Registration Dossier

Toxicological information

Toxicity to reproduction

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study was conducted according to GLP and valid methods and is considered relevant and reliable for classification.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: liquid

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: CD® / Crl:CD(SD)
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
- Source: Charles River Laboratories Research, Models and Services Germany GmbH, Sandhofer Weg 7, 97633 Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at start of dosing : Males 55 days; Females: 48 days
- Weight range at start of dosing: Males: 281.0 to 308.0 g; Females: 68.9 to 195.7 g
- Fasting period before study: Ad libitum with exception of the night before the day of blood withdrawal for laboratory examination.
- Housing: With exception of the mating period, the animals were kept singly in MAKROLON
cages (type III plus) with a basal surface of approx. 39 cm x 23 cm and a height of approx. 18 cm. Granulated textured wood (Granulat A2, J. Brandenburg, 49424 Goldenstedt/ Arkeburg, Germany) is used as bedding material in these cages. The cages were cleaned and changed once a week.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ssniff® R/Z V1324 (ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH, 59494 Soest, Germany, ad libitum with exception of the night before the day of blood withdrawal for laboratory examination.
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Tap water was offered daily ad libitum.
- Acclimation period: At least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22°C ± 3°C (maximum range)
- Humidity (%): 55% ± 15% (maximum range)
- Air changes (per hr): Not provided
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES:
Males From: August 27, 2012 To: October 2, 2012
Females From: August 27, 2012 To: October 19, 2012

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: tap water
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:
Application volume: 5 mL/kg bw/day. The test item was dissolved in the vehicle tap water to concentrations of 20, 60 and 200 mg test item /mL tap water and was administered orally at a constant volume once daily. The amount of the test item was adjusted to the animal's current body weight daily. The test item-vehicle mixture was freshly prepared every day.


Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1 (: 1 male and 1 female animal were placed in one cage during the dark period)
- Length of cohabitation: The female was placed with the same male until pregnancy occurred or 2 weeks had elapsed.
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug / sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
- After approx. 14 days of unsuccessful pairing replacement of first male by another male with proven fertility.
- Further matings after two unsuccessful attempts: yes. This mating-procedure was repeated until at least 8 pregnant dams were available for each group.
- After successful mating each pregnant female was caged (how): singly in MAKROLON cages (type III plus) with a basal surface of approx. 39 cm x 23 cm and a height of approx. 18 cm. On the other side of the animal room than the males with each dose group separated by an empty row.



Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
For the analysis of the test item-vehicle mixtures samples of approx. 2 x 5 mL were taken at the following time points and stored at ≤ -20°C until analysis at LPT.
*Start of treatment period: Analysis of stability and concentration: Immediately after preparation of the test item-vehicle mixtures as well as 8 and 24 hours after storage of the test item preparations at room temperature: 3 samples/dose level group = 9 samples
*End of treatment period: Concentration: During treatment with the test item always before administration to the last animal/dose level group: 3 samples
The samples were labelled with the study number, test item, test species, type of sample, aliquot number, concentration, test day, sampling time and date.
The validation of the analytical method is part of LPT study No. 28344 (14-day dose-range-finding).
The measured actual concentrations of the test item in the test item vehicle mixtures were between 99.99% and 102.96% of the nominal concentrations (table 26).
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Males: 2 weeks prior to mating, during the mating period and approx. 2 weeks post mating at least until the minimum total dosing period of 28 days has been completed (up to and including the day before sacrifice).
Females: 2 weeks prior to mating and continuing up to, and including, day 3 post-partum or the day before sacrifice.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Details on study schedule:
- Age at mating of the mated animals in the study: 10 weeks
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
0 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
100 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale:
The dose levels have been selected in agreement with the Sponsor based on the results of a 14-day dose-range-finding study in rats dosed at 100, 300 and 1000 mg act. ingr./kg bw by oral gavage (LPT Study No. 28344). None of the animals died prematurely. None of the male and female rats treated orally with 100 or 300 mg act. ingr./kg bw/day revealed any changes in behaviour, external appearance or faeces. Salivation was noted for 2 of 5 male animals treated at 1000 mg/kg bw/day on 1 or 3 test days starting on test day 9 and increased faeces was noted for 3 of 5 male and 2 of 5 female high dosed animals on 6 or 9 test days starting on test day 5. No test item-related changes on body weight and body weight gain were noted for the male and female rats up to 1000 mg act. ingr./kg bw/day. No test item-related changes on food consumption were noted for the male and female rats treated orally with 100 or 300 mg act. ingr./kg bw/day. The food consumption of the male and female animals treated with 1000 mg act. ingr./kg bw/day was slightly increased by 9% for the males and by 10% for the females in test week 2 (statistically significant at p ≤ 0.01 for both sexes). No test item-related influence was noted for the drinking water consumption at any of the tested dose levels. None of the male and female rats treated orally with 100, 300 or 1000 mg act. ingr ./kg bw/day revealed changes at macroscopic inspection at necropsy or organ weights.

