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Administrative data

Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
4.94 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
50
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
246.8 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The NOAEL derived from an OECD 422 compliant oral repeated dose toxicity study of 200 mg/kg bw/d was applied as point of departure for derivation of long-term systemic inhalation DNEL. This NOAEL was corrected based on the following formula:

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) for workers:

= 200 mg/kg bw/day x 0.5 x 1/0.38 m3/kg bw/day x (6.7 m3/10 m3) x 1.4

= 246.8 mg/m3

As worst case, inhalation absorption is assumed to be two times more than oral absorption which results in a modification of the starting point by a factor of 2.

The factor of 1.4 corrects for exposure of 5 days per week for workers compared to 7 days per week in the experimental setup.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
NOAEL used.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
4
Justification:
The exposure duration of the OECD TG 422 study performed with the test item up to 63 days for females and 29 days for males. In comparison to a subacute 28-day study the OECD TG 422 study provides additional information on fertility and developmental toxicity, which justifies the assessment factor of 4.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Already included in route to route extrapolation
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
The recommended AF for other interspecies differences is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
The default value for the relatively homogenous group "worker" is used.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The quality of the whole data base is considered to be sufficient and uncritical.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
The approach used for DNEL derivation is conservative. No further assessment factors are required.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
1.4 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
200
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
280 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Correction for difference between human and experimental exposure conditions: 7 d rat/5 d worker. The same absorption is assumed after dermal and oral exposure.  

Corrected NOAEL (dermal) for workers:

= 200 mg/kg bw/day x 1.4

= 280 mg/kg bw/day

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose response relationship is considered unremarkable, therefore no additional factor is used.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
4
Justification:
The exposure duration of the OECD TG 422 study performed with the test item up to 63 days for females and 29 days for males. In comparison to a subacute 28-day study the OECD TG 422 study provides additional information on fertility and developmental toxicity, which justifies the assessment factor of 4.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The default allometric scaling factor for the differences between rats and humans is applied.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
The recommended AF for other interspecies differences is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
The default value for the relatively homogenous group "worker" is used.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The quality of the whole data base is considered to be sufficient and uncritical.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
The approach used for DNEL derivation is conservative. No further assessment factors are required.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.87 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/m³
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
87 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

Corrected NOAEC (inhalation) for general population:

= 200 mg/kg bw/day x 0.5 x 1/1.15 m3/kg bw/day

= 87 mg/m3

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose response relationship is considered unremarkable, therefore no additional factor is used.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
4
Justification:
The exposure duration of the OECD TG 422 study performed with the test item up to 63 days for females and 29 days for males. In comparison to a subacute 28-day study the OECD TG 422 study provides additional information on fertility and developmental toxicity, which justifies the assessment factor of 4.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
already included in route to route extrapolation
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
The recommended AF for other interspecies differences is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
The default value for the relatively heterogeneous group "general population" is used
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The quality of the whole data base is considered to be sufficient and uncritical.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
The approach used for DNEL derivation is conservative. No further assessment factors are required.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.5 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
400
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

The same absoprtion after oral and dermal exposure is assumed.

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose response relationship is considered unremarkable, therefore no additional factor is used.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
4
Justification:
The exposure duration of the OECD TG 422 study performed with the test item up to 63 days for females and 29 days for males. In comparison to a subacute 28-day study the OECD TG 422 study provides additional information on fertility and developmental toxicity, which justifies the assessment factor of 4.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The default allometric scaling factor for the differences between rats and humans is applied.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
The recommended AF for other interspecies differences is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
The default value for the relatively heterogeneous group "general population" is used.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The quality of the whole data base is considered to be sufficient and uncritical.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
The approach used for DNEL derivation is conservative. No further assessment factors are required.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
medium hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.5 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
400
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
200 mg/kg bw/day
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose response relationship is considered unremarkable, therefore no additional factor is used.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
4
Justification:
The exposure duration of the OECD TG 422 study performed with the test item up to 63 days for females and 29 days for males. In comparison to a subacute 28-day study the OECD TG 422 study provides additional information on fertility and developmental toxicity, which justifies the assessment factor of 4.
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
The default allometric scaling factor for the differences between rats and humans is applied.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
The recommended AF for other interspecies differences is applied.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
The default value for the relatively heterogeneous group "general population" is used.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The quality of the whole data base is considered to be sufficient and uncritical.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
The approach used for DNEL derivation is conservative. No further assessment factors are required.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
DNEL related information
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

An acute oral toxicity study is available for the test item. Based on the results the test item is classified category 4 for acute oral toxicity according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP). Effects seen were mainly due to corrosiveness of the test substance. Since all consumer uses are advised against, no further assessment is required.

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
high hazard (no threshold derived)

Additional information - General Population

Consumer use is advised against. DNELs were only assessed for man via environment calculations.