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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Genetic toxicity: in vivo

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Administrative data

in vivo mammalian somatic cell study: cytogenicity / erythrocyte micronucleus
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 474 (Mammalian Erythrocyte Micronucleus Test)
GLP compliance:
Type of assay:
other: Mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
2-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)-4-[(2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]anilino]ethyl acetate
EC Number:
EC Name:
2-[N-(2-cyanoethyl)-4-[(2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenyl)azo]anilino]ethyl acetate
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
2-[(2-cyanoethyl)({4-[2-(2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenyl)diazen-1-yl]phenyl}) amino]ethyl acetate
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
brown/black powder

Test animals


Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Details on exposure:
Males - Animals were dosed once a day, 7 d/week, for 2 consecutive weeks prior to pairing, through the mating period and thereafter through the day before necropsy (Days 38 and 39 of study). Males were treated for a total of 37 or 38 d.
Females - Animals were dosed once a day, 7 d/week, for 2 consecutive weeks prior to pairing and thereafter during pairing, post coitum and post partum periods until Day 3 post partum (for at least 40 d).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males - 37-38 d
Females - 40 d
Frequency of treatment:
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
62.5 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
250 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
500 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
reduced from high dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/day due to toxicity
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 per sex per gourp
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Positive control(s):
Mitomycin C


Tissues and cell types examined:
Erythrocytes from bone marrow
Details of tissue and slide preparation:
Extraction of bone marrow
The last two treatments were performed at approximately 24 hour interval. Samples of bone marrow were collected approximately 24 hours following the final treatment and approximately 48 hours following the second last treatment from the same 5 males and 5 females of the main groups randomly selected for clinical pathology investigation. Samples of bone marrow were also collected approximately 24 hours after the single treatment from all animals of Group 7 (Positive Control group). One femur of each animal was rapidly dissected out and cleaned of surrounding tissue. In order to extract the bone marrow, the bone was cut at the proximal end, and irrigated with foetal calf serum using a syringe. The suspension of cells was aspirated, and this procedure was repeated several times.

Preparation of the smears
The suspension thus obtained was centrifuged at 1000 rpm for at least 5 minutes and the supernatant was completely removed. The cells of the sediment were resuspended and transferred onto clean microscope slides as smear preparations. They were air-dried and then fixed with methanol for 10 minutes. Subsequently slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin solutions. Finally, slides were rinsed in distilled water and allowed to dry.

Scoring of the slides and data analysis
In the first instance, only slides from males were evaluated. In addition, since inter-sex differences of toxicity were observed, also slides from females were evaluated. For each animal, four slides were prepared. These slides were randomised and coded by staff not subsequently involved in the scoring. The adequate quality and a sufficient number of cells were evaluated before scoring. Scoring was performed using a microscope and highpower objective. Immature polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) stain a pink-purple colour (since they retain basic ribosomal material for approximately 24 hours after enucleation), and can be distinguished from the pink normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). Erythrocytes lack nuclei, making micronuclei obvious when present; the criteria of Schmid (1976) were used to score micronuclei. Four thousand polychromatic erythrocytes(PCEs) per animal were scored for the presence of micronuclei. At the same time the number of normal and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) were also recorded. The proportion of immature
erythrocytes among total erythrocytes gives an indication of the toxicity of the treatment; a reduction in the proportion indicates inhibition of cell division. Finally, the incidence of micronucleated PCEs provides an index of induced genetic damage.
Evaluation criteria:
The assay is considered valid if the following criteria are met:
1. The incidence of micronucleated PCEs of the vehicle control group falls within the historical negative control range.
2. The positive control item results falls within the historical control range and are significantly increased, at statistical analysis, when compared with the concurrent negative control
3. 5 animals per sex and per group are available for slide analysis.

Evaluation of results
The test item is considered to induce micronuclei if a statistically significant increase in the micronucleus incidence of polychromatic erythrocytes (at p<0.05) is observed in any treatment group and a dose-effect relationship is demonstrated.
Where statistically significant increases in the incidence of micronucleated PCEs are observed, but all results are inside the distribution of negative control values within this laboratory, then historical control data are used to demonstrate that these increases do not have any biological significance.

Results and discussion

Test results
Key result
no effects
Vehicle controls validity:
Positive controls validity:

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Under the study conditions, the test substance was considered to be non-genotoxic in the rat.
Executive summary:

A study was conducted to determine the genotoxic potential of the test substance according to OECD Guideline 474, in compliance with GLP. The micronucleus test was conducted on 5 male and 5 female rats in order to assess the ability of the test substance to induce cytogenetic damage in rat bone marrow, as measured by the induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Rats were administered the test substance orally by gavage. Main group animals were exposed to concentrations of 62.5, 250, 500, 1000 and 1000/500 mg/kg bw/day. Males animals were dosed once a day, 7 d/week, for 2 consecutive weeks prior to pairing, through the mating period and thereafter through the day before necropsy (Days 38 and 39 of study). Female animals were dosed once a day, 7 d/week, for 2 consecutive weeks prior to pairing and thereafter during pairing, post-coitum and post-partum periods until Day 3 post-partum (for at least 40 d). Mitomycin C was used as the positive control substance. No relevant inhibitory effect on erythropoietic cell division was observed at any dose level. Based on these observations, the test substance was not considered to be genotoxic in rats (Sisti, 2015).