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Throughout the test period, each animal was observed for clinical signs at least once daily. Mortality was recorded twice daily. In addition, animals were checked regularly throughout the working day from 7:00 a.m. to 3:45 p.m. On Saturdays and Sundays animals were checked regularly from 7:00 a.m. to 11 :00 a.m. with a final check performed at approximately 3:30 p.m.
- Individual animals were observed before and after dosing at each time of dosing for any signs of behavioural changes, reaction to treatment or illness. Cageside observations included skin/fur, eyes, mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory systems, somatomotor activity and behaviour patterns. The onset, intensity and duration of any signs observed were recorded.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: Additionally, once before the first exposure (to allow within-subject comparisons) and once a week thereafter, detailed clinical observations were made in all animals outside the home cage in a standard arena and at the same time, each time preferably by observers unaware of the treatment. Signs noted included changes in skin, fur, eyes, mucous membranes, occurrence of secretions and excretions and autonomic activity (e.g. lacrimation, pilo-erection, pupil size, and unusual respiratory pattern). Changes in gait, posture and response to handling as well as the presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypies (e.g. excessive grooming, repetitive circling), difficult or prolonged parturition or bizarre behaviour (e.g. self-mutilation, walking backwards) were also recorded.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes. Body weights were recorded individually for each adult animal.
- Time schedule for examinations:
Males and females were weighed on the first day of dosing, weekly thereafter and at termination. During gestation, females were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 and within 24 hours of parturition (day 0 or 1 post-partum) and day 4 post-partum.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: Yes
The quantity of food left by individual animals was recorded on a weekly basis throughout the experimental period with the execution of the mating period. Food intake per rat (g/rat/week) was calculated using the total amount of food given to and left by each rat in each group on completion of a treatment week.

WATER CONSUMPTION:
- Time schedule for examinations: Water consumption was monitored daily by visual appraisal throughout the study.

OTHER:
REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS:
Number of pregnant females
Pre-coital time
Gestation length calculated from day 0 of pregnancy
Corpora lutea
lmplantation sites
Number of (viable) pups day0/4

REPRODUCTIVE INDICES:
Gestation Index
Fertility Index
Birth Index
Live Birth Index
Viability Index
Pre-implantation loss [%]
Post-implantation loss [%]


Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Parameters examined in P male parental generations:
testis weight, epididymis weight
At the time of sacrifice or death during the study, the adult animals were examined macroscopically for any abnormalities or pathological changes. Special attention was paid to the organs of the reproductive system.
The following organs or parts of organs of all male adult animals were fixed in 7% formalin; testes and epididymides were fixed in Bouin' s fixative:
Epididymis (2), Gross lesions, Prostate, Seminal vesicle, Testicle (2).
Detailed histopathologic examination was performed on one testicle and one epididymis (with special emphasis on the qualitative stages of spermatogenesis and histopathology of interstitial testicular structure) of all adult males of groups 1 to 4 following H-E and PAS staining.


Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
- screening study: Dead pups and pups sacrificed at day 4 post-partum, or shortly thereafter, were carefully examined externally for gross abnormalities.

PARAMETERS EXAMINED
Number of pups absolute (total/live)
Number of pups per dam (total/live)
Number of male and female pups (total/live)
Number of stillbirths
Mean pup weight

GROSS EXAMINATION OF DEAD PUPS:
yes, for external and internal abnormalities; possible cause of death was not determined for pups born or found dead.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
- Male animals: All surviving animals: The male animals were sacrificed after a minimum total dosing period of 28 days if no longer needed for further mating.
- Maternal animals: All surviving animals: Dams with offspring were sacrificed on day 4 postpartum, or shortly thereafter. Females showing no evidence of copulation were sacrificed 24 days after the last day of the mating period.

