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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
calculation (if not (Q)SAR)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
accepted calculation method
Justification for type of information:
Data is from computational model developed by USEPA
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Modeling database
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimates the probability for the rapid aerobic biodegradation of an organic chemical in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms .The model is part of the EpiSuite program of the US-EPA. Estimations are made with BIOWIN version 4.10. Estimates are based upon fragment constants that were developed using multiple linear and non-linear regression analyses. Experimental biodegradation data for the multiple linear and non-linear regressions were obtained from Syracuse Research Corporation's (SRC) data base of evaluated biodegradation data (Howard et. al., 1987). This version (v4.10) designates the models as follows (see also Boethling et al. 2003):
Biowin1 = linear probability model
Biowin2 = nonlinear probability model
Biowin3 = expert survey ultimate biodegradation model
Biowin4 = expert survey primary biodegradation model
Biowin5 = MITI linear model
Biowin6 = MITI nonlinear model
Biowin7 = anaerobic biodegradation model
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material: Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino] -2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate
- IUPAC name: Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl] azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate
- Molecular formula: C30H27ClN8O17S5.4Na
- Molecular weight: 1055.29 g/mole
- Smiles :[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].c1c(c(c(c2c(cc(cc12)S(=O)(=O)[O-])NC(CC)=O)O)\N=N\c1c(ccc(c1)Nc1nc(nc(n1)Cl)Nc1cc(ccc1)S(=O)(=O) CCOS(=O)(=O)[O-])S(=O)(=O)[O-])S(=O)(=O)[O-]
- Inchl: 1S/C30H27ClN8O17S5.4Na/c1-2-24(40)34-21-14-19(58(44,45)46)10-15-11-23(60(50,51)52)26(27(41)25(15)21)39-38-20-13-17(6-7-22(20) 59(47,48)49)33-30-36-28(31)35-29(37-30)32-16-4-3-5-18(12-16)57(42,43)9-8-56-61(53,54)55;;;;/h3-7,10-14,41H,2,8-9H2,1H3,(H,34,40)(H,44,45,46)(H,47,48,49)(H,50,51,52)(H,53,54,55)(H2,32,33,35,36,37);;;;/q;4*+1/p-4/b39-38+;;;;
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid crystalline
Oxygen conditions:
other: aerobic (Biowin 1-6) and anaerobic (Biowin 7)
Inoculum or test system:
other: mixed populations of environmental microorganisms
Details on study design:
Using the computer tool BIOWIN v4.10 by US-EPA (EPIWIN) the aerobic as well as the anaerobic biodegradability of the test material can be estimated. The follwoing seven different models are used by the tool: Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (calles Biowin 1-7, respectively). Due to this results the overall prediction of readily biodegradability is done for the desired chemical.

Biowin 1 and 2, are intended to convey a general indication of biodegradability under aerobic conditions, and not for any particular medium.
Biowin 1 (Linear model)
The fast biodegradation probability for any compound is calculated by summing, for all the fragments present in that compound, the fragment coefficient multiplied by the number of instances of the fragment in the compound (for MW, the value of that parameter is multiplied by its coefficient), and then adding this summation to the equation constant which is 0.7475. The summed values for each fragment coefficient multiplied by the number of instances appear in the "VALUE" column of the linear results screen.

Biowin 2 (Non-linear model)
Calculation of the fast biodegradation probability for any compound begins by summing, for all the fragments present in that compound, the fragment coefficient multiplied by the number of instances of the fragment in the compound (for MW, the value of that parameter is multiplied by its coefficient), then adding this summation to the equation constant which is 3.0087. The summed values for each fragment coefficient multiplied by the number of instances appear in the "VALUE" column of the non-linear results screen. The non-linear fast biodegradation probability is then calculated from the logistic equation as follows, where total = 3.0087 + the summation as described above:

Biowin 3 and 4 yield estimates for the time required to achieve complete ultimate and primary biodegradation in a typical or "evaluative" aquatic environment.

Biowin 5 and 6 are predictive models for assessing a compound’s biodegradability in the Japanese MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry) ready biodegradation test; i.e. OECD 301C. These models use an approach similar to that used to develop Biowin1 and 2. This protocol for determining ready biodegradability is among six officially approved as ready biodegradability test guidelines of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). A total dataset of 884 chemicals was compiled to derive the fragment probability values that are applied in this MITI Biodegradability method. The dataset consists of 385 chemical that were critically evaluated as "readily degradable" and 499 chemicals that were critically evaluated as "not readily biodegradable".

