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Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Estimated data
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- IUPAC name: Anisoyl chloride
- Common name: 4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride
- Molecuar formula: C8H7ClO2
- Molecular weight: 170.5943 mg/l
- Smiles: c1(ccc(cc1)OC)C(=O)Cl
- Inchl: 1S/C8H7ClO2/c1-11-7-4-2-6(3-5-7)8(9)10/h2-5H,1H3
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Liquid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Test temperature:
23.8 °C
pH:
6.96 - 7.56
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
269.227 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Details on results:
The EC50 was 269.2 mg/l.

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: EC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and ("o" and ( not "p") )  )  and ("q" and ( not "r") )  )  and ("s" and ( not "t") )  )  and "u" )  and "v" )  and ("w" and ( not "x") )  )  and ("y" and ( not "z") )  )  and ("aa" and ( not "ab") )  )  and ("ac" and ( not "ad") )  )  and "ae" )  and ("af" and "ag" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl chloride OR Acyl halide OR Alkylarylether OR Aromatic compound OR Carbonic acid derivative OR Carboxylic acid derivative OR Ether OR Halogen derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Carbon [CH] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH2-] OR Aliphatic Carbon [-CH3] OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] OR Chlorine, olefinic attach [-Cl] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Oxygen, one aromatic attach [-O-] by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl halide OR Aryl OR Ether OR Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acyl halide OR Aryl OR Ether by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acrylates OR Alkoxy Silanes by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (amino-meta) by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Methacrylates by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Neutral Organics by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Peroxy Esters by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Salt by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Triazines, Aromatic by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Reactive unspecified by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens AND Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Rare Earth by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens AND Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens AND Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "ab"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Metalloids by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "ac"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halogens AND Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "ad"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkali Earth by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "ae"

Similarity boundary:Target: COc1ccc(C(=O)Cl)cc1
Threshold=20%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "af"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 1.44

Domain logical expression index: "ag"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 2.85

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on the growth rate inhibition of algae, the EC50 value was estimated to be 269.2 mg/l when Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) exposed to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72hrs. 
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the seven closest read across substances, toxicity on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum) was predicted for Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2). Based on the growth rate inhibition of algae, the EC50 value was estimated to be 269.2 mg/l when Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) exposed to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72hrs.   

Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) is considered to be not toxic to aquatic environment and not classified as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.     

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the seven closest read across substances, toxicity on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum) was predicted for Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2). Based on the growth rate inhibition of algae, the EC50 value was estimated to be 269.2 mg/l when Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) exposed to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72hrs. Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) is considered to be not toxic to aquatic environment and not classified as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.     

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
269.2 mg/L

Additional information

Based on the various predicted data for the target chemical and experimental data for structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals study have been reviewed to determine the toxic nature of target chemical Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) on the growth of algae. The studies are as mentioned below:  

 

The first predicted study for the target chemical (100-07-2) done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the seven closest read across substances, toxicity on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum) was predicted for Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2). Based on the growth rate inhibition of algae, the EC50 value was estimated to be 269.2 mg/l when Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) exposed to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72hrs. Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) is considered to be not toxic to aquatic environment and not classified as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.     

 

Similarly in the second weight of evidence study for the Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) prediction done using the EPI Suite ECOSAR version 1.10, the short term toxicity on green algae was predicted for test substance Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) cas no (100 -07 -2). On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the effect concentration EC50 value for the substance is estimated to be 127.91 mg/l for green algae Species for 72 hrs duration. Based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) can be considered as non-toxic to green algae at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

First predicted study was supported by the second experimental weight of evidence study for the read across chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (104-01-8) from ABITEC report. The freshwater algal growth inhibition test was carried out on Desmodesmus subspicatus with the substance 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (CAS No.- 104 -01 -8) according to OECD Guideline 201. The stock solution 150.0 mg/L was prepared by dissolving white powder in OECD growth medium. Test solutions of required concentrations were prepared by mixing the stock solution of the test sample with OECD growth medium and inoculum culture and tested at the concentrations 0, 0, 30.0, 45.0, 67.5, 100.0 and 150.0 mg/L. Effects on the growth rate of the organism were studied. The test was performed under static conditions in a static fresh water system at a temperature of 23± 2°C. Initial cell density of test organism used was 5x10(3) cells/ml. Determination of cell counting involve the use of microscope with counting chamber Cyrus I or electronic particle counter. ErC50 was calculated using non-linear regression by the software Prism 4.0. The median effective concentration (ErC50) for the test substance, 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid , in a freshwater algae Desmodesmus subspicatus was determined to be 106.9 mg/L on the basis of effects on growth rate in a 72 hour study with 95% Cl of 83.2 - 137.3 mg/L. Thus, based on this ErC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (CAS No: 104 -01 -8) does not exhibits toxicity to aquatic algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus).

 

Similarly for the same read across chemical 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (104-01-8) from UERL, the effect of test item 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid, CAS No. 104-01-8 was studied on the growth of fresh water green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The study was conducted following OECD guideline 201- Alga, growth inhibition test. The test concentration chosen for the study were 0.9 mg/L,2.7 mg/L,8.1 mg/L,24.3 mg/L,72.9 mg/L,218.7 mg/L. The test concentrations were prepared using stock solution of the test item using mineral media. The green alga was exposed to the test concentration for a period of 72 hours to observe average specific growth rate and % growth inhibition under the effect of the test item. EC50 calculated graphically through probit analysis was observed to be >200 mg/L. Thus, based on this EC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 4-methoxyphenylacetic acid (CAS No.- 104 -01 -8) does not exhibits toxicity to aquatic algae (Chlorella vulgaris).

 

 The fifth study was conducted on the structurally and functionally similar read across chemicals (105-15-3) from UERL lab report. This study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound 4-methoxyphenyl)methanol (105 -13 -5) on the growth of green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The study was conducted following OECD guideline 201- Alga, growth inhibition test. The test concentration chosen for the study were 6.25mg/l, 12.5mg/l, 25mg/l, 50mg/l, 100mg/l and 200mg/l. All the tests were carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized. The test solution in each of these test vessels was kept constant which is 60 ml so that a sufficient amount of head space was left. The test solution was prepared in aseptic condition. The test substance 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was prepared by adding 60 µl of test substance in 300 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200 mg/L. The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. To have a better growth and visibility of cells, the initial cell density of the culture was kept 1 X 104 cells/ml. Care was taken to have a homogeneous solution for the experiment. For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined. After 72 hours of exposure to test item 4-methoxyphenyl) methanol to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200mg/l and the EC10 was determine to be 158.49 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be consider that the chemical was nontoxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Based on the predicted data for the target chemical (from OECD QSAR 2018 and EPIsuite) and for the read across chemical from experimental lab reports (ABITEC reports and UERL lab), it can be concluded that the substance Anisoyl chloride (4-Methoxybenzoyl Chloride) (100 -07 -2) is considered to be not toxic to aquatic environment (aquatic algae and cyanobacteria) and cannot be classified as toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.