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.Special attention was paid to the organs of the reproductive system.Apparently non-pregnant uteri were placed in a 10% aqueous solution of ammonium sulfide for about 10 minutes
to stain possible implantation sites in the endometrium according to SALEWSKI.
The numbers of corpora lutea and implantation sites were recorded in the female adult animals and reported.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
-Determination of organ weights was performed before fixation of the organs.
Microscopic examination and organ weights of all adult male animals and identified as left or right: Epididymis (2) ,Testicle (2)
Determination of the organ weights of the following organs was only performed from 5 adult animals/sex/group, which were randomly selected:
Adrenal gland (2), Brain, Heart, Kidney (2), Liver, Spleen, Thymus.
Adrenal glands and kidneys were weighed individually and identified as left or right.
-The following organs or parts of organs of all adult animals were fixed in 7% formalin; testes and epi didymides were fixed in Bouin' s fixative:
Epididymis (2), Gross lesions, Mammary gland, Ovary (2), Prostate, Seminal vesicle, Testicle (2), Ute
rus (incl. cervix and oviducts), Vagina.
In addition to the organs listed in before, the following organs or parts of organs of the afore-mentioned selected animals (5 male and 5 female adult animals per group) were fixed in 7% formalin:
Adrenal gland (2), Bone marrow (os femoris), Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem), Heart (right and left ventricle, septum), Intestine, small (duodenum, jejunum, ileum,incl. Peyer's patches, Swiss roll method), Intestine, large (colon, rectum), Kidney and ureter (2), Liver, Lungs (with mainstem bronchi and bronchioles), preserved by inflation with fixative and then immersion, Lymph node ( 1, cervical), Lymph node ( 1, mesenteric), Nerve (sciatic), Oesophagus, Spinal cord (3 sections), Spleen, Stomach, Thyroid (incl. parathyroids), Thymus, Tissue masses or tumours (including regional lymph nodes),Tongue (including base), Trachea (including larynx), Urinary bladder.
Any other organs displaying macroscopic changes were also preserved.
-Only the selected animals from the control group and the high dose group were considered for histopathological evaluation.
Histopathological examinations were performed on haematoxylin and eosin stained paraffin sections of the following organs and tissues:
Adrenal gland (2), Bone marrow (os femoris), Brain (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem), Epididymis (1) #, Gross lesions, Heart (left and right ventricle, septum), Intestine, small (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, incl. Peyer's patches, Swiss roll method), Intestine, large (colon, rectum), Kidney and ureter (2), Liver, Lungs (with mainstem bronchi and bronchioles), preserved by inflation with fixative and then immersion, Lymph node (1, cervical), Lymph node (1, mesenteric), Mammary gland, Nerve (sciatic), Oesophagus, Ovary (2), Prostate, Seminal vesicle, Spinal cord (3 sections), Spleen, Stomach, Testicle (1) #, Thyroid (incl. parathyroids), Thymus , Tissue masses or tumours (including regional lymph nodes), Tongue (incl. base), Trachea (incl. larynx), Urinary bladder, Uterus (incl. cervix and oviducts), Vagina.
#Detailed histopathological examination was performed on one testicle and one epididymis (with special emphasis of the qualitative stages of spermatogenesis and histopathology of interstitial testicular structure) of the selected animals of group 1 and 4 following haematoxylin-eosin and PAS staining.
Parathyroids cannot always be identified macroscopically during autopsy. They were examined microscopically if in the plane of section. Missing parathyroids are mentioned among the pathology data of the individual animals.
In addition to the paraffin sections, frozen sections of the heart, liver and one kidney were prepared and stained with Oil Red O.
In addition, further slides of the lungs of all high dosed females were prepared from the wet material, as in the first run 4 of 5 lungs were collapsed, and could not evaluated microscopically



Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
- The F1 offspring were sacrificed at 4 days of age.
- These animals were subjected to postmortem examinations macroscopic examination) as follows:
Dead pups and pups sacrificed at day 4 post-partum, or shortly thereafter, were carefully examined externally for gross abnormalities.

