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Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
data from handbook or collection of data
Remarks:
experimental data of read across substances
Justification for type of information:
Data for the target chemical is summarized based on the structurally similar read across chemicals
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Related information:
Composition 1
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Related information:
Composition 1
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Related information:
Composition 1
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: as mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
WoE report is based on two biodegradation studies as-
1., 2. and 3.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material : Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes
- Molecular formula : C18H11NO8S2.Al
- Molecular weight : 460.39 g/mol
- Smiles notation : O=C1c2ccccc2C(=O)C1=C1C=Cc2cc3c4cc2N{-}1.[Al]{3+}(.O{-}S3(=O)=O).O{-}S4(=O)=O
- Substance type : Organic
- Physical state : Solid
Oxygen conditions:
other: 1. and 2. aerobic, 3. no data
Inoculum or test system:
other: 1. and 2. mixture of domestic waste water, surface soil and soil samples , 3. activated sludge (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
1. and 2. Mixed Inoculum Preparation (In-House): Domestic waste water, surface soil and soil samples from polluted sites receiving predominantly domestic waste was collected and were mixed to get diluted suspension. The inoculum was kept aerobic until being used for experiment by supplying organic and inorganic sources required by micro flora to sustain at controlled laboratory conditions. This gave the bacterial count as 107to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.

3. No data
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
45 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
(1)
Initial conc.:
16 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
(2)
Based on:
not specified
Remarks:
(3)
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: BOD and ThOD
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
DOC removal
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
test mat. analysis
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: HPLC
Details on study design:
1.
TEST CONDITIONS
- Composition of medium: OECD mineral medium was used for the study
- Test temperature: 20°C
- Continuous darkness: Yes
- Other: The water used in this study is deionized water.

TEST SYSTEM
- Culturing apparatus: The apparatus used in this study is Respirometer BOD Sensor System (Code: F102B0133; non-automatic pressure measurement sensor system) and Respirometric incubator (FOC 120i)) by VELP Scientifica.

CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM
- Inoculum blank: it contains only test inoculum
- Procedure control: contains reference compound and inoculum

2.
TEST CONDITIONS
- Composition of medium: OECD mineral medium was used for the study
- Test temperature: 20°C
- Continuous darkness: Yes
- Other: The water used in this study is deionized water.

TEST SYSTEM
- Culturing apparatus: The apparatus used in this study is Respirometer flasks.

CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM
- Inoculum blank: it contains only test inoculum
- Procedure control: contains reference compound and inoculum

TEST METHOD:
The test system contained an inoculum blank (control), a procedure control (reference item), and a test suspension (test item) in duplicate.

Apparatus: The apparatus used in this study is Respirometer BOD Sensor System (Code: F102B0133; non-automatic pressure measurement sensor system) and Respirometric incubator (FOC 120i)) by VELP Scientifica.

Prior to setting up the experiment, all glassware were washed with hot water, rinsed with 0.1N HCL to remove any residual organic carbon and then with deionized water. All glassware were inspected to ensure cleanliness & then finally oven dried.

3. No data
Reference substance:
other: Sodium Benzoate
Remarks:
(1) and (2)
Reference substance:
not specified
Remarks:
(3)
Test performance:
1. No data

2.

1. Respirometer flasks were allowed to reach the desired temperature at 200C.The test item was taken at a concentration of 16 mg/L in mineral medium. The reference item chosen was Sodium benzoate with a concentration of 30 mg/L in the mineral medium was directly added to the Respirometer Flask according the volume of mineral media taken.
2. The Respirometer Flasks of test item & reference item were filled with 250 ml and 250ml of mineral media, respectively. Test suspension volume was decided by considering the available information on biodegradability of that test item.
3. All the Respirometer Flasks were inoculated with prepared mixed inoculum at the concentration of 10ml/L. This concentration gave the bacterial CFU/ml as 107to 108.
4. The initial pH of the test medium was 7.0. The pH of all test vessels was measured at 28th day.
5. 2-4 pellets of KOH was added in the alkali holder, which acts as CO2 absorber.
6. The respirometric sensors containing the KOH pellets were tightly and carefully screwed on each of the Respirometer Flasks. The sensors were reset by deleting old recorded data and choosing the appropriate scale (The sensor gives the oxygen consumption values in mgO2/l).
7. Respirometer Flask were kept in the respirometer incubator at constant temperature of 20 ± 1°C for 28 days.
8. Every day oxygen consumption (mg O2/l) into the each bottle was recorded. Temperature and stirring condition were checked regularly.

