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Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

No data are available for the target substance Sulfuric acids, C9-11-iso-C10 rich, alkyl esters, sodium salt. Therefore, read-across from structural analogue substances has been applied.

In vitro gene mutation in bacteria (Ames test / OECD 471): negative

Read-across from structural analogue source substances Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (CAS 126-92-1) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (CAS 151-21-3)


In vitro chromosome aberration in mammalian cells (CA / OECD 473): negative

Read-across from source substance Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (CAS 126-92-1)

In vitro gene mutation in mammalian cells (MLA / OECD 476): negative

Read-across from structural analogue source substances Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (CAS 126-92-1) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (CAS 151-21-3)

Link to relevant study records

Referenceopen allclose all

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions. Lack of details on the test substance.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
lack of details on test substance
GLP compliance:
no
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Target gene:
Thymidine kinase locus (tk)
Species / strain / cell type:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
- Type and identity of media: Fisher’s medium supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, sodium pyruvate, 110 µg/mL 0.05% pluronic F68, antbiotics and 10% heat-inactivated donor horse serum (v/v)
- Properly maintained: yes
- Periodically checked for Mycoplasma contamination: yes
- Periodically "cleansed" against high spontaneous background: yes
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
co-factor supplemented post-mitochondrial fraction (S9 mix), prepared from the livers of male Fischer 344 rats, intraperitoneally induced with Arochlor 1254 (500 mg/kg bw)
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Experiments 1-5: -S9: 3.125, 6.25, 10, 12.5, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 55, 60,65, 70, 80 and 100 µg/mL
Experiments 6-8: +S9: 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 µg/mL
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle used: DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
DMSO
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Remarks:
-S9: methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), 15 µg/mL; +S9: 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), 2.5 µg/mL
Positive control substance:
3-methylcholanthrene
methylmethanesulfonate
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 4 h with and without S9 mix
- Expression time: 2 days
- Selection time: 11-14 days
- Fixation time (start of exposure up to fixation or harvest of cells): 13-16 days

SELECTION AGENT: 3 µg/mL trifluorothymidine (TFT)

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS: four cultures for vehicle control; two cultures for positive controls and each test substance concentration

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: cloning efficiency; relative total growth
Evaluation criteria:
Four response categories for evaluation of results were defined (see below).

Response Categories for Experiments:
Positive response (+): The dose-related trend and the response at one of the three highest acceptable doses were statistically significant.
Negative response (-) Two categories were used. In both there was
a) no dose-related trend,
b) no statistically significant response at any dose,
c) an acceptable positive control response.
Nontoxic, negative response ( = )
There was an RTG among the acceptable doses of >30% (approximately), higher toxicities being unattainable due to intrinsic properties of either the compound or the system.
Toxic, negative response (-)
There was either an RTG of <30% (approximately) at the maximum acceptable dose, or the lethal concentration was no greater than 1.5 x a lower concentration at which the RTG was >30%.
Inconclusive (i)
There was
a) no dose-related trend and a statistically significant dose was any other than one of the highest three doses,
b) a response which would have been negative, but the lowest RTG acceptable doses was >35%,
c) a response which would have been negative, but there were no acceptable positive controls.
Questionable (?)
There was either
a) no dose-related trend, but a statistically significant response occurred at one of the highest three doses, or
b) a statistically significant dose-related trend, but none of the acceptable doses was statistically significant on its own.

Primary judgments were made at the level of individual experiments, but judgment on the mutagenic potential of a chemical was made on a basis of consensus of all valid experimental results (see "Any other information on materials and methods inlc. tables").
Statistics:
The statistical analysis was based upon the mathematical model proposed for this system and consisted of a dose-trend test and a variance analysis of pair-wise comparisons of each dose against the vehicle control. Significant differences from concurrent vehicle control values are indicated at the 5% level.
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
-S9: 70, 80 and 90 µg/mL; +S9: 95 µg/mL
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS 1-8

Eight acceptable experiments were conducted, five in the absence of S9 mix.

In the first of these, statistically significant increases in mutant fraction were observed at three dose levels: 6.25, 25, and 50 µg/mL; 100 µg/mL was a lethal concentration in cells (see Table 1). Over the nonlethal range, there were generally elevated mutant fractors, the highest being 1.9-fold the control level at 25 µg/mL. Although these increases in mutant fraction were significant, the lack of an obvious dose-related response with a relatively soluble chemical over a dose range which was not toxic encouraged speculation that the increases were not due to treatment with the test material.