Biowin 7, the anaerobic biodegradation model, is the most recent. As for the other Biowin models, multiple (linear) regression against molecular fragments was used to develop the model, which predicts probability of rapid degradation in the "serum bottle" anaerobic biodegradation screening test. This endpoint is assumed to be predictive of degradation in a typical anaerobic digester. Biowin7 estimates the probability of fast biodegradation under methanogenic anaerobic conditions; specifically, under the conditions of the "serum bottle" anaerobic biodegradation screening test (Meylan et al. 2007). A total of 169 compounds with serum bottle test data were identified for use in model development.

Out of seven different Biowin models, Biowin model 3 and 4 will help in estimating biodgeradability of the test chemical which was described as below-

Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe and Primary Biodegradation Timeframe (Biowin 3 and 4)
These two models estimate the time required for "complete" ultimate and primary biodegradation.  Primary biodegradation is the transformation of a parent compound to an initial metabolite.  Ultimate biodegradation is the transformation of a parent compound to carbon dioxide and water, mineral oxides of any other elements present in the test compound, and new cell material. Then the rating was given to each model, which indicates the time required to achieve ultimate and primary biodegradation in a typical or "evaluative" aquatic environment. The ratings for each compound were averaged to obtain a single value for modeling.  The ultimate or primary rating of a compound is calculated by summing, for all the fragments present in that compound.
Parameter:
probability of ready biodegradability (QSAR/QSPR)
Remarks on result:
other: not readily biodegradable as estimated by BIOWIN model
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The biodegradability of the test chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate was calculated using seven different Biowin 1-7 models of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that the test chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate is expected to be not readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7 -disulphonate

(CAS no. 80019 -42 -7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-

2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Description of key information

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7 -disulphonate

(CAS no. 80019 -42 -7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-

2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

Predicted data study for target chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7 -disulphonate (CAS no. 80019 -42 -7) and experimental studies for its structurally similar red across chemical have been reviewed for biodegradation endpoint and their results are summarized below.

 

First study was predicted data study in this study the Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2018) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7 -disulphonate (CAS no. 80019 -42 -7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]- 2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

 

Next study was experimental study reviewed from journal in this study the Biodegradation experiment was carried out for 42 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradation of the test chemical using modified OECD Guideline 302B. Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum.The sources of the activated sludge were treatment plants conveniently located to the laboratories carrying out the test. These treatment plants received communal and/or industrial wastewater. Concentration of inoculum i.e, activated sludge used was 0.5 g/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l. Analytical methods involve the measurement of extinction at absorption maximum 412 nm and DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The percentage degradation of the test substance was determined to be -17% by using DOC removal parameter in 42 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, the test chemical was considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Further to support predicted data study of target chemical experimental study was reviewed from authoritative databases in this study the Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I)) under aerobic conditions. Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 4, 1 and 2 % by BOD, TOC removal and HPLC parameter respectively in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Last study was also experimental study reviewed from journal the aim of the study was to estimate the microbial decomposition of test chemical by sludge under aerobic conditions.

Return activated sludge was obtained from the municipal sewage treatment plant, Nakahama, Osaka.

Synthetic sewage preparation: Glucose , peptone and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 30g each, were dissolved in 1 liter water and the pH was adjusted to pH 7.0 with sodium hydroxide

Seeded Dilution water: To 1 liter, 10 ml of supernatant of sludge was added.

Aerobic biodegradation assay: To 750ml of sludge (MLSS ca, 3,000 ppm) 250 ml of O.03 M dye solution was added, and bubbled with air sufficiently at 20°C. 5ml sample was taken out once a day. After sampling done 5ml of synthetic sewage was added to the mixture. Each sample was filtered through filter paper and diluted twenty times prior to the spectrophotometric measurement at the absorption maximum within the visible range. The decrease of dyes concentration was expressed in terms of percent to the initial absorption. The experiment was carried out for 10 days.

Oxygen uptake of sludge [Warburg Method]- 2.0 ml of sludge, 0.2 ml of 1000 ppm dye solution, and 0.2 ml of 20% potassium hydroxide were pipetted into the vessel, the side arm and central well, respectively. The sludge and the dye solution were mixed and the vessel was shaken at 25°C. The oxygen uptake was measured.

The oxygen uptake by sludge alone was subtracted from those by dyes addition.

During 10 days aerobic experiment, test chemical was decomposed about 20 % in 10 days

From the oxygen uptake by Warburg’s manometer, the low activity of the sludge to dye was obtained.

Based on the results obtained from the aerobic degradation assay and Warburg method, it can be concluded that test chemical is not readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions.

 

By considering results of all the studies mentioned above for target chemical and its read across chemical it can be concluded that test chemical Tetrasodium 3-[[5-[[4-chloro-6-[[3-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulphonatophenyl]azo]-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-oxopropyl)amino]naphthalene-2,7 -disulphonate (CAS no. 80019 -42 -7) is expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.