3. No data
Parameter:
other: BOD and ThOD
Value:
1.754
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Parameter:
other: BOD and ThOD
Value:
12.807
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
3
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Degr.: 3, 1, 5 (mean 3) %
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
3
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Degr.: 3, 5, 2 (mean 3) %
Parameter:
% degradation (test mat. analysis)
Remarks:
and HPLC
Value:
3
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Degr.: 5, 6, -3 (mean 3) %
Details on results:
1.The oxygen consumed by the test systems was corrected for oxygen consumption occurring in the blank test systems.TheBOD Values (mgO2/mg) and percent biodegradation results for each test system arereported in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.022 mgO2/mg. ThoD was determined by calculation as 1.267 mgO2/mg. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and was found to be 1.754%. The % degradation of procedure control (Sodium Benzoate) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was found to be 74.074%. The mean BOD values (mg O2/l) in control on 28th day was 9 mg O2/l, thereby fulfilling the control validity criteria (i.e., The oxygen consumption of the inoculum blank is normally 20-30 mg O2/l and should not be greater than 60 mg/l in 28 days). Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 50.050 %after 7 days and 68.068 % after 14 days. The activity of the inoculums is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.

2. The oxygen consumed by the test systems wascorrected for oxygen consumption occurring in the blank test systems.TheBOD Values (mgO2/mg) and percent biodegradation results for each test system arereported in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.188 mgO2/mg. ThoD was determined by calculation as 1.464 mgO2/mg. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and was found to be 12.807%. The % degradation of procedure control (Sodium Benzoate) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was found to be 74.04%. The mean BOD values(mg O2/l) in control on 28th day was 9mg O2/l, thereby fulfilling the control validity criteria (i.e., The oxygen consumption of the inoculum blank is normally 20-30 mg O2/l and should not be greater than 60 mg/l in 28 days). Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 48.04%after 7 days and 70.07% after 14 days. The activity of the inoculums is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.

3. O2 uptake: Inoculum blank 5.7 mg, (Activated sludge + test substance) 7.2 mg.
Test substance undergoes 3% degradation by using O2 consumption, DOC removal, Test mat. analysis and HPLC parameter in 28 days.

1.

Table:BOD28, ThOD and % Biodegradation Values

Method details

BOD28 (mgO2/mg)

ThOD (mgO2/mg)

% Biodegradation

pH

0th

Day

pH

28th

Day

Test Item

0.022

1.267

1.754

7.5

7.85

Reference Item

1.233

1.665

74.074

7.0

8.02

2.

OBSERVATIONSAND CALCULATIONS:

Mean respirometric values (oxygen consumed mg O2/l) from day 1 to 28 were recorded inTable 1from Respirometer BOD Sensor system. The amount of oxygen taken up by the microbial population during biodegradation of the test item was corrected for uptake by the inoculum blank (Control) and BODwas calculated accordingly and represented inTable 2. The percent degradation of day 1 to 28 were calculated and represented inTable 3. ThOD, BOD28and % Degradation of both reference and the test item, calculated using the formula given in OECD guideline 301 F Manometric Respirometry Test,are summarized in Table 4. The detailed calculations of the same are given in Annex 4 and Annex 5.

 

TABLE 1

MEAN RESPIROMETRIC VALUES(oxygen consumed mg O2/l)

No. of Days

Inoculum Blank

(Control)

Test Suspension

Procedure Control (Reference Item)

1

4

4

12

2

6

6

18

3

7

6

23

4

9

7

28

5

9

7

29

6

7

4

29

7

7

6

31

8

9

7

32

9

7

6

32

10

9

6

34

11

9

6

37

12

9

6

40

13

7

7

40

14

7

7

41

15

7

7

42

16

9

7

43

17

9

9

45

18

9

9

45

19

9

9

46

20

9

10

46

21

9

9

46

22

7

10

45

23

9

10

45

24

9

10

46

25

9

10

46

26

9

12

46

27

9

12

46

28

9

12

46

 

TABLE 2

BOD values (mgO2/mg)

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control (Reference Item)

1

0

0.267

2

0

0.4

3

-0.063

0.533

4

-0.125

0.633

5

-0.125

0.667

6

-0.188

0.733

7

-0.063

0.8

8

-0.125

0.767

9

-0.063

0.833

10

0

0

11

-0.188

0.933

12

-0.188

1.033

13

0

1.1

14

0

1.133

15

0

1.167

16

0

1.2

17

0

1.2

18

0

1.2

19

0

1.233

20

0.063

1.233

21

0

1.233

22

0.188

1.267

23

0.063

1.2

24

0.063

1.233

25

0.063

 

1.233

26

0.188

1.233

27

0.188

1.233

28

0.188

1.233

 

TABLE 3

PERCENT BIODEGRDATION RESULTS

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control (Reference Item)

