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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The references contained in this summary entry represent investigations on the bioaccumulation of strontium in freshwater algae. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Stanek et al. (1990):
The study describes the 90Sr transfer from water into the particular compartments of simplified experimental aquatic system - the sediments, algae, invertebrate (gastropods) and fishes - based on a model experiment simulating conditions of the release of liquid nuclear waste to a river.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Stanek et al. (1990):
Samples have been taken in gradually prolongating intervals of water (20 mL) and of other materials (30 g or 1 fish). Samples of compact materials were dried at 105°C, the tissues of gastropods were seperated in shell and soft tissue, fish sampels were bones, scales and musculature.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Stanek et al. (1990): river water in a 500 L circular fibre-glass tank and stocked with sediment. On the second day the radiostrontium was added.
Test organisms (species):
other: different algae
Details on test organisms:
Stanek et al. (1990): Cladophora glomerata; total amount added: 12.5 kg
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Stanek et al. (1990): static
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
Total exposure/uptake duration:
Stanek et al. (1990): 22 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Stanek et al. (1990): measured data: yes; 191.5 Bq/L
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Stanek et al. (1990): BCF = AC = ae/a0
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.

Stanek et al. (1990):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

115

Whole body; total mass

0.7 d

Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation. However, steady-state conditions may not be met.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The reference contained in this summary entry represents an investigation on the bioaccumulation of strontium in saltwater algae. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Several marine organisms were collected and the 85Sr concentration was measured by AAS after ashing the samples.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Ueda et al. (1973): Marine organisms, 241 samples of 63 species, were collected from the coastal sea of Japan. All samples were ignited at 550℃ in an electric muffle furnace. The chemical analysis of stable Sr was performed on the ashed sample.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Ueda et al. (1973): not applicable
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Details on test organisms:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Algae: Ulva pertusa; Sargassum fulvellum; Undaria finnatifida; Eisenia bicyclis; Ecklonia cava; Gelidium amansii; Porphyra tenera; Porphyra pseudolinearis; Bangia gloiopeltidicota
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Ueda et al. (1973): field study;
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: marine
Details on test conditions:
Ueda et al. (1973): no data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Ueda et al. (1973): no; default concentration 8mg of Sr per liter of sea water was used.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Concentration factor (CF; Sr organlsm/Sr seawater)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.