 

Table 1. Experiment 1 - 4 h exposure - Without Metabolic Activation

Concentration [µg/mL]

Cloning efficiency

Relative Total Growth

Mutants per 1E+06 surviving cells

Mutation factor

Average Mutation factor

DMSO (NC)

62

95

56

30

43

68

98

90

44

65

95

66

34

80

112

153

64

3.125

77

106

84

36

61

59

97

151

85

6.25

71

119

176

83

78*

73

107

160

74

12.5

90

145

133

49

65

67

133

160

80

25

84

90

247

99

83*

65

88

130

67

50

86

82

192

75

69*

76

98

145

64

100

lethal

lethal

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

MMS (15 µg/mL) PC

27

21

135

167

232*

25

23

219

298

MMS = methylmethanesulfonate; NC = negative control; PC = positive control; *p < 0.05; n.a. = not applicable

 

In the second experiment without S9 mix, there was a clearly significant response at 60 µg/mL, but at no other concentration. The RTG was about 22%

Table 2. Experiment II - 4 h exposure - Without Metabolic Activation

Concentration [µg/mL]

Cloning efficiency

Relative Total Growth

Mutants per 1E+06 surviving cells

Mutation factor

Average Mutation factor

DMSO (NC)

80

100

115

48

48

74

108

119

53

86

106

115

45

61

87

83

45

10

75

112

107

47

58

66

94

137

69

20

67

89

119

59

52

53

76

70

44

30

71

70

98

46

60

64

86

144

75

40

77

77

126

54

n.a.

50

94

61

191

68

74

68

56

163

80

60

81

27

365

150

203*

77

16

595

256

70

lethal

lethal

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

MMS (15 µg/mL) PC

34

30

683

666

664*

29

27

573

662

MMS = methylmethanesulfonate; NC = negative control; PC = positive control; *p < 0.05; n.a. = not applicable

Experiment 3 gave a statistically significant response (1.7-fold increase) at 60 µg/mL, but not at the next higher concentration of 65 µg/mL. The mutant fraction at 70 µg/ml was only 44/106 survivors, so this single culture result supported the view that the statistically significant result at the lower dose level was a chance event. Thus, this experiment was judged to be questionable.

 

Table 3. Experiment 3 - 4 h exposure - Without Metabolic Activation

Concentration [µg/mL]

Cloning efficiency

Relative Total Growth

Mutants per 1E+06 surviving cells

Mutation factor

Average Mutation factor

DMSO (NC)

76

103

84

37

34

71

104

73

34

82

97

98

40

74

96

58

26

50

60

71

65

36

36

75

75

82

36

55

68

44

68

33

38

53

71

69

44

60

72

63

107

50

56*

72

74

134

62

65

64

71

87

45

42

79

68

93

39

70

80

83

107

44

n.a.

MMS (15 µg/mL) PC

36

26

127

119

158*

26

23

156

197

MMS = methylmethanesulfonate; NC = negative control; PC = positive control; *p < 0.05; n.a. = not applicable

 

However, the succeeding experiments 4 and 5 without S9 mix were unambiguously negative; therefore the test substance was considered to be non-mutagenic in the absence of S9 mix.

Two experiments (6 and 7) were performed in the presence of S9 mix, showing unambiguously negative results. The last experiment with S9 mix was inconclusive because the cloning efficiency at 80 µg/mL was about 86% and there was no indication of a mutagenic response. However, based on the two experiments with S9 mix showing clearly negative results, the test substance was considered to be not mutagenic in the presence of S9 mix.

Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test item was not considered to be mutagenic, neither in the presence nor in the absence of metabolic activation.
Executive summary:

No enhanced mutation rate in the S9 treated or untreated cells was observed in this mouse lymphoma assay. Therefore, the test substance was not considered to be mutagenic.

Endpoint:
in vitro cytogenicity / chromosome aberration study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 473 (In Vitro Mammalian Chromosome Aberration Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Not all results displayed.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test
Target gene:
n.a.
Species / strain / cell type:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
501, 1500, 5010 µg/mL
Vehicle / solvent:
water
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
water
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: mitomycin, 5 µg/mL (-S9); cyclophosphamide, 50µg/mL (+S9)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium
Evaluation criteria:
According to guideline.
Species / strain:
Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO)
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not examined
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test item was not considered to be clastogenic.
Executive summary:

No enhanced aberration rate in the presence or absence of metabolic activation was observed in this chromosomal aberration assay. Therefore, the test substance was not considered to be clastogenic.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in mammalian cells
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 476 (In Vitro Mammalian Cell Gene Mutation Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
lack of details on test substance
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
mammalian cell gene mutation assay
Target gene:
Thymidine kinase locus (tk)
Species / strain / cell type:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
-S9:
156.25, 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500 µg/mL (Trial 1)
200, 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 2)
1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 3)
1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200, 5000 µg/mL (Trial 4)

