic cycle.
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: yes
- On PND 4, the surplus pups (> 8 pups per litter) were euthanized by decapitation.

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in offspring:
Number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross anomalies, weight gain, physical or behavioural abnormalities, anogenital distance (AGD), presence of nipples/areolae in male pups

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
Yes, for external and internal abnormalities. Pups that died before scheduled termination were examined externally and sexed (both
externally and internally). The stomach of pups not surviving to the scheduled necropsy date was examined for the presence of milk, if possible. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.

Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: All surviving animals
- Maternal animals: All surviving animals

GROSS NECROPSY
- All animals were subjected to a full post mortem examination, with special attention being paid to the reproductive organs.
The numbers of former implantation sites were recorded for all paired females. In case no macroscopically visible implantation sites were present, nongravid uteri were stained using the Salewski technique in order to detect any former implantation sites and the number of corpora lutea was recorded in addition. Necropsy procedures were performed by qualified personnel with appropriate training and experience in animal anatomy and gross pathology.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
The tissues indicated in the guidelines were prepared for microscopic examination and weighed, respectively.
For males that failed to sire and females that failed to deliver pups histopathological examination of cervix, epididymis, coagulation gland, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, ovaries, testes, uterus and vagina was performed.
All tissues were examined by a board-certified toxicological pathologist with training and experience in laboratory animal pathology.
For the testes of all selected males of the control and the high dose group, and all males that failed to sire, a detailed qualitative examination was made, taking into account the tubular stages of the spermatogenic cycle.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
From two surplus pups per litter, blood was collected, if possible. All remaining pups were euthanized on PND 14-16. Sex was determined both externally and internally. Descriptions of all external abnormalities were recorded. Particular attention was paid to the external reproductive genitals to examine signs of altered development. In addition, blood was collected from two pups per litter and the thyroid from two pups per litter (if possible one male and one female pup) was preserved in 10% buffered formalin. The pups selected for blood sampling were the same pups as selected for thyroid preservation.
Statistics:
All statistical tests were conducted at the 5% significance level. All pairwise comparisons were conducted using two sided tests and were reported at the 1% and 5% levels. Numerical data collected on scheduled occasions for the listed variables were analyzed as indicated according to sex and occasion. Descriptive statistics number, mean and standard deviation (or %CV or SE when deemed appropriate) were reported whenever possible.
Inferential statistics were performed according to the matrix below when possible, but excluded semi-quantitative data, and any group with less than 2 observations.
The following pairwise comparisons were made: Group 2 vs. Group 1; Group 3 vs. Group 1; Group 4 vs. Group 1.
Datasets with at least 3 groups (the designated control group and 2 other groups) were compared using Dunnett-test (many-to-one-t-test).
Datasets with at least 3 groups were compared using a Steel-test (many-to-one rank test). The motor activity data set was compared using an overall Kruskal-Wallis. The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was applied to compare the treated groups to the control group. An overall Fisher’s exact test was used to compare all groups at the 5% significance level. The above pairwise comparisons were conducted using Fisher’s exact test whenever the overall test is significant.
Reproductive indices:
For each group, the following calculations were performed:
- Mating index: (Number of females mated/Number of females paired) x 100
- Fertility index: (Number of pregnant females/Number of females paired) x 100
- Gestation index: (Number of females bearing live pups/Number of pregnant females) x 100
- Precoital time: Number of days between initiation of cohabitation and confirmation of mating
- Duration of gestation: Number of days between confirmation of mating and the beginning of parturition
Offspring viability indices:
- Post-implantation survival index (%): (Total number of offspring born/ Total number of uterine implantation sites) x 100
- Live birth index: (Number of live offspring on Day 1 after littering/ Total number of offspring born) x 100
- Percentage live males at First Litter Check: (Number of live male pups at First Litter Check/Number of live pups at First Litter Check) x 100
- Percentage live females at First Litter Check: (Number of live female pups at First Litter Check/Number of live pups at First Litter Check) x 100
- Viability index: (Number of live pups on Day 4 of lactation / Number of pups born alive) x 100
- Lactation index: (Number of live offspring on Day 13 after littering/ Number live offspring on Day 4 (after culling)) x 100
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Males
Salivation occurred in most males in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group throughout the treatment period. One male showed flat posture, red discoloration on the nose and laboured respiration and rales shortly before early sacrifice on day 20. The clinical signs among the surviving males comprised occasionally laboured breathing, rales, piloerection and red discolouration or discharge on the nose, generally during the reproductive period only. Salivation occurred from time to time during the premating and reproductive periods in several males in the 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group. Single males had severe rales, piloerection and a red discoloration on the nose sporadically throughout the treatment periods (premating and reproductive). In the 100 mg/kg bw/day dose group, piloerection, a scab on the tail and salivation occurred in single males in this dose group only on the first day one of dosing (salivation) or during the reproductive period (piloerection, scab).

