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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Ames test: non mutagenic (read-across, OECD 471, GLP, K, rel. 1 and read-across, equivalent to OECD 471, K rel.2).

Link to relevant study records

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Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
01-22 August 2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. / 130050
- Physical state: Clear colorless liquid
- Date of manufacture: 26 March 2014
- Date of receipt: 09 July 2014
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 27 September 2015
- Purity test date: 30 June 2014

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Stored at room temperature, protected from light
- Stability: Test substance was considered stable through 27 September 2015
Target gene:
Histidine and tryptophan
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
10 % S9: S9-mix from the livers of male Sprague-Dawley rats induced with Aroclor 1254
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Initial toxicity-mutation assay: 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation
Retest of the initial toxicity-mutation assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 1537) with and without metabolic activation
Confirmatory mutagenicity assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
- Test substance dilutions were prepared immediately before use and delivered to the test system at room temperature under yellow light.
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
9-aminoacridine
2-nitrofluorene
sodium azide
other: methyl methanesulfonate
Remarks:
Without metabolic activation
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
yes
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
yes
Positive control substance:
other: 2-aminoanthracene
Remarks:
With metabolic activation
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
TEST SYSTEM: Salmonella tester strains (TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537) were derived from Dr. Bruce Ames’ cultures; E. coli tester strains (WP2 uvrA) were from the National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, Aberdeen, Scotland.

METHOD OF APPLICATION: in agar (plate incorporation)

DURATION
- Exposure duration: 48-72 h at 37 ± 2 °C

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
Duplicate plates/dose

DETERMINATION OF CYTOTOXICITY
- Method: The condition of the bacterial background lawn was evaluated for evidence of test substance toxicity by using a dissecting microscope. Precipitate was evaluated after the incubation period by visual examination without magnification.

- OTHER:
- Solubility Test: A solubility test was conducted using sterile water and DMSO to determine the vehicle, selected in order of preference, that permitted preparation of the highest soluble or workable stock concentration up to 50 mg/mL for aqueous solvents and up to 500 mg/mL for organic solvents.
- Revertant colonies for a given tester strain and activation condition, except for positive controls, were counted either entirely by automated colony counter or entirely by hand unless the plate exhibited toxicity.
- Sterility of the test substance and the vehicle, all test substance dose levels and the vehicle used in the initial toxicity-mutation and confirmatory mutagenicity assays were plated on selective agar with an aliquot volume equal to that used in the assay. These plates were incubated under the same conditions as the assay.
Evaluation criteria:
The following criteria must be met for the initial toxicity-mutation and the confirmatory mutagenicity assays to be considered valid.
All Salmonella tester strain cultures must demonstrate the presence of the deep rough mutation (rfa) and the deletion in the uvrB gene. Cultures of tester strains TA98 and TA100 must demonstrate the presence of the pKM101 plasmid R-factor. All WP2 uvrA cultures must demonstrate the deletion in the uvrA gene.
All cultures must demonstrate the characteristic mean number of spontaneous revertants in the vehicle controls as follows (inclusive): TA98, 10 - 50; TA100, 80 - 240; TA1535, 5 - 45; TA1537, 3 - 21; WP2 uvrA, 10 - 60.
To ensure that appropriate numbers of bacteria are plated, tester strain culture titers must be greater than or equal to 0.3x10^9 cells/mL.
The mean of each positive control must exhibit at least a 3.0-fold increase in the number of revertants over the mean value of the respective vehicle control.
A minimum of four non-toxic dose levels is required to evaluate assay data.
A dose level is considered toxic if one or both of the following criteria are met: (1) A >50 % reduction in the mean number of revertants per plate as compared to the mean vehicle control value. This reduction must be accompanied by an abrupt dose-dependent drop in the revertant count. (2) At least a moderate reduction in the background lawn (background code 3, 4 or 5).
Statistics:
None
Key result
Species / strain:
other: S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
TEST-SPECIFIC CONFOUNDING FACTORS
-Solubility: DMSO was selected as the solvent of choice based on the solubility of the test substance and compatibility with the target cells. The test substance formed a clear solution in DMSO at approximately 500 mg/mL, the maximum concentration tested in the solubility test.
- Precipitation: No precipitate was observed.

MUTATION ASSAY
Initial Toxicity-Mutation Assay: In Experiment B1 (Initial Toxicity-Mutation Assay), the maximum dose tested was 5000 μg/plate; this dose was achieved using a concentration of 100 mg/mL and a 50 μL plating aliquot. The dose levels tested were 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 or WP2 uvrA in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains. Due to confluent bacterial growth, tester strain TA1537 was not evaluated for mutagenicity but was retested in Experiment B2 based on the precipitate and toxicity profile observed (i.e., toxicity at 5000 μg/plate and no precipitate). Based on the findings of the initial toxicity-mutation assay, the maximum dose plated in the retest and confirmatory mutagenicity assays was 5000 μg/plate.
In Experiment B2 (Retest of the Initial Toxicity-Mutation Assay), no positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strain TA1537 in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed at 5000 μg/plate.
Confirmatory Mutagenicity Assay: In Experiment B3 (Confirmatory Mutagenicity Assay), no positive mutagenic responses were observed with any of the tester strains in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains.

OTHERS:
Sterility results: No contaminant colonies were observed on the sterility plates for the vehicle control, the test substance dilutions or the S9 and Sham mixes.