1

0

16.016

2

0

24.024

3

-4.269

32.032

4

-8.538

38.038

5

-8.538

40.04

6

-12.807

44.044

7

-4.269

48.048

8

-8.538

46.046

9

-4.269

50.05

10

0

0

11

-12.807

56.056

12

-12.807

62.062

13

0

66.066

14

0

68.068

15

0

70.07

16

0

72.072

17

0

72.072

18

0

72.072

19

0

74.074

20

4.269

74.074

21

0

74.074

22

12.807

76.076

23

4.269

72.072

24

4.269

74.074

25

4.269

74.074

26

12.807

74.074

27

12.807

74.074

28

12.807

74.074

 

Table 4

BOD28, THOD AND % BIODEGRADATION VALUES

Method details

BOD28(mgO2/mg)

ThOD (mgO2/mg)

% Biodegradation

Test Item

0.188 mgO2/mg

1.464 mgO2/mg

12.807 %

Reference Item

1.233 mgO2/mg

1.665 mgO2/mg

74.04 %

 

TABLE 5

pH OF RESPIROMETER FLASK

Respirometer Flask

pH on 0thDay

pH on 28thDay

Test Suspension

B1

7.5

7.85

B2

7.5

7.85

Procedure Control

B1                 

7.0

8.11

B2

7.0

8.11

3.

DOC removal was corrected by purity and adsorption of activated sludge and HPLC degradation was corrected by adsorption of activated sludge, because the recovery rate was 83 % in (activated sludge + test substance) system.

 

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the percentage degradation of the test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes can be expected to be range from 1.754 to 12.807%, respectively in 28 days. Thus, based on this, test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.
Executive summary:

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals has been reviewed to determine the biodegradability of the test chemical Aluminum, 2 -(1,3 -dihydro-1,3 -dioxo-2H-inden-2 -ylidene)-1,2 -dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes. The studies are as mentioned below:

28-days Manometric respirometry testfollowing the OECD guideline 301F to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item ( Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.022 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.267 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 1.754 %.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20 ± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

Another 28-days Manometric respirometry test following the OECD guideline 301F was conducted for determining the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item ( Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.188 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.464 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 12.807 %.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

Additional biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance. The study was performed according to other guideline "Biodegradation test of a chemical substance using a microorganism etc." provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances". Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum for the study. O2 uptake: Inoculum blank 5.7 mg, (Activated sludge + test substance) 7.2 m.DOC removal was corrected by purity and adsorption of activated sludge and HPLC degradation was corrected by adsorption of activated sludge, because the recovery rate was 83 % in (activated sludge + test substance) system.The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 3% by using O2 consumption, DOC removal, Test mat. analysis and HPLC parameter in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the percentage degradation of the test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes can be expected to be range from 1.754 to 12.807%, respectively in 28 days. Thus, based on this, test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Description of key information

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the percentage degradation of the test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes can be expected to be range from 1.754 to 12.807%, respectively in 28 days. Thus, based on this, test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

Data available for the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals has been reviewed to determine the biodegradability of the test chemicalAluminum, 2 -(1,3 -dihydro-1,3 -dioxo-2H-inden-2 -ylidene)-1,2 -dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes.The studies are as mentioned below:

28-days Manometric respirometry testfollowing the OECD guideline 301F to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item ( Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.022 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.267 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 1.754 %.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20 ± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

Another 28-days Manometric respirometry test following the OECD guideline 301F was conducted for determining the ready biodegradability of the test chemical. The test system included control, test item and reference item. The concentration of test and reference item ( Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 30 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 10 ml/l. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 0.188 mgO2sup>/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.464 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to manometric respirometry test was determined to be 12.807 %.Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be not readily biodegradable at 20± 1°C over a period of 28 days.

Additional biodegradation study was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance. The study was performed according to other guideline "Biodegradation test of a chemical substance using a microorganism etc." provided in "the Notice on the Test Method Concerning New Chemical Substances". Activated sludge was used as a test inoculum for the study. O2 uptake: Inoculum blank 5.7 mg, (Activated sludge + test substance) 7.2 m.DOC removal was corrected by purity and adsorption of activated sludge and HPLC degradation was corrected by adsorption of activated sludge, because the recovery rate was 83 % in (activated sludge + test substance) system.The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 3% by using O2 consumption, DOC removal, Test mat. analysis and HPLC parameter in 28 days.Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

On the basis of the experimental studies of the structurally and functionally similar read across chemical and applying the weight of evidence approach, the percentage degradation of the test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes can be expected to be range from 1.754 to 12.807%, respectively in 28 days. Thus, based on this, test chemical Aluminum, 2-(1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-inden-2-ylidene)-1,2-dihydro-6,7-quinolinedisulfonate complexes is considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.