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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Justification for type of information:
Data is from authoritative databases and secondary source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2-naphthoate. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I).
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of the test material (IUPAC Name): Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2-naphthoate- Common Name: D & C Red no. 7, C. I. Pigment 57:1- InChI: 1S/C18H14N2O6S.Ca/c1-10-6-7-14(15(8-10)27(24,25)26)19-20-16-12-5-3-2-4-11(12)9-13(17(16)21)18(22)23;/h2-9,21H,1H3,(H,22,23)(H,24,25,26);/q;+2/p-2/b20-19+;- Smiles: c12c(c(c(C(=O)[O-])cc1cccc2)O)\N=N\c1c(cc(C)cc1)S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Ca+2]- Molecular formula : C18H12CaN2O6S- Molecular weight : 424.445 g/mol- Substance type: Organic- Physical state: Solid
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
- Concentration of sludge: 30 mg/l
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: BOD and HPLC
Details on study design:
Standard typeTEST CONDITIONS- Composition of medium: Japanese standard activated sludge was used as a test medium during the study.
Parameter:
other: BOD
Value:
10
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: %degradation ranges from 9 to 12.9%
Parameter:
other: HPLC
Value:
0
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Details on results:
Test substance undergoes 10 and 0% degradation by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The percentage degradation of test substance calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2-naphthoate was determined to be 10 and 0% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2-naphthoate is considered to be not readily biodegradable in water.
Executive summary:

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate (CAS no. 5281 -04 -9). The study was performed according toOECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I) under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge (non-adapted) was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate was determined to be 10 and 0% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Description of key information

Biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate (CAS no. 5281 -04 -9) (authoritative databases and secondary source, 2018). The study was performed according toOECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I) under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge (non-adapted) was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate was determined to be 10 and 0% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

Experimental study for the target compound Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate (CAS No. 5281-04-9) and various supporting studies for its structurally and functionally similar read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from authoritative databases and secondary source (2018), biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate (CAS no. 5281 -04 -9). The study was performed according toOECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I) under aerobic conditions. Activated sludge (non-adapted) was used as a test inoculums for the study. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test substance calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate was determined to be 10 and 0% by BOD and HPLC parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, calcium 3 -hydroxy-4 -[(4 -methyl-2 -sulfonatophenyl)diazenyl]-2 -naphthoate is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

In a prediction using the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (2017), the biodegradation potential of the test compoundCalcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate(CAS No. 5281-04-9) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms was estimated.The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemicalCalcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoateis expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

For the test chemical,28-days Manometric respirometry test following the OECD guideline 301F to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical (Experimental study report, 2016). The study was performed at a temperature of 20± 1°C. Mixture of domestic waste water, surface soil and soil samples was used as a test inoculum for the study. This inoculum was collected and were mixed to get diluted suspension. The inoculum was kept aerobic until being used for experiment by supplying organic and inorganic sources required by micro flora to sustain at controlled laboratory conditions.  This gave the bacterial count as 107to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item ( Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (Sodium Benzoate) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 74.074%. The mean BOD values (mg O2/l) in control on 28th day was 9 mg O2/l, thereby fulfilling the control validity criteria (i.e., The oxygen consumption of the inoculum blank is normally 20-30 mg O2/l and should not be greater than 60 mg/l in 28 days). Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 50.050 %after 7 days and 68.068 % after 14 days. The activity of the inoculums is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.022 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.267 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 1.754 %.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20 ± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

 

In a supporting study from experimental study report (2016), 28-days Manometric respirometry test following the OECD guideline 301F to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The study was performed at a temperature of 20± 1°C. Mixture of domestic waste water, surface soil and soil samples was used as a test inoculum for the study. This inoculum was collected and were mixed to get diluted suspension. The inoculum was kept aerobic until being used for experiment by supplying organic and inorganic sources required by micro flora to sustain at controlled laboratory conditions.  This gave the bacterial count as 107to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (Sodium Benzoate) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 74.04%. The mean BOD values(mg O2/l) in control on 28th day was 9 mg O2/l, thereby fulfilling the control validity criteria (i.e., The oxygen consumption of the inoculum blank is normally 20-30 mg O2/l and should not be greater than 60 mg/l in 28 days). Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 48.04%after 7 days and 66.06% after 14 days. The activity of the inoculums is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.188 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.836 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 10.212%.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20 ± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate (from authoritative databases and secondary source) and for its read across substance (from experimental study report), it can be concluded that the test substance Calcium 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulphonatophenyl)azo]-2-naphthoate can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.