GROSS NECROPSY
- Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examinations including the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal viscera.
Statistics:
Toxicology and Pathology data were captured, whenever possible, using the departmental computerized systems (Provantis®8 Integrated preclinical software, Instem LSS Ltd.). Raw data not fully compatible with the computerized systems were maintained on paper according to appropriate SOPs.
The test item-treated groups (2 - 4) were compared with the control group (1 ).
The following statistical methods were used:
STUDENT' s t-test All numerical functional tests (p ≤0.01)
Multiple t-test based on Body weight I Food consumption I
DUNNETT, C. W. Haematology I Clinical chemistry I
New tables for multiple Absolute and relative organ weights
Comparisons with a control (p ≤ 0.05 and ≤0.01)
Biometrics, 482-491 (Sept 1 964)

For all numerical values (e.g. body weight, food consumption and organ weight data) homogeneity of variances was tested by using the BARTLETT chi2-test. lf the variances are homogeneous, the DUNNETT test (p ≤ 0.01) was used to compare the experimental groups with the control group.
In case of heterogeneity of variances, the STUDENT's t-test was carried out; limit of significance is p ≤ 0.01.
Exact test of R. A. FISHER Histopathology, if applicable (p≤0.05)
For the comparison of classification measurements (for example the fertility index) the FISHER's exact test, n < 100 or chi2-test with Yates' correction for continuity, n ≥ 100 (p ≤0.05 and p ≤0.01) were employed.
These statistical procedures were used for all data. Significantly different data were indicated in the tables of the report.
The mean values and standard deviations were calculated to the highest possible degree of accuracy and then rounded to the reported number of decimal places. Hence, deviations to the last decimal place of up to ± 1 may occur caused by rounding.
Reproductive indices:
Gestation Index
Fertility Index
Pre-implantation loss [%]
Post-implantation loss [%]


Offspring viability indices:
Birth Index
Live Birth Index
Survival Index

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Slightly increased salivationwas noted in one male rat dosed at 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
No signs of clinical toxicity were noted in all female treatment groups.
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
No premature deaths were noted in the male and female rats treated with 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/ day.
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Slight reduction of body weight and body weight gain was noted in male and female rats dosed at 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
oral gavage study
Slight reduction in food consumption was noted in male and female rats dosed at 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Increased number of eosinophils in intermediate dose females on test day 15 lacking dose dependence (p≤0.05)
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
In the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day) a statistically significant (p≤0.01) increase (males: +66%; females: +46%)) was noted for the plasma activity of ALAT.
In the male high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day) a decrease in albumin on test day 15 (p≤0.01) was noted but not considered test-item related (slight alteration in comparison to control animals without biological relevance).
In the female intermediate dose group (300 mg/kg bw/day) an increase in bile acids on test day 15 (p≤0.05) was noted but not considered test-item related (lacking dose dependence).
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related influence was noted for the fore- and hindlimb grip strength in any male/female treatment group (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day).
No test item-related influence was noted on the spontaneous motility of the rats in any of the treatment groups.
In the male low dose group (100 mg/kg bw/day) a decrease in hindlimb grip strength on test day 36 (p≤0.05) was noted but not considered test-item related (lacking dose dependence).
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related influence in observational screening was noted for any treatment group (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day).
In the high dose males a statistically significant decreased mean body temperature was noticed in comparison to the control group. This was considered to be not test item related.
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related microscopic changes were seen in the reproductive organs for both males and females.
A test item-related squamous cell hyperplasia was noted in the forestomachs from 5/5 male and 5/5 female animals of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day). These test item-related stomach changes were localized in the zone adjoining the glandular stomach mucosa (forestomach or
non-glandular mucosa) and attained statistical significance for both sexes (p≤0.01). Occasionally the squamous cell hyperplasia with subsequent hyperkeratinization was associated with acute inflammation of the submucosa in the non-glandular stomach (for 2/5 males and 1/5 females).
Examination of the stomachs from the animals (5 per group) of the low- and intermediate dose groups (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day) did not reveal any test item-related changes. As humans lack a forestomach, the relevance of these changes for humans is questionable.
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not specified
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Reproductive performance:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No statistically significant differences were noted in the length of the pre-coital time between the control group and the treatment groups.
There were no statistically significant differences for the female fertility rates between the control and the treatment groups.
No test item-related influence was noted on the gestation length of the females in any of the treatment groups compared to the control group.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the number of corpora lutea between the control and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the number of implantation sites between the control and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the total number of born pups (alive and dead) or in the number of pups born alive between the control group and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No test item-related differences were noted between the control group and the treatment groups of P0 dams with respect to the reproduction indices which were calculated from the above mentioned parameters (Fertility index, Gestation index, Birth index, Live birth index, Pre-implantaion losss and Post-implantation loss).
Parameters with statistically significant differences in comparison to the control group which were considered as to be not test item related:
-Increased Birth Index in low and intermediate dose females
-Increased Pre-implantation loss in low dose females
-Decreased Post-implantation loss in low and intermediate dose females