Ueda et al. (1973):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value

Basis

Remarks

8 mg/L

BCF

2

Whole body

Ulva pertusa

8 mg/L

BCF

31

Whole body

Sargassum fulvellum

8 mg/L

BCF

18

Whole body

Undaria finnatifida

8 mg/L

BCF

25

Whole body

Eisenia bicyclis

8 mg/L

BCF

22

Whole body

Ecklonia cava

8 mg/L

BCF

5

Whole body

Gelidium amansii

8 mg/L

BCF

0.3

Whole body

Porphyra tenera

8 mg/L

BCF

1

Whole body

Porphyra pseudolinearis

8 mg/L

BCF

1

Whole body

Bangia gloiopeltidicota

Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The reference contained in this summary entry represents an investigation on the bioaccumulation of strontium in saltwater crustacean species. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Several marine organisms were collected and the 85Sr concentration was measured by AAS after ashing the samples.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Ueda et al. (1973): Marine organisms, 241 samples of 63 species, were collected from the coastal sea of Japan. All samples were ignited at 550℃ in an electric muffle furnace. The chemical analysis of stable Sr was performed on the ashed sample.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Ueda et al. (1973): not applicable
Test organisms (species):
other: different crustacea
Details on test organisms:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Crustacea: Paralithodes camtschatica; Acanthodes armatus; Ovalipes punctatus; Portunus trituberculatus; Erimacrus isenhechii; Macrocheira Kaempferi; Hemigrapsus sanquineus; Penaeus orientalis; Panulirus japonicus; Penaeus japonicus; Sergestes lucens; Mitella mitella; Chthamalus challengeri; Ligia exotica; Squilla oratoria
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Ueda et al. (1973): field study;
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: marine
Details on test conditions:
Ueda et al. (1973): no data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Ueda et al. (1973): no; default concentration 8mg of Sr per liter of sea water was used.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Concentration factor (CF; Sr organlsm/Sr seawater)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.
Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The reference contained in this summary entry represents an investigation on the bioaccumulation of strontium in different saltwater echniodermata and coelenterata. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Several marine organisms were collected and the 85Sr concentration was measured by AAS after ashing the samples.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Ueda et al. (1973): Marine organisms, 241 samples of 63 species, were collected from the coastal sea of Japan. All samples were ignited at 550℃ in an electric muffle furnace. The chemical analysis of stable Sr was performed on the ashed sample.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Ueda et al. (1973): not applicable
Test organisms (species):
other: different echniodermata and coelenterata
Details on test organisms:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Echniodermata: Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus; Anthocidaris Crassispina; Coscinasterias acutispina; Asterina pectinifera
Coelenterata: Aurellia aurita; Actinia eqina
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Ueda et al. (1973): field study;
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: marine
Details on test conditions:
Ueda et al. (1973): no data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Ueda et al. (1973): no; default concentration 8mg of Sr per liter of sea water was used.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Concentration factor (CF; Sr organlsm/Sr seawater)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below

Ueda et al. (1973):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

Echniodermata

8 mg/L

BCF

106

Whole body

Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

8 mg/L

BCF

76

Whole body

Anthocidaris crassispina

8 mg/L

BCF

30

Whole body

Coscinasterias acutispina

8 mg/L

BCF

103

Whole body

Asterina pectinifera

Coelenterata

8 mg/L

BCF

0.7

Whole body

Aurellia aurita

8 mg/L

BCF

0.7

Whole body

Actinia eqina

Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAFs in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The references contained in this summary entry represent investigations on the bioaccumulation of strontium in a freshwater fish. The studies were not conducted according to any guideline but meet basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992):
The Strontium concentration was determined in bluegills of two different sources and in the respective river waters of the Merced River and the Salt Rough.
Stanek et al. (1990):
The study describes the 90Sr transfer from water into the particular compartments of simplified experimental aquatic system - the sediments, algae, invertebrate (gastropods) and fishes - based on a model experiment simulating conditions of the release of liquid nuclear waste to a river.
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001):
The aim of the study was to examine the linkage between strontium in freshwater and accumulation in different fish species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992):
Duplicate water quality measurements were taken at three equal intervals across both channels. Composite samples of filtered and unfiltered water were collected and either acidified and frozen or refrigerated. Ten composite carcass and 10 composite gonad samples each from the Merced River and the Salt Slough were analysed. Each composite sample consisted of carcass or gonad samples either from 2 female bluegills or 3 male bluegills.
Stanek et al. (1990):
Samples have been taken in gradually prolongating intervals of water (20 mL) and of other materials (30 g or 1 fish). Samples of compact materials were dried at 105°C, the tissues of gastropods were seperated in shell and soft tissue, fish sampels were bones, scales and musculature.
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001):
Samples were collected during and shortly after autumn overturn in the Kola region (460 lakes were studied).Water samples were collected at each lake's major outlet. Three fish species were collected from 37 sites and caught with standard gillnets (10-45 mm). Sample size varied but were typically >100.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992): not applicable; field study
Stanek et al. (1990): river water in a 500 L circular fibre-glass tank and stocked with sediment. On the second day the radiostrontium was added.
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001): not applicable; field study
Test organisms (species):
other: differnet fish species
Details on test organisms:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992):
Lepomis macrochirus
Stanek et al. (1990):
Cyprinus carpio; 25 individuals, age 1+, mean weight 0.1 kg
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001):
Coregonus lavaretus L.; common age group (5-6 yrs); not spawning
Salmo trutta; common age group (5-6 yrs); not spawning
Salvelinus alpinus; common age group (5-6 yrs); not spawning
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Nakamoto and Hassler (1992); Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001): field study; Stanek et al. (1990): static
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
Total exposure/uptake duration:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992): March to June 1988
Stanek et al. (1990): 22 days
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001): not stated (field study); research was carried out during the period 1995-1997
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992): measured data: yes; Merced River: 0.138 µg Sr/mL (filtered), 0.138 µg Sr/mL (unfiltered); Salt Rough: 1.106 µg Sr/mL (filtered), 1.143 µg Sr/mL (unfiltered)
Stanek et al. (1990): measured data: yes; 191.5 Bq/L
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001): measured data: yes; Zone V: 0.066 (0.05- 0.22) µg/mL; Zone VI: 0.016 (0.004-0.05) µg/mL; Zone III: 0.009 (0.005-0.026) µg/mL
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992): BCF = (µg/g wwt bluegill tissue)/(µg/mL unfiltered water)
Stanek et al. (1990): BCF = AC = ae/a0
Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001): BAF = (Accumulation of Sr (µg/g dwt) in fish organs and tissues)/(concentration Sr (µg/L) in surface water)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.
Reported statistics:
Nakamoto and Hassler (1992): Concentrations in tissues were log transformed. Analysis of variance, t-tests, and Spearman's Rank Correlation tests were used (p≤0.05).