Females
Salivation occurred in most females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group throughout the treatment period. Four females died prematurely (see "Mortality"). The clinical signs among the surviving females comprised occasional rales and piloerection during the treatment period. Salivation occurred from time to time during the premating and reproductive periods (post coitum, lactation) in some females in the 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group. Single females had hunched posture and laboured respiration once during the study. One to two females had piloerection, alopecia, scabs (cervical region) and a wound (cervical region) during the reproductive period.
In the 100 mg/kg bw/day dose group, salivation occurred sporadically in one or two females during the treatment period.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
There were five animals (one male and four females) treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day that were found death or sacrificed in extremis.
The male was sacrificed in extremis on study day 20. Prior to euthanasia, this male had a flat posture, red discoloration on the nose and laboured respiration, rales and salivation. It gained weight prior to death. There were no relevant macroscopic findings but microscopic findings included slight necrosis of the tracheal
epithelial, which may be suggestive for a gavage-related procedural incident. However, it cannot be excluded that like in the females discussed below, the morbidity may have been caused by regurgitation secondary to the test item. All other males survived to scheduled euthanasia.

Three females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were prematurely euthanized, due to respiratory clinical signs and one was found dead (3 females before mating at day 12-16 and 1 female at day 26). One female was euthanized in extremis on study day 12. Prior to euthanasia this female had slight hunched posture, severe laboured respiration and rales, piloerection, moderate salivation and was severely pale. The female lost weight prior to death.
One female was found dead on study day 15. This female showed rales on day 1 and salivation during treatment, but no other clinical signs prior to death.
One female was euthanized in extremis on study day 26. Prior to euthanasia this female had piloerection and severe laboured respiration, rales, salivation and ptosis. One female was euthanized in extremis on study day 16. Prior to euthanasia this female had slight quick breathing, piloerection and severe rales, shallow respiration, salivation and ptosis. The female lost weight prior to death. Macroscopically the lungs were not collapsed which microscopically could be explained by trachea and lung lesions (up to marked degree) such as: acute inflammation (trachea and lung), ulceration/erosions of bronchial epithelium and trachea, and bronchial fibrosis and/or hyperplasia. In one female, foreign material was found within the tracheal lumen.
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weights and body weight gain of treated males remained in the same range as controls over the treatment period in the 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups. In the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group male body weights and body weight gain were reduced, achieving levels of statistical significance on Day 15 and 29 of treatment (Day 1 and 15 of mating, respectively), resulting in a 9% lower mean body weight at the end of treatment compared to concurrent controls. It was noted that one male at 1000 mg/kg bw/day lost weight over the first week of treatment, but recovered during the second week. In the absence of any clinical sign during the first week, no toxicological significance was attached to this finding.

