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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Non-GLP, non-guideline study, published in peer reviewed literature, some limitations in design and/or reporting but otherwise adequate for assessment.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Evaluation of the effect of reactive sulfide on the acute toxicity of silver (I) to Daphnia magna, part 2: Toxicity results.
Author:
Bianchini A, Bowles KC, Brauner CJ, Gorsuch JW, Kramer JR and Wood CM
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:1294-1300

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
48-hour static renewal toxicity tests. Acute AgNO3 toxicity was tested at two different sulphide concentrations (mean ± standard deviation): 250 ± 10 nM and 22 ± 0.4 nM.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
impurity
Test material form:
solid

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Full details provided in partner publication. Bowles et al. ET&C Vol. 21

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
In the absence of sulfide, nominal concentrations were 0 (control), 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 µg Ag/L (0, 0.46, 0.93, 1.9, 4.6, 9.3, and 19 nM) in both toxicity tests

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
Source aquatic Research Organisms, Hampton, NH, USA (ARO strain, lot 090600 brood origination USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, USA). Acclimated to synthetic water used in tests; fed a slurry of yeast, cerophyll, and trout chow. Following acclimation, reproduction rate was measured to ensure it met established criteria for a healthy population. Neonates passed through the mesh and into the aquarium of synthetic water and were collected within 6 to 24h of hatch for toxicological studies.

Study design

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
Also 24h

Test conditions

Hardness:
115mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
20
pH:
8,2
Dissolved oxygen:
PO2 = 164.2 ± 1.9 mmHg; n = 10
Salinity:
not applicable
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 µg Ag/L (nominal) in the absence of sulfide
Details on test conditions:
Synthetic water in borosilicate glass beakers, acid washed in 1% HNO3 and rinsed with synthetic water prior to use. Three replicas of ten organisms per vessel were used with no aeration. Solution renewed after 24 hours. A 16 hour light, 8 hour dark day was used. The organisms were not fed.
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect concentrations
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
0.22 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
element (dissolved fraction)
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: 95% CL 0.19–0.25 µg Ag /L. Filtered (filtered, 0.45-mm), silver concentration.
Details on results:
results also for 24 hour LC50 and with added sulphide

Any other information on results incl. tables

Reactive sulfide protects D magna against acute silver toxicity.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
The freshwater 48hr LC50 values for daphnia magna when exposed to silver nitrate are 0.18 to 0.26 µg Ag/L based on measured total silver concentration and 0.22 µg Ag/L based on measured filtered silver concentration.
Executive summary:

The study is a non-guideline study, published in peer reviewed literature and considered suitable for use as a key study for this endpoint. The freshwater 48hr LC50 values for daphnia magna when exposed to silver nitrate are 0.18 to 0.26 µg Ag/L based on measured total silver concentration and 0.22 µg Ag/L based on measured filtered silver concentration.