Nakamoto and Hassler (1992):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

0.138 µg/mL

BCF

342.7

Carcass

Source: Merced River; female bluegill

0.138 µg/mL

BCF

92.0

Carcass

Source: Merced River; male bluegill

0.138 µg/mL

BCF

11.9

Gonad

Source: Merced River; female bluegill

0.138 µg/mL

BCF

7.5

Gonad

Source: Merced River; male bluegill

1.106 µg/mL

BCF

60.6

Carcass

Source: Salt Slough; female bluegill

1.106 µg/mL

BCF

40.3

Carcass

Source: Salt Slough; male bluegill

1.106 µg/mL

BCF

1.5

Gonad

Source: Salt Slough; female bluegill

1.106 µg/mL

BCF

1.4

Gonad

Source: Salt Slough; male bluegill

Stanek et al. (1990):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

152

Bones

33 d

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

68

Scales

34 d

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

3

musculature

41 d

Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001):

Coregonus lavaretus L. (White fish)

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

48.5

Liver

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

1075.8

Kidneys

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

63.6

Muscles

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

7197.0

Skeleton

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

2272.7

Gills

Zone V

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

74.4

Liver

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

400.0

Kidneys

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

91.9

Muscles

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

7812.5

Skeleton

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

1875.0

Gills

Zone VI

 

Salmo trutta (brown trout)

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

7.6

Muscles

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

2272.7

Skeleton

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

1136.4

Gills

Zone V

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

21.3

Liver

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

274.4

Kidneys

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

53.1

Muscles

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

10687.5

Skeleton

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

6750.0

Gills

Zone VI

0.009 µg/mL

BAF

388.9

Muscles

Zone III

0.009 µg/mL

BAF

14111.1

Skeleton

Zone III

0.009 µg/mL

BAF

11888.9

Gills

Zone III

 

Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic char)

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

57.6

Liver

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

306.1

Kidneys

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

81.8

Muscles

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

10454.5

Skeleton

Zone V

0.066 µg/mL

BAF

8787.9

Gills

Zone V

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

45.0

Liver

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

250.6

Kidneys

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

28.8

Muscles

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

8375.0

Skeleton

Zone VI

0.016 µg/mL

BAF

4300.0

Gills

Zone VI

Conclusions:
The studies are considered sufficient to use the derived BAFs in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation. However, steady-state conditions may not always be met.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The reference contained in this summary entry represents an investigation on the bioaccumulation of strontium in saltwater fish. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Several marine organisms were collected and the 85Sr concentration was measured by AAS after ashing the samples.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Ueda et al. (1973): Marine organisms, 241 samples of 63 species, were collected from the coastal sea of Japan. All samples were ignited at 550℃ in an electric muffle furnace. The chemical analysis of stable Sr was performed on the ashed sample.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Ueda et al. (1973): not applicable
Test organisms (species):
other: different fish species
Details on test organisms:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Mugil cephalus; Lateotabrax japonicus; Gadus macrocephalus; Chrysophrys major; Mylio macrocephalus; Ditrema temmincki; Sebastolabus macrochir; Scomber japonicus; Limanda irrdorum; Argyrosomus argentatus; Trachurus japonicus; Paralichthyos livaceus; Sebastodes güntherii; Sebastodes schlegeli; Hexagrammos otakii; Seriola quinqueradiata; Konosirus punctatus.
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Ueda et al. (1973): field study;
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: marine
Details on test conditions:
Ueda et al. (1973): no data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Ueda et al. (1973): no; default concentration 8mg of Sr per liter of sea water was used.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Ueda et al. (1973):
Concentration factor (CF; Sr organlsm/Sr seawater)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.