Body weights and body weight gain of treated females remained in the same range as controls over the treatment period in the 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups and in the 1000 mg/kg dose group until the early termination.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No toxicologically relevant changes in food consumption before or after correction for body weight were recorded for the males and females. A low food consumption was recorded for one cage 8, containing five high dose males, over the first week of treatment. One of the males in this cage had lost weight during this period and it was considered likely that this was accompanied by a lower food consumption which consequently affected the food consumption value for this cage.
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group males, a decreased number of reticulocytes was observed, achieving a level of statistical significance when compared to controls. Furthermore, a slightly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) value was calculated from the red blood cell parameters, also achieving a level of statistical significance when compared to the MCHC value in controls. No toxicologically relevant changes were noted in the other haematological parameters in males at 1000 mg/kg bw/day and in all haematology parameters in males at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day.
The haematology results in females should be interpreted with caution, because for the females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day the blood levels were representative for Day 14 post-coitum (the day of their early sacrifice) and those for the females of the other groups (including controls) for PND 14-16 (at lactation). The slightly increased values for red blood cell, reticulocyte and platelet counts, and corresponding changes in Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and red blood cell derived indices Mean corpuscular haemoglobin and Mean corpuscular volume, in 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group females in comparison with controls, were likely due to the difference in their physiological status, rather than indicative of a treatment-related effect.
Although historical control data representative for Day 14 post-coitum were not available, the results obtained in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day in this study were all within the normal range and it was concluded that there were no (marked) changes in any of the haematology parameters that indicated a treatment-related effect at sacrifice on Day 14 postcoitum. No toxicologically relevant changes were noted in haematological parameters in females treated at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Coagulation parameters of treated males and female rats were considered not to have been affected by treatment.
Unexpected high mean values for Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time were observed in control males in comparison with the historical control data. Since the mean values in treated males were similar to the historical control data and they showed no dose-response relationship, no toxicological significance was attached to the statistical significances apparent for PT in the treated groups.
No toxicologically relevant changes were noted in clinical biochemistry parameters. Statistically significant reductions in Aspartate aminotransferase in the 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups were considered the have occurred by chance. Since no dose-response was present and a decrease in this enzyme level in plasma is of no biological relevance, no toxicological significance was attached to this finding.
The clinical biochemistry results in females should be interpreted with caution, because for the females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day the blood levels were representative for Day 14 post-coitum (the day of their early sacrifice after 4 weeks of treatment) and those for the females of the other groups (including controls) for PND 14-16 (at lactation, after 7-8 weeks of treatment in this type of studies).
In the six early sacrificed females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the mean values for several parameters showed a statistically significant difference when compared to controls, comprising; Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, total protein, albumin, urea, cholesterol, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphate. Although the available historical control ranges for the blood-value of these parameters were applicable for lactating females, the absolute blood-values in the early sacrificed, pregnant females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were still within the historical control range of the laboratory. Therefore the changes were considered minimal and likely due to the difference in their physiological status, rather than indicative of a treatment-related effect. This assumption might also be supported by the fact that no treatment-related changes in the clinical biochemistry parameters were observed in males at 100 mg/kg bw/day after a similar treatment period of 4 weeks. In lactating females at 300 mg/kg bw/day statistically significantly lower levels for total protein and albumin were observed on PND 14-16. The mean values for these parameters were at the lower limit of the normal range of this laboratory. No treatment-related changes were observed in the other clinical biochemistry parameters in females at 300 mg/kg bw/day and in all clinical biochemistry parameters in females at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
Serum levels of T4 in F0 males were considered not to be affected by treatment.
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Functional observation parameters were considered not to be affected by treatment in the males up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day and in the females up to 300 mg/kg bw/day. No functional tests were
performed in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, because of their early sacrifice. A large variation in motor activity, i.e. mean total movements and ambulations, was observed between the males the four dose groups. In the absence of a clear dose response relationship and since all activity was within the normal range the differences between groups were considered not indicative of a relation to treatment.
In females, the motor activity was similar between treated and control groups. No motor activity test was performed in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, because of their early sacrifice.
Moreover, males and females of all tested groups showed a similar motor activity habituation profile with a decreasing trend in activity over the duration of the test period.
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no test item-related microscopic observations in females up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Test item-related microscopic findings after treatment with Dehyton® DC were limited to the thyroid gland of the 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day group males: An increased incidence and severity in follicular cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland of males was recorded at 300 mg/kg bw/day group (3/5 at minimal degree and 1/5 at slight degree compared to 1/5 at minimal degree in the controls) and at 1000 mg/kg bw/day group (2/5 at minimal degree and 2/5 males at slight degree, compared to 1/5 at minimal degree.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Length and regularity of the estrous cycle were considered not to have been affected by treatment. All females, except one 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group female, had regular cycles of 4 to 5 days. An irregular cycle was noted for one female at 300 mg/kg bw/day (with normal litter). Given the incidental nature, absence of a dose-related incidence and absence of an apparent correlation to pregnancy status, this finding did not indicate a relation with treatment.
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no morphological findings in the reproductive organs of either sex which could be attributed to the test item and stage aware evaluation of the testes did not show any indication for abnormal spermatogenesis.
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was 1/10 couples of the controls, 2/10 couples treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day and 1/10 couples treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day that failed to deliver healthy pups. Histopathology did not reveal any changes in the reproductive organs that could explain this.
In all females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day that were euthanized at Day 27-28, early placental/fetal development sites (development around day 9-12) were observed.
Mating index was considered not to be affected by treatment. Precoital time was considered not to be affected by treatment. All females showed evidence of mating within 5 days. Number of implantation sites was considered not to be affected by treatment.
Fertility index was considered not to be affected by treatment. A fertility index of 90%, 80%, 100% and 100% was observed for the controls and 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day treated females respectively. It should be noted that a fertility index could be calculated for only 7/10 females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day. Three females of this dose group were dead before mating could have occurred.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Parental
Effect level:
>= 300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: based on mortality due to regurgitation of the formulations
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Reproduction
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effecst seen up to and including the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg bw/day)
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No clinical signs occurred among pups that were considered to be related to treatment. Eight of 13 pups in one litter in the 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group had alopecia. As this finding was confined to a single litter it was considered not related to treatment. Alopecia is known to occur in pups and when it occurs within a litter is assumed to be genetic.
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of live offspring on Day 1 after littering compared to the total number of offspring born was considered not to be affected by treatment.
The number of dead pups at first litter check was 0, 0, and 9 from three litters for the 0, 100, and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups, respectively, resulting in a live birth index of 100, 100 and 92%.
The low value in the 300 mg/kg dose group was considered to have occurred by chance, because 7 out of 9 dead pups belonged to one litter. A high litter-mortality
occasionally occurs, possibly indicating a possible lack of maternal care rather than any defect in the pups. One additional pup in this litter was missing on Day 2 postpartum. This pup had been noted as having less milk and a scab on its snout. Two additional pups in this litter that survived to planned necropsy also had a scab on the snout.