Details on results (P0)

CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No premature deaths were noted in the male and female rats treated with 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day.
No signs of clinical toxicity were noted for the male and female rats of the low and intermediate dose groups (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day).
A slightly increased salivation was noted in one male rat, no further signs of clinical toxicity were noted for the male and female rats of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day). No test item related influence was noted for the male and female rats of all treatment groups (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day) during the observational and functional (grip strength and spontaneous motility) neurological
screenings.

BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
A slight reduction in body weight was noted for the male and female rats of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day). For the male rats the reduction in body weight was noted from test day 8 (4.4%) until test day 36 (5.5%) , statistically significant (p≤0.05) in comparison to the control group on test day 8. Body weight gain was accordingly reduced in the high dose group during the whole study, mostly pronounced and statistically significant at the end of the first test week on test day 8 (p≤0.01), with a reduction in body weight gain by 35.4% in comparison to the control group. During the further course of the study the differences in body weight gain between the high dose group and the control group declined, leading to a body weight gain at the end of the study of 42.1%, the control group revealed a body weight gain of 50.5%.
For the high dose female rats a slight, not statistically significant, reduction in body weight was noted of 3.7% and 3.4% was noted on test days 8 and 15 (pre-mating). Body weight gain was 6.6% on test day 8 and 10.6% on test day 15 in the high dose group in comparison to 10.7% (test day 8) and 14.6% (test day 15) in the control group. Body weight was decreased during the whole gestation period between 7.6% on gestation day 0 and 6.5% on gestation day 20, statistically significant (p≤0.05) on gestation days 7 and 14 with 9.7% and 7.9% decrease, respectively. A small reduction in body weight gain was noted in the high dose group on gestation day 0 (15% in comparison to 18%. On gestation day 20 body weight gain was nearly identical in the high dose group (59.7%) and the control group (59.4%). During lactation a slight but not significant reduction in body weight was noted in the intermediate dose female rats by 4.4 % on lactation day 0 and 5.6% on lactation day 4. In the high dose group the body weight was statistically significantly (p≤0.05) reduced on lactation days 1 and 4 by 9.1% and 9.5%. No noticeable differences were noted in body weight gain during the lactation period with 5.6% in the high dose group and 6.1% in the control group.

A slightly statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01) increase in relative food consumption by 10.3% was noted in the high dose males during the 2nd test week. This was caused by the reduced body weight of the rats of the high dose group.
A slightly statistically significant (p≤0.05) decrease in relative food consumption by 7.4% was noted in the high dose females during the first test week.

HAEMATOLOGICAL FINDINGS
No test item-related influences were noted between the control group and the treatment groups for the haematological parameters, i.e. the haemoglobin content, the number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, reticulocytes and platelets, the haematocrit value, the thromboplastin time (TPT, aPTT), the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). No test item-related changes were noted in the relative and absolute differential blood counts.
Statistically significant increased number of eosinophils (p≤0.05) was noted in the intermediate dose females on test day 15. This was considered to be not test item related ( lacking dose dependence).