Ueda et al. (1973):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

8 mg/L

BCF

29

Fish bone

Mugil cephalus

8 mg/L

BCF

23

Fish bone

Lateotabrax japonicus

8 mg/L

BCF

34

Fish bone

Gadus macrocephalus

8 mg/L

BCF

34

Fish bone

Chrysophrys major

8 mg/L

BCF

37

Fish bone

Mylio macrocephalus

8 mg/L

BCF

31

Fish bone

Ditrema temmincki

8 mg/L

BCF

32

Fish bone

Sebastolabus macrochir

8 mg/L

BCF

31

Fish bone

Scomber japonicus

8 mg/L

BCF

32

Fish bone

Limanda irrdorum

8 mg/L

BCF

26

Fish bone

Argyrosomus argentatus

8 mg/L

BCF

23

Fish bone

Trachurus japonicus

8 mg/L

BCF

22

Fish bone

Paralichthyos livaceus

8 mg/L

BCF

18

Fish bone

Sebastodes güntherii

8 mg/L

BCF

22

Fish bone

Sebastodes schlegeli

8 mg/L

BCF

18

Fish bone

Hexagrammos otakii

8 mg/L

BCF

20

Fish bone

Seriola quinqueradiata

8 mg/L

BCF

10

Fish bone

Konosirus punctatus

8 mg/L

BCF

0.4

Fish flesh

Mugil cephalus

8 mg/L

BCF

0.2

Fish flesh

Lateotabrax japonicus

8 mg/L

BCF

0.3

Fish flesh

Mylio macrocephalus

8 mg/L

BCF

0.4

Fish flesh

Sebastodes güntherii

8 mg/L

BCF

0.2

Fish flesh

Chrysophrys major

Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The references contained in this summary entry represent investigation son the bioaccumulation of strontium in saltwater molluscs. The studies were not conducted according to any guideline but meet basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Bologna (1984):
Aim of the study was to determine the concentration factors of 85Sr in two saltwater bivale molluscs under laboratory conditions.
Ueda et al. (1973):
Several marine organisms were collected and the 85Sr concentration was measured by AAS after ashing the samples.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Bologna (1984): Water samples (2 mL) and Molluscs samples (n=2-3) were collected and radioanalysed every 2-3 days simultanously.
Ueda et al. (1973): Marine organisms, 241 samples of 63 species, were collected from the coastal sea of Japan. All samples were ignited at 550℃ in an electric muffle furnace. The chemical analysis of stable Sr was performed on the ashed sample.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Bologna (1984): aqueous stock solution
Ueda et al. (1973): not applicable
Test organisms (species):
other: different mollusca
Details on test organisms:
Bologna (1984):
Mytilus galloprovincialis; marine mollusca; adults; Romanian Black Sea shore; collected 1982-1984 and cleaned.
Mya arenaris; marine mollusca; juveniles and adults; Romanian Black Sea shore; collected 1982-1984 and cleaned.
Ueda et al. (1973):
different mollusca: Crassostrea gigas; Miytilus edulis; Meretrix meretirix lamarckii; Tapes philippinarum; Cronia margariticola; Sulcus diversicolor aquatilis; Batillus cornutus; Nordotis discus; Liolophura japonica; Aplysfa kurodai; Siphonaria japonica; Sepia seculenta.
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Bologna (1984): static; Ueda et al. (1973): field study;
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: marine
Details on test conditions:
Total exposure/uptake duration:
Bologna (1984): Mytilus galloprovincialis: 20-105 days; Mya arenaris: 20-41 days.
Ueda et al. (1973): no data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Bologna (1984): yes; individually for each test measured concentrations (arithmetic mean) in water and tissue.
Ueda et al. (1973): no; default concentration 8mg of Sr per liter of sea water was used.
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Bologna (1984):
Concentration factor (CF) is the ratio between disintegrations per minute per gramm shell or fresh weight and disintegrations per minute per milliliter water.
CF = (dpm/g shell or fresh weight)/(dpm/mL water)
Ueda et al. (1973):
Concentration factor (CF; Sr organlsm/Sr seawater)
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.