The number of live offspring on Day 4 before culling compared to the number of offspring on Day 1 was considered not affected by treatment. A viability index of 97%, 100% and 99% was observed for the controls and 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day treated females, respectively.

The number of live offspring on Day 13 after littering compared to the number of live offspring on Day 4 (after culling) was considered not to be affected by treatment. A lactation index of 100%, 100% and 99% was observed for the controls and 100 and 300 mg/kg treated
females, respectively.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weights of pups were considered not to be affected by treatment.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Serum T4 levels in male and female PND 14-16 pups were considered not to be affected by treatment.
Sexual maturation:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Sex ratio was considered not to be affected by treatment. Anogenital distance (absolute and normalized for body weight) in male and female pups was considered not to be affected by treatment. Treatment up to 300 mg/kg bw/day had no effect on areola/nipple retention. For none of the examined male pups nipples were observed at PND 13.
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No macroscopic findings were noted among pups that were considered to be related to treatment.
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Development
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
>= 300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects seen at 300 mg/kg bw/day
Key result
Critical effects observed:
no
Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
no
Conclusions:
Based on the results of a combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test, the parental and developmental NOAEL were found to be at least 300 mg/kg bw/day. The reproduction NOAEL was found to be at least 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

A 28-day repeated dose toxicity study combined with a reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test was performed according to guidelines and GLP principles. Wistar Han rats were treated with Amphoacetates C8-C18 by daily oral gavage at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. The rats of the control group received the vehicle, water, alone. Males were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). Females that delivered offspring were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and at least 14-16 days of lactation (for 50-54 days). Females that failed to deliver pups were treated for 41 days, with the exception of females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group that were euthanized or found dead (one female) at the end of the premating

period or during the post-coitum period due to adverse clinical observations. Accuracy and homogeneity of formulations determined by chemical analyses confirmed accurate dosing. At 1000 mg/kg bw/day, there was a high mortality in the females (4/10) and one premature

death in the males. These deaths were concluded to be related to regurgitation and thus secondary to the test item (possibly triggered by physical/chemical properties of the test-item solution in combination with the route of administration).

The surviving females in this group were early terminated shortly after the fourth female died, i.e. on Day 14 post-coitum. These early sacrificed Group 4 females, were all pregnant of a normal number of foetuses, and did not show any direct test item-related morphological changes.

There were no morphological findings in the reproductive organs of either sex which could be attributed to the test item and stage aware evaluation of the testes did not show any indication for abnormal spermatogenesis. No reproduction toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level tested (1000 mg/kg bw/day), although only 6/10 females at 1000 mg/kg could be examined. No developmental toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level evaluated (300 mg/kg bw/day) as none of the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group females were allowed to deliver due to either an early death or euthanasia based on adverse clinical observations.