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
In the high dose male and female group (1000 mg/kg bw/day) a statistically significant (p≤0.01) increase was noted for the plasma activity of ALAT.
In males no test item related influence was noted for the plasma levels of globulin, the albumin/globulin ratio, bilirubin (total), cholesterol (total), creatinine, glucose, urea in blood, sodium, potassium,calcium, chloride, the activity of the alkaline phosphatise (aP), the activity of ASAT and the serum levels of the bile acids. Decreased albumin in the high dose males (p≤0.01) was considered to be not test item related (slight alteration in comparison to control animals without biological relevance and 4/5 individual values within range of LPT Background Data))
In females no test item related influence was noted for the plasma levels of albumin, of globulin, the albumin/globulin ratio, bilirubin (total), cholesterol (total), creatinine, glucose, protein (total), urera in blood, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, the activity of the alkaline phosphatase (aP) and the
serum levels of the bile acids. Increased bile acids in the intermediate dose females (p≤0.05) was considered to be not test item related (lacking dose dependence).

BEHAVIOUR (FUNCTIONAL FINDINGS)
The functional neurological screenings were performed on test day 36 for the male rats and between test days 40-50 for the female rats, 2 hours after dosing.
No test item-related influence was noted for the fore- and hindlimb grip strength in any male/female treatment group (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day).
Hinglimb grip strength in low dose males was statistically significant decreased on test day 36 (p≤0.05) but lacking dose dependence and was considered to be not test item related.
No test item-related influence was noted on the spontaneous motility of the rats in any of the treatment groups. No test item-related influence on relative and absolute organ weights was noted for the rats treated with 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day in comparison to the control group.
Statistically significant differences in the relative organ weights compared to the control, which are not considered to be test item-related were:
- increased relative weight of left gonads in low and high dose males (p≤0.05)
- increased relative weight of right kidney in high dose females (p≤0.05)
- increased relative weight of right adrenal in high dose males (p≤0.05)
Statistically significant differences in the absolute organ weights compared to the control, which are not considered to be test item-related were:
-decreased absolute brain weight in high dose males (p≤0.05)
-decreased absolute heart weight by 16.6% in high dose females (p≤0.05)

GROSS PATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Macroscopic inspection at autopsy for the males was performed on test day 37.
No test-item related findings were noted in the low and intermediate dose group (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day).
However, one animal (no. 3) with a reduction in the size of the testes was noted in the control group.
At the low dose group (100 mg/kg bw/day) animal no. 21 showed a partly reddened thymus and animal no. 29 a thickened right prostate.
In the intermediate dose group (300 mg/kg bw/day) one animal (no. 49) with macroscopic changes in the stomach (yellowish contents, detachment of mucosa) was found.
All changes are considered to be not test item-related but spontaneous due to the low number of occurrence.
In the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw./day) 2 animals with macroscopic changes in the stomach were noted: Animal no. 68 showed a whitish thickening in the cardia part of the stomach and in the stomach of animal no. 69 a yellowish content was noted.
These findings were considered to be test item-related, because they were associated with microscopic changes in the forestomach from the animals of the high dose group.
Macroscopic inspection at autopsy for the females was performed between test days 43 and 54.
No test-item related macroscopic changes were noted in any treatment group (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day) in females.
In 2 of the 3 non-pregnant rats (nos 16 and 54) from the control and the intermediate dose group (300mg/kg bw/day) a thickened uterus was noted.
These findings were considered to be not test item-related but spontaneous due to the low number ofoccurrence.

NEUROPATHOLOGY (OBSERVATIONAL FINDINGS)
The observational screenings were performed on test day 36 for the male rats and between test days 40-50 for the female rats, 2 hours after dosing.
No test item-related influence was noted for any treatment group (100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day).
A decrease in mean body temperature (p≤0.05) in the high dose males on test day 36 was considered to be not test item related. The slight alteration in comparison to control animals was without biological relevance (only 0.4°C difference to controls)

HISTOPATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Histopathological examination performed on one testicle and one epididymis with special emphasis on the qualitative stages of spermatogenesis (proliferative, meiotic and spermiogenic phases) and histopathology of the interstitial testicular structure of all adult male animals of the highest dose group and the control group following H & E and PAS staining, did not reveal any test item-related effects.
No test item-related microscopic changes were seen in the reproductive organs for both males and females.
A pulmonary congestion was noted in the lungs from 4/5 male (control 0/5) and 5/5 female rats (control 4/5) of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day). As pulmonary congestion is occasionally seen in rats as a background finding, this change was not considered to be test item-related.
A test item-related squamous cell hyperplasia was noted in the fore-stomachs from 5/5 male and 5/5 female animals of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day). These test item-related stomach changes were localized in the zone adjoining the glandular stomach mucosa (forestomach or
13 the squamous cell hyperplasia with subsequent hyperkeratinization was associated with acute inflammation of the submucosa in the non-glandular stomach (for 2/5 males and 1/5 females).
Examination of the stomachs from the animals (5 per group) of the low- and intermediate dose groups (100 and 300 mg/kg bw/day) did not reveal any test item-related changes. As humans lack a fore-stomach, the relevance of these changes for humans is questionable.
All other microscopic changes observed were either coincidental, or lie within the normal background alterations which may be seen in untreated rats of this age and strain.