Bologna (1984):

Mya arenaria

Conc. in environment

Type

Value

Basis

Remarks

209 dpm/mL

BCF

3 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 20

80 dpm/mL

BCF

6 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 20

336 dpm/mL

BCF

11 L/kg

Syphon

Duration (days): 20

1150 dpm/mL

BCF

17 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 41

1150 dpm/mL

BCF

6 L/kg

Soft parts + syphon

Duration (days): 41

548 dpm/mL

BCF

3 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 20

604 dpm/mL

BCF

1 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 20

582 dpm/mL

BCF

2 L/kg

Syphon

Duration (days): 20

464 dpm/mL

BCF

6 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 41

451 dpm/mL

BCF

5 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 41

546 dpm/mL

BCF

6 L/kg

Syphon

Duration (days): 41

 

Mytilus galloprovincialis

Conc. in environment

Type

Value

Basis

Remarks

827 dpm/mL

BCF

9 L/kg

Whole body

Duration (days): 26

1976 dpm/mL

BCF

5 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 57

2260 dpm/mL

BCF

1 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 57

2215 dpm/mL

BCF

4 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 105

2115 dpm/mL

BCF

4 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 105

597 dpm/mL

BCF

2 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 20

573 dpm/mL

BCF

1 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 20

137 dpm/mL

BCF

11 L/kg

Shell

Duration (days): 45

176 dpm/mL

BCF

5 L/kg

Soft parts

Duration (days): 45

Ueda et al. (1973):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value

Basis

Remarks

8 mg/L

BCF

86 L/kg

Shell

Crassostrea gigas

8 mg/L

BCF

120 L/kg

Shell

Miytilus edulis

8 mg/L

BCF

154 L/kg

Shell

Meretrix meretirix lamarckii

8 mg/L

BCF

161 L/kg

Shell

Tapes philippinarum

8 mg/L

BCF

125 L/kg

Shell

Cronia margariticola

8 mg/L

BCF

158 L/kg

Shell

Sulcus diversicolor aquatilis

8 mg/L

BCF

146 L/kg

Shell

Batillus cornutus

8 mg/L

BCF

181 L/kg

Shell

Nordotis discus

8 mg/L

BCF

200 L/kg

Shell

Liolophura japonica

8 mg/L

BCF

2 L/kg

Whole body

Aplysfa kurodai

8 mg/L

BCF

61 L/kg

Shell

Siphonaria japonica

8 mg/L

BCF

196 L/kg

Shell

Sepia seculenta

Conclusions:
The studies are considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation. However, steady-state conditions may not always be met.
Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
The reference contained in this summary entry represents an investigation on the bioaccumulation of strontium in freshwater molluscs. The study was not conducted according to any guideline but meets basic criteria for quality, reliability and adequacy of experimental data for the fulfilment of data requirements under REACH and hazard assessment purposes (ECHA guidance R4 in conjunction with regulation (EC) 1907/2006, Annexes VII-X). Hence, this information contained therein is used in a weight-of-evidence approach.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Stanek et al. (1990):
The study describes the 90Sr transfer from water into the particular compartments of a simplified experimental aquatic system - the sediments, algae, invertebrate (gastropods) and fishes - based on a model experiment simulating conditions of the release of liquid nuclear waste to a river.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Details on sampling:
Stanek et al. (1990):
Samples have been taken in gradually prolongating intervals of water (20 mL) and of other materials (30 g or 1 fish). Samples of compact materials were dried at 105°C, the tissues of gastropods were seperated in shell and soft tissue, fish sampels were bones, scales and musculature.
Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
Stanek et al. (1990): river water in a 500 L circular fibre-glass tank and stocked with sediment. On the second day the radiostrontium was added.
Test organisms (species):
other: see below
Details on test organisms:
Stanek et al. (1990): Planorbarius corneus (linnaeus, 1758); mean mass 0.2 kg
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
other: Stanek et al. (1990): static
Water / sediment media type:
natural water: freshwater
Details on test conditions:
Stanek et al. (1990): 22 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Stanek et al. (1990): measured data: yes; 191.5 Bq/L
Details on estimation of bioconcentration:
Stanek et al. (1990): BCF = AC = ae/a0
Remarks on result:
other: See Table below.