Based on these results, the parental and developmental NOAEL were found to be at least 300 mg/kg bw/day. The reproduction NOAEL was found to be at least 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2018

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developme ntal Toxicity Screening Test)
Version / remarks:
2016
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: EPA OPPTS 870.3650, Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Deve lopmental Toxicity Screening Test
Version / remarks:
2000
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: See below under Principles of method if other than guideline
Principles of method if other than guideline:
In addition, the procedures described in this study plan essentially conform to the following guidelines:
- OECD 421, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, 2016.
- EPA OPPTS 870.3550, Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test, 2000.
- EC No 440/2008, B.7 Repeated Dose (28 days) Toxicity (oral), 2008.
- OECD 407, Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, 2008.
- EPA OPPTS 870.3050, Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents, 2000.
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
liquid
Details on test material:
- Physical appearance: yellow liquid
- Storage conditions: at 20 ±5 °C, in the dark
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Purity/Composition correction factor: 2.10 (based on solid content)
pH: 8 - 9

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crl: WI(Han)
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
The Wistar Han rat was chosen as the animal model for this study as it is an accepted rodent species for toxicity testing by regulatory agencies. Charles River Den Bosch has general and reproduction/developmental historical data in this species from the same strain and source. This animal model has
been proven to be susceptible to the effects of reproductive toxicants.

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
Test item dosing formulations (w/w) were homogenized by swirling to visually acceptable levels at appropriate concentrations to meet dose level requirements. Bulk formulations sufficient for one week of dosing were prepared once a week as clear colorless solutions.
After homogenizing the bulk formulations to a visibly acceptable level, each (bulk) formulation was then divided into 7 aliquots for daily dosing and stored in the refrigerator protected from light (maximum storage in the refrigerator for 8 days after preparation). The dosing formulations were removed
from the refrigerator for at least 30 minutes before dosing for adjustment to room temperature. On each day of use the test item dosing formulations were kept at room temperature until dosing. To avoid foam formation and optimal homogeneity, the dosing formulations were swirled shortly before
use for dosing. An adjustment was made for specific gravity of the test item and a factor 2.10 was used to correct for the purity/composition of the test item.
Dosed volume: 5 mL/kg bw
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Stability analyses performed previously in conjunction with the method development and validation study demonstrated that the test item is stable in the vehicle when prepared and stored under the same conditions at concentrations bracketing those used in the present study. Concentration and homogeneity analyses were performed by using a validated analytical procedure. Duplicate sets of samples (approximately 500 mg) for each sampling time point were collected. Concentration results were considered acceptable if mean sample concentration results were within or equal to ± 10% for solutions of target concentration. Homogeneity results were considered acceptable if the coefficient of variation (CV) of concentrations was ≤ 10%.
Samples were taken in week 1 for concentration determination (all groups) and homogeneity (low and high dose groups, the homogeneity results obtained from the top, middle and bottom for the low and high dose group preparations were averaged and utilized as the concentration results.
Details on mating procedure:
After 14 days of treatment, animals were cohabitated on a 1:1 basis within the same treatment group, avoiding sibling mating. Detection of mating was confirmed by evidence of sperm in the vaginal lavage or by the appearance of an intravaginal copulatory plug. This day was designated Day 0 post-coi
tum. Once mating had occurred, the males and females were separated. Detection of mating was not confirmed in first instance for one female. Apparently, mating was overlooked in the assessment of the vaginal lavage in first instance. The mating date of this animal was determined a few days later based on detection of sperm cells on the vaginal lavage. Consequently, this couple was separated 4 days after the actual mating date.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). Females that delivered offspring were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during postcoitum, and at least 14-16 days of lactation (for 50-54 days). Females that failed to deliver pups were treated for 41 days, with the exception of females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group that were
euthanized or found dead (one female) at the end of the premating period or during the post-coitum period due to adverse clinical observations.
Frequency of treatment:
Once daily
Duration of test:
Same as treatment period
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
A dose range finder was conducted to select dose levels for the main study, and to determine the peak effect of occurrence of clinical signs after dosing. No guidelines were applicable as this study was intended for dose level selection purposes only. The test item and vehicle were administered to 3
females/group by single daily oral gavage for 10 days.
Examinations:
Clinical Observations: At least daily from Days 1-10, at 0-15 minutes, 1 hour (±15 minutes) and 3 hours (± 30 minutes) after dosing.
Body Weights: On Day 1 prior to dosing and on Days 5 and 10.
Food Consumption: Over Days 1-5 and 5-10.
All animals were subjected to an external, thoracic and abdominal examination on Day 10 after the last observation of clinical signs (scheduled necropsy). Animals were not deprived of food prior to necropsy. Terminal body weight, kidney and liver weight were determined at scheduled necropsy. No
organs were fixed and histopathological examination was not performed.