+S9:
200, 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 1)
1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 2&3)
2600, 3000, 3400, 3800, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 4)
Vehicle / solvent:
DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: methylmethanesulfonate, ethylmethanesulfonate(-S9); methylcholanthrene (+S9)
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
METHOD OF APPLICATION: in medium
Evaluation criteria:
According to guideline.
Species / strain:
mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative

The test item was not considered to be mutagenic.
Executive summary:

No significant mutagenic responses were observed in three of four trials without S9 mix. In trial 1 there was a single, statistically significant response at one dose level but this was not supported by similar responses at higher dose levels in either the same or two other trials. Thus trial 1 was inconclusive because higher dose levels could have been tested. In trial 3 without S9 mix, all doses tested and permitting survival were associated with significant responses. With S9, two experiments were negative and two were inconclusive because higher doses could have been tested. The weight of evidence strongly suggested that sodium (2-ethylhexyl) alcohol sulfate was not mutagenic in this assay, though the anomalous response in one trial without S9 mix has not been explained.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Similar to Guideline study with acceptable restrictions.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
: no E.coli strain tested
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Study conducted prior to GLP implementation.
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Target gene:
his operon
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9-mix
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
-S9: 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, and 1500 µg/plate
+S9: 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 µg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
water
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: +S9: sodium azide (TA1535, TA100); 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (TA98); 9-aminoacridine (TA1537) / -S9: 2-aminoanthracene
Statistics:
No.
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
no cytotoxicity nor precipitates, but tested up to recommended limit concentrations
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
No E.coli strains tested.
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1538
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
S9 mix
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
1. test: 8, 40, 200, 1000, 5000 µg/plate
2 test: 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 µg/plate (-S9 mix); 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 640 µg/plate (+S9 mix)
Vehicle / solvent:
Water
Untreated negative controls:
yes
Remarks:
untreated cells
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
Remarks:
water
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: sodium azide, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, 9-aminoacridine, 2-aminoanthracene
Species / strain:
other: all strains tested
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Remarks:
at 200 µg/plate
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
valid
Conclusions:
Interpretation of results: negative
Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

There is no study regarding genotoxicity available for Sulfuric acids, C9-11-iso-C10 rich, alkyl esters, sodium salt. Therefore, these endpoints are covered by read across to structurally related alkyl sulfates (AS) in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 Annex XI 1.5 “Grouping of substances and read-across approach”. In Annex XI 1.5 it is given that a read-across approach is possible for substances whose physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are likely to be similar or follow a regular pattern as a result of structural similarity. The AS reported within the AS read-across approach show structural similarity. The most important common structural feature of the source and target substances is the presence of a predominantly linear aliphatic hydrocarbon chain with a polar sulfate group, neutralized with a counter ion. This structural feature confers the surfactant properties of the alkyl sulfates. The surfactant property of the source and target substances in turn represent the predominant attribute in mediating effects on mammalian health. Therefore, the AS have similar physico-chemical, environmental and toxicological properties. The approach of grouping different AS for the evaluation of their effects on human health and the environment was also made by the OECD in the SIDS initial assessment profile [1] and by a voluntary industry programme carrying out Human and Environmental Risk Assessments (HERA [2]), further supporting the read across approach between structurally related AS.

Gene mutation in bacteria

There is one study regarding gene mutation in bacteria with Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (C8 iso AS Na, CAS 126-92-1) and a second study with Sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12 AS Na, CAS 151-21-3) available. Both studies are accounted for in a Weight-of-Evidence approach.

In a study, performed similar to OECD Guideline 471, Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98 and TA 100 were treated with C8 iso AS Na (CAS 126-92-1, analytical purity 39.6%) in presence and absence of metabolic activation. The tester strains TA 102 or E.coli WP2 were not used during the conduct of the study (Zeiger, 1985). The concentrations tested were 5, 15, 50, 150, 500, and 1500 µg/plate with and without metabolic activation. In the experiment with metabolic activation additionally 5000 µg/plate was tested. Results achieved with vehicle control and positive controls were valid. No cytotoxicity was observed but the limit concentration of 5000 µg/plate was tested. No genotoxicity was observed.

The potential of C12 AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) to induce gene mutation in bacteria was assessed in a study performed according to OECD Guideline 471. Tester strains TA 102 or E.coli were not used during the conduct of the study (BASF, 1988). In the study with C12 AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 1538 and TA 100 were treated using the plate incorporation method with and without the addition of a rat liver S9-mix. The dose range was 8, 40, 200, 1000, 5000 µg/plate for the first experiment (with and without S9 mix) as well as 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 µg/plate (-S9 mix) and 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 640 µg/plate (+S9 mix) for the second experiment. Results achieved with vehicle (water) and positive controls were valid. Cytotoxicity was observed in presence and absence of metabolic activation occasionally around 200 µg/plate while no genotoxicity was observed for C12 AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) at all.