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
All animals were successfully mated as determinated by positive sperm detection. No statistically significant differences were noted in the length of the pre-coital time between the control group and the treatment groups.
There were no statistically significant differences for the female fertility rates between the control and the treatment groups.
No test item-related influence was noted on the gestation length of the females in any of the treatment groups compared to the control group.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the number of corpora lutea between the control and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the number of implantation sites between the control and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No statistically significant differences were noted in the total number of born pups (alive and dead) or in the number of pups born alive between the control group and the treatment groups of P0 dams.
No test item-related differences were noted between the control group and the treatment groups of P0 dams with respect to the reproduction indices which were calculated from the above mentioned parameters (Fertility index, Gestation index, Birth index, Live birth index, Pre-implantation loss and Post-implantation loss).
Parameters with statistically significant differences in comparison to the control group which were considered as to be not test item related:
-Increased Birth Index in low and intermediate dose females (p≤0.05)
-Increased Pre-implantation loss in low dose females (p≤0.05)
-Decreased Post-implantation loss in low and intermediate dose females (p≤0.05).

Effect levels (P0)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
reproductive toxicity
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
act. ingr.
Sex:
male/female
Remarks on result:
other: highest dose tested
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
general toxicity
Effect level:
300 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
act. ingr.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
clinical biochemistry
gross pathology
histopathology: non-neoplastic

Results: P1 (second parental generation)

General toxicity (P1)

Details on results:
No P1 generation: screening study

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
not examined
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
not examined
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related differences were noted between the survival index of the control group and the treatment groups.
No live born pup from the control group and the low and intermediate dose groups died between lactation day 1 and 4, leading to a survival index of 100% for these groups.
In the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day) 9 of 10 dams revealed a survival index of 100%, whereas all 3 live born pups from dam no. 77 were found dead without milk on lactation day 2, leading to a survival index of 0.0% for dam no. 77 and a survival index of 97.6% for the pups of the high dose group. This small decrease in the survival index of the pups of the high dose group was regarded as to be spontaneous.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
No test item-related influence was noted on the mean litter weight of the pups in all treatment groups.
No test item-related influence was noted on the total litter weight of the pups in all treatment groups.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Description (incidence and severity):
Pups were sacrificed on day 4 of lactation.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not examined
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The external examinations of the pups at sacrifice on day 4 of lactation revealed no test item-related external visible changes or gross abnormalities after treatment of the parental animals with 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day. No milk was noted in the stomachs of the 3 dead pups from dam no. 77. This observation was spontaneous and considered as not test-item related.
Histopathological findings:
not examined

Developmental neurotoxicity (F1)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined

Developmental immunotoxicity (F1)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Details on results (F1)

VIABILITY (OFFSPRING)
No test item-related influence was noted on the survival rate of the pups.
No live born pup from the control group and the low and intermediate dose groups died between lactation day 1 and 4, leading to a survival index of 100% for these groups.
In the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day) 9 of 10 dams revealed a survival index of 100%, whereas all 3 live born pups from dam no. 77 were found dead without milk on lactation day 2, leading to a survival index of 0.0% for dam no. 77 and a survival index of 97.6% for the pups of the high dose group. This small decrease in the survival index of the pups of the high dose group was regarded as to be spontaneous.

BODY WEIGHT (OFFSPRING)
No test item-related influence was noted on the mean litter weight of the pups in all treatment groups.
No test item-related influence was noted on the total litter weight of the pups in all treatment groups.

GROSS PATHOLOGY (OFFSPRING)
The external examinations of the pups at sacrifice on day 4 of lactation revealed no test item-related external visible changes or gross abnormalities after treatment of the parental animals with 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day. No milk was noted in the stomachs of the 3 dead pups from dam no. 77. This observation was spontaneous and considered as not test-item related.