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Twice daily
DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Once daily
BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Prior to first dosing, and weekly thereafter. Mated females were weighed on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on PND 1, 4, 7, and 13. A fasted weight was recorded on the day of necropsy.
FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption was quantitatively measured weekly, except for males and females which were housed together for mating and for females without evidence of mating. Food consumption of mated females was measured on Days 0, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, and 20 post-coitum and during lactation on PND
1, 4, 7, and 13.
WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE : Yes
- Subjective appraisal was maintained during the study, but no quantitative investigation was introduced as no effect was suspected.
Ovaries and uterine content:
General observations were performed (inclusing gross pathology, weight and histopathological examinations (implantation sites were determined)).
Fetal examinations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- Performed on day 4 postpartum: yes
- On PND 4, the surplus pups (> 8 pups per litter) were euthanized by decapitation.

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
The following parameters were examined in offspring:
Number and sex of pups, stillbirths, live births, postnatal mortality, presence of gross anomalies, weight gain, physical or behavioural abnormalities, anogenital distance (AGD), presence of nipples/ areolae in male pups

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
Yes, for external and internal abnormalities. Pups that died before scheduled termination were examined externally and sexed (both externally and internally). The stomach of pups not surviving to the scheduled necropsy date was examined for the presence of milk, if possible. If possible, defects or cause of death were evaluated.

Statistics:
All statistical tests were conducted at the 5% significance level. All pairwise comparisons were conducted using two sided tests and were reported at the 1% and 5% levels. Numerical data collected on scheduled occasions for the listed variables were analyzed as indicated according to sex and occasion. Descriptive statistics number, mean and standard deviation (or %CV or SE when deemed appropriate) were reported whenever possible. Inferential statistics were performed according to the matrix below when possible, but excluded semiquantitative data, and any group with less than 2 observations. The following pairwise comparisons were made: Group 2 vs. Group 1; Group 3 vs. Group 1; Group 4 vs. Group 1.
Datasets with at least 3 groups (the designated control group and 2 other groups) were compared using Dunnett-test (many-to-one-t-test).
Datasets with at least 3 groups were compared using a Steel-test (many-to-one rank test). The motor activity data set was compared using an overall Kruskal-Wallis. The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test was applied to compare the treated groups to the control group. An overall Fisher’s exact test was used to compare all groups at the 5% significance level. The above pairwise comparisons were conducted
using Fisher’s exact test whenever the overall test is significant.
Indices:
- Post-implantation survival index (%): (Total number of offspring born/ Total number of uterine imp
lantation sites) x 100
- Live birth index: (Number of live offspring on Day 1 after littering/ Total number of offspring born) x
100
- Percentage live males at First Litter Check: (Number of live male pups at First Litter Check/Number
of live pups at First Litter Check) x 100
- Percentage live females at First Litter Check: (Number of live female pups at First Litter Check/Nu
mber of live pups at First Litter Check) x 100
- Viability index: (Number of live pups on Day 4 of lactation / Number of pups born alive) x 100
- Lactation index: (Number of live offspring on Day 13 after littering/ Number live offspring on Day 4
(after culling)) x 100
Historical control data:
Available at the test lab and included in the report where relevant.