Chromosome aberration in mammalian cells

Regarding chromosome aberration in mammalian cells there is one relevant key study with the structural analogue substance Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (C8 iso AS Na, CAS 126-92-1) available.

The potential of C8 iso AS Na (CAS 126-92-1, analytical purity 39.6%) to induce chromosomal aberration in a mammalian cell line was investigated similar to OECD guideline 473 using Chinese hamster Ovary cells with and without metabolic activation (Loveday, 1990). The test concentrations were 501, 1500 and 5010 µg/mL. Results achieved with the vehicle (water) and positive controls were valid. No cytotoxicity was observed in presence and absence of metabolic activation however the test was conducted up to the limit concentration of 5000 µg/mL. No enhanced chromosome aberration was observed under any conditions of the study.

Gene mutation in mammalian cells

Gene mutation in mammalian cells has been investigated using the structural analogue substances Sulfuric acid, mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (C8 iso AS Na, CAS 126-92-1) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12 AS Na, CAS 151-21-3) available. Both studies are accounted for in a Weight-of-Evidence approach.

The potential of C8 iso AS Na (CAS 126-92-1, no data on analytical purity) to induce genotoxicity in mammalian cells in vitro was assessed in a study conducted similar to OECD guideline 476 using the mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells with and without metabolic activation (McGregor, 1991). The study comprised of 4 trials with and without metabolic activation. The concentrations tested in the absence of metabolic activation were 156.25, 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500 µg/mL (Trial 1); 200, 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 2); 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 3) and 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200, 5000 µg/mL (Trial 4). The concentrations tested in the presence of metabolic activation were 200, 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 1), 1000, 1800, 2600, 3400, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 2&3) and 2600, 3000, 3400, 3800, 4200 µg/mL (Trial 4). No treatment related increased mutation frequencies were observed in three of four trials without S9 mix. However, in trial 3, all concentrations showing no marked cytotoxicity were associated with significantly increased mutation frequencies in the absence of metabolic activation. There was no reasonable explanation for this striking result of trial 3. In trial 1 without metabolic activation a statistically significant increased mutation frequency occurred at a single concentration level. At higher concentrations no increased mutation frequencies were observed within this trial. Taken together no increased mutation frequency was evidenced when L5178Y cells were exposed to the test substance without metabolic activation. In the presence of metabolic activation no increased mutation frequencies were observed. In two trials the top dose of 4200 µg/L produced marked cytotoxicity. Therefore, also no increased mutation frequency was evidenced when L5178Y cells were exposed to the test substance with metabolic activation.

The mutagenicity of C12 AS Na (CAS 151-21-3) in a mammalian cell line was investigated similar to OECD guideline 476 using the mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells with and without metabolic activation (McGregor, 1988). The test concentrations were 3.125, 6.25, 10, 12.5, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 80 and 100 µg/mL without and 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 µg/mL with metabolic activation. Results achieved with the negative (untreated), vehicle (DMSO) and positive controls were valid. Cytotoxicity was observed in presence and absence of metabolic activation while no genotoxicity was observed under both circumstances for C12 AS Na (CAS 151-21-3).

Conclusion on genotoxicity

The read across substances did not show any genotoxic potential. This is supported by the conclusions of the HERA Draft report “AS are not genotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic…” and the conclusions of the SIDS initial assessment profile “Alkyl sulfates of different chain length and with different counter ions were not mutagenic in standard bacterial and mammalian cell systems [...]. There was also no indication for a genotoxic potential of alkyl sulfates in various in vivo studies on mice […].”

The lack of mutagenic activity for the alkyl sulfates category is predictable based on structural and mechanistic considerations. Mutagens are chemicals that either 1) contain highly reactive electrophilic centers capable of interacting with nucleophilic sites on DNA (direct acting agents) or 2) can be metabolized to highly reactive electrophiles. The chemical structures represented by this chemical class do not contain electrophilic functional groups or functional groups capable of being metabolized to electrophiles. Alkyl sulfates with fully saturated carbon chains are not metabolized to reactive electrophiles. The consistent lack of mutagenic activity with alkyl sulfates is consistent with these mechanistic predictions.

[1] SIDS initial assessment profile, (2007); http://www.aciscience.org/docs/Alkyl_Sulfates_Final_SIAP.pdf

[2] (HERA Draft report, 2002); http://www.heraproject.com/files/3-HH-04-%20HERA%20AS%20HH%20web%20wd.pdf

Justification for classification or non-classification

The available data on genetic toxicity do not meet the criteria for classification according to Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) and are therefore conclusive but not sufficient for classification.