Stanek et al. (1990):

Conc. in environment

Type

Value [L/kg]

Basis

Remarks

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

369

Shells

8 d

191.5 Bq/L

BCF

143

Soft tissues

15 d

Conclusions:
The study is considered sufficient to use the derived BAF in a weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of strontium accumulation. However, steady-state conditions may not be met.

Description of key information

Several studies examined strontium bioaccumulation in freshwater and seawater species. Since strontium behaves very similar to calcium, strontium enriches in thebones or rather in hard tissues of organisms(ATSDR, Public Health Statement: Strontium; 2004). Respectively higher BCFs were determined in hard tissue offish and invertebratescompared to BCFs of soft tissues. However, BCFs of hard tissues of freshwater organisms are relatively low and even lower for saltwater species. Reported tissue BAF remain below 100. An inverse relationship between exposure concentration and BAF has been observed, i. e., decreasing BAFs with increasing Sr levels in the water column (Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva, 2001). The data indicate that Sr is homeostatically controlled by aquatic organisms. Limited data on the transfer of Sr up the aquatic food chain indicates that strontium does not biomagnify. Therefore, strontium has a low potential to bioconcentrate or bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms.

Bioaccumulation fish:

Bioaccumulation in bones and flesh of seawater fish was studied by Ueda et al. (1973) in the field in 17 and 5 species ranging from 10 to 37 L/kg and 0.2 to 0.4 L/kg, respectively.

For freshwater fish, Stanek et al. (1990) reported in a laboratory study BCFs of 152 L/kg for fish bones, 68 L/kg for scales and 3 L/kg for muscle tissue of C. carpio. Nakamoto and Hassler investigated in a field study also the bioaccumulation in L. macochirus and reported BCF values ranging from 1.4 to 11.9 L/kg for fish gonades and 40.3 to 342.7 L/kg for fish carcass. Three fish species were investigated in the fieldby Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva (2001), i.e.in three different zoneswith different strontium levels. The BCF of liver ranged from 21.3 to 74.4 L/kg and of muscle from 7.6 to 91.9 L/kg whereas the concentration factor in skeleton and gills was higher ranging from 2273 to 14111 L/kg and from 1136 to 11889 L/kg, respectively. A decrease of the bioconcentration factor in all fish was observed with increasing strontium concentrations in water (Moiseenko and Kudryavtseva, 2001).

Bioaccumulation in molluscs:

Bologna (1984) investigated bioconcentration in two seawater species in the laboratory with a resulting BCF values of 2 to 17 L/kg for shells, 1 to 6 L/kg for soft parts and 2 to 11 L/kg for syphon.Ueda et al. (1973) also measured in field experiments bioconcentration factors ranging from 61 to 200 L/kg in 12 seawater mollusc species. In the laboratory, Stanek et al. (1990) measured in freshwater molluscsBCF values of 143 L/kg for soft tissue and 369 L/kg for shells, respectively.

Bioaccumulation in algae:

Ueda et al.(1973) studied 12 seawater algae species in the field and measured bioconcentration factors between 0.3 and 31 L/kg (whole body) whereas Stanek et al. (1990) measured a BCF of 115 L/kg in the laboratory in a freshwater species (C. glomerata).

Bioaccumulation in other species:

In addtition to fish, molluscs and algae, Ueda et al. (1973) investigated also the strontium levels in seawater Crustacea, Echniodermata and Coelenterata in a field study: The BCFs ranged: from 35 to 184 L/kg for 12crustaceanspecies, from 30 to 106 L/kgin 4 echniodermal species and amounts to0.7 L/kg in two Coelenterataspecies.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information