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

General toxicity (maternal animals)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Salivation occurred in most females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group throughout the treatment period. Four females died prematurely (see "Mortality"). The clinical signs among the surviving females comprised occasional rales and piloerection during the treatment period. Salivation occurred from time to time during the premating and reproductive periods (post coitum, lactation) in some females in the 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group. Single females had hunched posture and laboured respiration once during the study. One to two females had piloerection, alopecia, scabs (cervical region) and a wound (cervical region) during the reproductive period.
In the 100 mg/kg bw/day dose group, salivation occurred sporadically in one or two females during the treatment period.
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
Four females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were found death or sacrificed in extremis. The male was sacrificed in extremis on study day 20. Three females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were prematurely euthanized, due to respiratory clinical signs and one was found dead (3 females before mating at day 12-16 and 1 female at day 26). One female was euthanized in extremis on study day 12. Prior to euthanasia this female had slight hunched posture, severe laboured respiration and rales, piloerection, moderate salivation and was severely pale. The female lost weight prior to death. One female was found dead on study day 15. This female showed rales on day 1 and salivation during treatment, but no other clinical signs prior to death. One female was euthanized in extremis on study day 26. Prior to euthanasia this female had piloerection and severe laboured respiration, rales, salivation and ptosis. One female was euthanized in
extremis on study day 16. Prior to euthanasia this female had slight quick breathing, piloerection and severe rales, shallow respiration, salivation and ptosis. The female lost weight prior to death.
Macroscopically the lungs were not collapsed which microscopically could be explained by trachea and lung lesions (up to marked degree) such as: acute inflammation (trachea and lung), ulceration/erosions of bronchial epithelium and trachea, and bronchial fibrosis and/or hyperplasia. In one female, foreign material was found within the tracheal lumen.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weights and body weight gain of treated females remained in the same range as controls over the treatment period in the 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups and in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group until the early termination.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No toxicologically relevant changes in food consumption before or after correction for body weight were recorded for the females.
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The haematology results in females should be interpreted with caution, because for the females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day the blood levels were representative for Day 14 post-coitum (the day of their early sacrifice) and those for the females of the other groups (including controls) for PND 14-16 (at lactation). The slightly increased values for red blood cell, reticulocyte and platelet counts, and corresponding changes in Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and red blood cell derived indices Mean corpuscular haemoglobin and Mean corpuscular volume, in 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group females in comparison with controls, were likely due to the difference in their physiological status, rather than indicative of a treatment-related effect.
Although historical control data representative for Day 14 post-coitum were not available, the results obtained in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day in this study were all within the normal range and it was concluded that there were no (marked) changes in any of the haematology parameters that indicated a treatment-related effect at sacrifice on Day 14 postcoitum. No toxicologically relevant changes were
noted in haematological parameters in females treated at 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Coagulation parameters of treated female rats were considered not to have been affected by treatment. The clinical biochemistry results in females should be interpreted with caution, because for the females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day the blood levels were representative for Day 14 post-coitum (the day of their early sacrifice after 4 weeks of treatment) and those for the females of the other groups (including controls) for PND 14-16 (at lactation, after 7-8 weeks of treatment in this type of studies). In the six early sacrificed females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the mean values for several parameters showed a statistically significant difference when compared to controls, comprising; Alanine aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, total protein, albumin, urea, cholesterol, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphate. Although the available historical control ranges for the blood-value of these parameters were applicable for lactating females, the absolute blood-values in the early sacrificed, pregnant females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day were still within the historical control range of the laboratory. Therefore the changes were considered minimal and likely due to the difference in their physiological status, rather than indicative of a treatment-related effect. This assumption might also be supported by the fact that no treatment-related changes in the clinical biochemistry parameters were observed in males at 100 mg/kg bw/day after a similar treatment period of 4 weeks. In lactating females at 300 mg/kg bw/day statistically significantly lower levels for total protein and albumin were observed on PND 14-16. The mean values for these parameters were at the lower limit of the normal range of this laboratory. No treatment-related changes were observed in the other clinical biochemistry parameters in females at 300 mg/kg bw/day and in all clinical biochemistry parameters in females at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No functional tests were performed in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, because of their early sacrifice. The motor activity was similar between treated and control groups. No motor activity test was performed in females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day, because of their early sacrifice. Moreover, males and females of all tested groups showed a similar motor activity habituation profile with a decreasing trend in activity over the duration of the test period.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no test item-related alterations in organ weights.
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The four females at 1000 mg/kg bw/day that were found dead or sacrificed in extremis, all showed non-collapsed lungs at necropsy. No other macroscopic abnormalities were found in these females. There were no macroscopic findings in any of the other female rats of all dose groups that were considered test item related.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There were no test item-related microscopic observations in females up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