Effect levels (F1)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
act. ingr.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: development of F1 offspring
Remarks on result:
other: highest dose tested

Results: F2 generation

Details on results (F2)

No F2 generation: screening study

Overall reproductive toxicity

Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1. Fertility and Reproductive parameters Parental generation

Parameter

Group 1

Control

Group 2

100 mg/kg

Group 3

300 mg/kg

Group 4

1000 mg/kg

No. of females evaluated for pre-coital time

10

10

10

10

Mean precoital interval (days)

4.5

3.4

3.9

2.6

No. of females evaluated for fertility

10

10

10

10

Number of pregnant dams

8

9

9

10

Fertility index (%)

80

90

90

100

No. of females evaluated for gestation length

8

9

9

10

Gestation length (days)

22.0

22.2

22.2

22.1

Number of dams with live pups

8

9

9

10

Gestation Index (%)

100

100

100

100

Corpora lutea(total)

110

137

129

142

Corpora lutea(mean)

13.8

15.2

14.3

14.2

Implantation sites (total)

110

131

128

139

Implantation sites (mean)

13.8

14.6

14.2

13.9

Number of pups at birth (total)

96

125

123

127

Number of pups at birth (mean)

12.0

13.9

13.7

12.7

Birth Index (mean %)

90.4

95.5

95.9

90.1

Birth Index (total# %)

87

951

96 1

90.1

Number of stillbirths

0

0

1

0

No. of dams with stillborn pups

0

0

1

0

Number of live born pups (total)

96

125

123

126

Number of live born pups (mean)

12.0

13.9

13.7

12.6

Live birth index (mean %)

100.0

100.0

100.0

97.5

Live birth index (total#1 %)

100

100

100

99

Pre-implantation loss (mean %)

0.0

4.4

0.7

1.9

Pre-implantation loss (total#2  %)

0.0

4.42

0.8

2.1

Post-implantation loss (mean %)

9.6

4.5

4.1

11.2

Post-implantation loss (total#3 %)

12.7

4.62

3.92

9.4

Number of runts

0

0

0

0

Number of malformed pups

0

0

0

0

# based on the total No. of implantation sites and total No. of pups at birth (alive and dead)

#1 based on the total No. live born pups and total No. of pups at birth (alive and dead)

#2 based on the total No. corpora lutea and total No. of implantation sites

#3 based on the total No. implantation sites and toal number of live born pups

1 p≤0.05 Chi2-test

2 p<0.05 Chi2-test

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) for reproductive toxicity: >= 1000 mg/kg bw/day, p.o.
Executive summary:

The aim of the study was to obtain information on possible effects of the test item on general toxicity, reproduction and/or development according to OECD guideline 422. The test item was administered orally by gavage to rats at dose levels of 100, 300 and 1000 mg active ingredient/kg bw/day. The application started two weeks before mating on test day one and ended on the day or one day before sacrifice. Day of sacrifice was on test day 37 for the male rats and between lactation day 4 and 7 for the female rats.

Effects on the parental generation (general toxicity)
No test item-related premature death was noted in any treatment group (100, 300 and 1000 mg test item/kg bw/day).

No signs of clinical toxicity were noted for the male and female rats of the low and intermediate dose groups (100 and 300 mg test item/kg bw/day). A slightly increased salivation was noted in one male rat, no further signs of clinical toxicity were noted for the male and female rats of the high dose group (1000 mg test item/kg bw/day). A slight reduction in body weight was noted for the male and female rats of the high dose group (1000 mg test item/kg bw/day). For the male rats the reduction in body weight was noted from test day 8 (4.4%) until test day 36 (5.5%) and for the female rats from gestation day 0 (7.6%) until lactation day 4 (9.5%). The body weight at autopsy was reduced accordingly.

Effects on reproduction parameters and organs

No test item-related influence was noted on the reproduction parameters in any treatment group (100, 300 and1000 mg/kg bw/day).

Microscopic examination revealed no changes in the reproductive organs from the male and female rats of the high dose group (1000 mg/kg bw/day).

Effects on the F0-generation

NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level): 300 mg/kg bw/day, p.o.

Effects on reproductive toxicity

NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level): >=1000 mg/kg bw/day, p.o.