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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: As mention below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3, 2018.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- IUPAC Name: 4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride
- InChI:1S/C8H7ClO2/c1-11-7-4-2-6(3-5-7)8(9)10/h2-5H,1H3
- SMILES:COc1ccc(C(=O)Cl)cc1
- Mol. formula: C8H7ClO2
- Molecular Weight: 170.5943 g/mole
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
not specified
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
not specified
Vehicle / solvent:
not specified
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
not specified
Rationale for test conditions:
not specified
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction was done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate.
Statistics:
not specified
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: A 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Remarks on result:
other: No mutagenic effect were observed

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and "g" )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and ("l" and ( not "m") )  )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and "s" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl chloride OR Acyl halide OR Alkylarylether OR Aromatic compound OR Carbonic acid derivative OR Carboxylic acid derivative OR Ether OR Halogen derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Chlorine, olefinic attach [-Cl] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Oxygen, one aromatic attach [-O-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl halide OR Aryl OR Ether OR Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl halide OR Aryl OR Ether by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA alerts for AMES, MN and CA by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Alpha,Beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Alpha,Beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR AN2 >> Thioacylation via nucleophilic addition after cysteine-mediated thioketene formation >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Quinone type compounds OR Michael addition >> Quinone type compounds >> Quinone methides OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion >> Quinone methides OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Acyclic Triazenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> SN1 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or on  nitrenium ion OR SN1 >> SN1 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or on  nitrenium ion >> N-Acyloxy(Alkoxy) Arenamides OR SN1 >> SN1 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or on  nitrenium ion >> N-Aryl-N-Acetoxy(Benzoyloxy) Acetamides OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Haloalkenes with Electron-Withdrawing Groups OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group OR SN2 >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> Acyl Halides OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at Nitrogen Atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at Nitrogen Atom >> N-acetoxyamines OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at sp3 and activated sp2 carbon atom >> Polarized Haloalkene Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group >> N-Acetoxyamines OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or nitrenium ion OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or nitrenium ion >> N-Acyloxy(Alkoxy) Arenamides OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at nitrogen-atom bound to a good leaving group or nitrenium ion >> N-Aryl-N-Acetoxy(Benzoyloxy) Acetamides by DNA alerts for AMES, MN and CA by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens AND Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkali Earth OR Alkaline Earth OR Metalloids OR Metals OR Rare Earth OR Transition Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group All Lipid Solubility < 0.01 g/kg by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group C Surface Tension > 62 mN/m OR (!Undefined)Group CN Lipid Solubility < 0.4 g/kg OR (!Undefined)Group CNHal Lipid Solubility < 4 g/kg OR (!Undefined)Group CNHal Lipid Solubility < 400 g/kg OR (!Undefined)Group CNS Surface Tension > 62 mN/m OR Exclusion rules not met OR Group All Melting Point > 200 C OR Group C Aqueous Solubility < 0.0001 g/L OR Group C Melting Point > 55 C OR Group C Vapour Pressure < 0.0001 Pa OR Group CHal Melting Point > 65 C OR Group CN Aqueous Solubility < 0.1 g/L OR Group CN Melting Point > 180 C OR Group CN Molecular Weight > 290 g/mol OR Group CN Vapour Pressure < 0.001 Pa OR Group CNHal Aqueous Solubility < 0.001 g/L OR Group CNHal Aqueous Solubility < 0.1 g/L OR Group CNHal log Kow > 3.8 OR Group CNHal Molecular Weight > 370 g/mol OR Group CNHal Molecular Weight > 380 g/mol OR Group CNS log Kow < 0.5 OR Group CNS Melting Point > 120 C OR Group CNS Melting Point > 50 C by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Respiratory sensitisation

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct acylation at a carbonyl with a leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct acylation at a carbonyl with a leaving group >> Acyl chlorides by Respiratory sensitisation

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation AND Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group AND Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> (Thio)Acyl and (thio)carbamoyl halides and cyanides  by Protein binding alerts for skin sensitization by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding alerts for skin sensitization by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation AND Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group AND Acylation >> Direct acylation involving a leaving group >> (Thio)Acyl and (thio)carbamoyl halides and cyanides  by Protein binding alerts for skin sensitization by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SNVinyl >> SNVinyl at a vinylic (sp2) carbon atom by Protein binding alerts for skin sensitization by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 0.809

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 1.98

Conclusions:
4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2 )was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Genetic mutation in vitro;

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemical have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2). The studies are as mentioned below

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, chromosomal aberration was predicted for 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2) .The study assumed the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line with and without S9 metabolic activation system 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride was predicted to not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro. Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (Japan chemicals collaborative knowledge database , 2017)to determine the mutagenic nature of 4-Methoxybenzaldehyde(123-11-5). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance. Genetic toxicity in vitro study for p-Anisaldehyde was assessed for its possible mutagenic potential. For this purpose AMES test was performed according to Guidelines for Screening Mutagenicity Testing of Chemicals(Chemical Substances Control Law of Japan) and OECD Test Guideline 471 .The test material was exposed to Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvr A at different concentration in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. No mutagenic effects were observed. Hence p-Anisaldehyde was considered to be non mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA98, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA by AMES test .Hence the test substance cannot be classified as gene mutant in vitro.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by D. McGinty et al.( Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012) to determine the mutagenic nature of p-anisyl acetate; IUPAC Name; 4-methoxybenzyl acetate (104-21-2 ). The read across substances share high similarity in structure and log kow .Therefore, it is acceptable to derive information on mutation from the analogue substance.  p-Anisyl acetate in DMSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test at concentrations up to 5000 µg/plate with and without metabolic activation. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium used in the plate incorporation and preincubation assays were TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537. Three plates per dose level were tested and solvent and positive controls were used in the studies. Hence the substance cannot be clssified as non mutagenic in vitro.

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across substance and applying weight of evidence of 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2)does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Thus based on the above annotation for the target chemical 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride (100-07-2)does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.