Maternal developmental toxicity

Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
There was 1/10 couples of the controls, 2/10 couples treated at 100 mg/kg bw/day and 1/10 couples treated at 300 mg/kg bw/day that failed to deliver healthy pups. Histopathology did not reveal any changes in the reproductive organs that could explain this.
In all females treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day that were euthanized at Day 27-28, early placental/fetal development sites (development around day 9-12) were observed.Fertility index was considered not to be affected by treatment. A fertility index of 90%, 80%, 100% and 100% was observed for the controls and 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg treated females respectively. It should be noted that a fertility index could be calculated for only 7/10 females at 1000 mg/kg. Three females of this dose group were dead before mating could have occurred.
Total litter losses by resorption:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
One female dosed at 300 mg/kg bw/day had implantations only. As this was not seen in the high dose group, this effects was considered to be incidental.
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The total number of offspring born compared to the total number of uterine implantations was considered not to be affected by treatment.
Dead fetuses:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of dead pups at first litter check was 0, 0, and 9 from three litters for the 0, 100, and 300 mg/kg bw/day dose groups, respectively, resulting in a live birth index of 100, 100 and 92%. The low value in the 300 mg/kg bw/day dose group was considered to have occurred by chance, because 7 out of 9 dead pups belonged to one litter. A high litter-mortality occasionally occurs, possibly indicating a possible lack of maternal care rather than any defect in the pups. One additional pup in this litter was missing on Day 2 postpartum. This pup had been noted as having less milk and a scab on its snout. Two additional pups in this litter that survived to planned necropsy also had a scab on the snout.
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Gestation index and duration of gestation were considered not to be affected by treatment.
Changes in number of pregnant:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Details on maternal toxic effects:
No signs of difficult or prolonged parturition were noted among the pregnant females. No deficiencies in maternal care were observed.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Maternal
Effect level:
>= 300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: based on mortality due to regurgitation of the formulations

Maternal abnormalities

Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed

Results (fetuses)

Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Body weights of pups were considered not to be affected by treatment.
Reduction in number of live offspring:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of live offspring on Day 4 before culling compared to the number of offspring on Day 1 was considered not affected by treatment. A viability index of 97%, 100% and 99% was observed for the controls and 100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day treated females, respectively.
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Sex ratio was considered not to be affected by treatment.
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The number of live offspring on Day 13 after littering compared to the number of live offspring on Day 4 (after culling) was considered not to be affected by treatment. A lactation index of 100%, 100% and 99% was observed for the controls and 100 and 300 mg/kg treated females, respectively.
External malformations:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No macroscopic findings were noted among pups that were considered to be related to treatment.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects seen at 300 mg/kg bw/day

Fetal abnormalities

Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed

Overall developmental toxicity

Key result
Developmental effects observed:
no

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Based on the results of a combined 28-day repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test, the parental and developmental NOAEL were found to be at least 300 mg/kg bw/day.
Executive summary:

A 28-day repeated dose toxicity study combined with a reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test was performed according to guidelines and GLP principles. Wistar Han rats were treated with Amphoacetates C8-C18 by daily oral gavage at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day. The rats of the control group received the vehicle, water, alone. Females that delivered offspring were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during post-coitum, and at least 14-16 days of lactation (for 50-54 days). Females that failed to deliver pups were treated for 41 days, with the exception of females in the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group that were euthanized or found dead (one female) at the end of the premating period or during the post-coitum period due to adverse clinical observations. Accuracy and homogeneity of formulations determined by chemical analyses confirmed accurate dosing. At 1000 mg/kg bw/day, there was a high mortality in the females (4/10) and one premature death in the males. These deaths were concluded to be related to regurgitation and thus secondary to the test item (possibly triggered by physical/chemical properties of the test-item solution in combination with the route of administration).

The surviving females in this group were early terminated shortly after the fourth female died, i.e. on Day 14 post-coitum. These early sacrificed high dose females, were all pregnant of a normal number of foetuses, and did not show any direct test item-related morphological changes.

No developmental toxicity was observed up to the highest dose level evaluated (300 mg/kg bw/day) as none of the 1000 mg/kg bw/day dose group females were allowed to deliver due to either an early death or euthanasia based on adverse clinical observations. Based on these results, the parental and developmental NOAEL were found to be at least 300 mg/kg bw/day.