None

Conclusions:
Under the test condition, test substance is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA according to the criteria of the Annex VI of the Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP).
Executive summary:

In a reverse gene mutation assay performed according to the OECD test guideline No. 471 and in compliance with GLP, S. typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100 and E.coli strain WP2 uvrA were exposed to test substance both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (10% liver S9-mix) using the plate incorporation method. The first phase, the initial toxicity- mutation assay, was used to establish the dose-range for the confirmatory mutagenicity assay and to provide a preliminary mutagenicity evaluation. The second phase, the confirmatory mutagenicity assay, was used to evaluate and confirm the mutagenic potential of the test substance.

 

Initial toxicity-mutation assay: 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation

Retest of the initial toxicity-mutation assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 1537) with and without metabolic activation

Confirmatory mutagenicity assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation

Vehicle (DMSO) and positive control groups were also included in mutagenicity assay.

 

The vehicle (dimethyl sulphoxide) control plates gave counts of revertant colonies within the normal range. All of the positive control chemicals used in the test induced marked increases in the frequency of revertant colonies, both with or without metabolic activation. Thus, the sensitivity of the assay and the efficacy of the S9-mix were validated.

 

In the initial toxicity-mutation assay, the maximum dose tested was 5000 μg/plate; this dose was achieved using a concentration of 100 mg/mL and a 50 μL plating aliquot. The dose levels tested were 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 or WP2uvrA in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains. Due to confluent bacterial growth, tester strain TA1537 was not evaluated for mutagenicity but was retested based on the precipitate and toxicity profile observed (i.e., toxicity at 5000 μg/plate and no precipitate). Based on the findings of the initial toxicity-mutation assay, the maximum dose plated in the retest and confirmatory mutagenicity assays was 5000 μg/plate.

 

In the retest of the initial toxicity-mutation assay, no positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strain TA1537 in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed at 5000 μg/plate.

 

In the confirmatory mutagenicity assay, no positive mutagenic responses were observed with any of the tester strains in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains.

 

Under the test condition, test substance is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA according to the criteria of

the Annex VI of the Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP).

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1983
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
E. coli or S. typhimurium TA 102 is missing; no data on number of bacterial cells per culture, test strain characteristics, individual/mean plate count and positive controls; lower doses not reported; only duplicate cultures used/dose
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Source: Japan Food Additives Association, Tokyo
- Storage condition of test material: Stored at refrigerator
Target gene:
No data
Species / strain / cell type:
other: TA 92, TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 94 and TA 98
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not applicable
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Metabolic activation system:
30 %v/v S9 fraction; Liver microsome fraction (S9) was prepared from the liver of Fischer rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls (500 mg/kg bw)
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
Maximum concentration: 1 mg/plate
Vehicle / solvent:
- Vehicle(s)/solvent(s) used: DMSO
Untreated negative controls:
no
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
no
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
SOURCE OF TSET SYSTEM
All these test strains were originally provided by Dr B. N. Ames, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

METHOD OF APPLICATION: Preincubation

DURATION
- Preincubation period: Cells cultured overnight were pre-incubated with both the test sample and the S-9 mix for 20 min at 37 °C before plating.
- Exposure duration: The number of revertant (his +) colonies was scored after incubation at 37 °C for 2 days.

NUMBER OF REPLICATIONS:
Duplicate plates/concentration
Evaluation criteria:
The result was considered positive if the number of colonies found was twice the number in the control (exposed to the appropriate solvent or untreated).
If no reasonable dose response was detected, additional experiments using different doses or induced mutation frequency assays were performed.
Statistics:
None
Key result
Species / strain:
other: TA 92, TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 94 and TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were detected in any S. typhimurium strains at the maximum concentration.

None

Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, test substance is not considered as mutagenic in this bacterial system.
Executive summary:

In a reverse gene mutation assay in bacteria, performed similarly to the OECD Guideline 471, strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA 92, TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 94 and TA 98) were exposed to Linalool up to 1 mg/plate, with and without metabolic activation (30 % v/v S9 fraction of Fischer rats liver induced with polychlorinated biphenyls) according to the pre-incubation method.

No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were detected in any S. typhimurium strains at the maximum concentration.

 

Under the test conditions, test substance is not considered as mutagenic in this bacterial system.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
[Further information is included as attachment to Section 13]
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
no
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Not applicable
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
SOURCE OF TEST MATERIAL
- Source and lot/batch No.of test material: Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. / 130050
- Physical state: Clear colorless liquid
- Date of manufacture: 26 March 2014
- Date of receipt: 09 July 2014
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 27 September 2015
- Purity test date: 30 June 2014

STABILITY AND STORAGE CONDITIONS OF TEST MATERIAL
- Storage condition of test material: Stored at room temperature, protected from light
- Stability: Test substance was considered stable through 27 September 2015
Key result
Species / strain:
other: S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and E. coli WP2
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
cytotoxicity
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
valid

None

Conclusions:
Under the test condition, Lavender oil is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA according to the criteria of the Annex VI of the Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP). Therefore, the registered substance Clary sage oil is not not considered as mutagenic in bacterial system.
Executive summary:

In a reverse gene mutation assay performed according to the OECD test guideline No. 471 and in compliance with GLP, S. typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100 and E.coli strain WP2 uvrA were exposed to test substance both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system (10% liver S9-mix) using the plate incorporation method. The first phase, the initial toxicity- mutation assay, was used to establish the dose-range for the confirmatory mutagenicity assay and to provide a preliminary mutagenicity evaluation. The second phase, the confirmatory mutagenicity assay, was used to evaluate and confirm the mutagenic potential of the test substance.

 

Initial toxicity-mutation assay: 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation

Retest of the initial toxicity-mutation assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 1537) with and without metabolic activation

Confirmatory mutagenicity assay: 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537 and WP2uvrA) with and without metabolic activation

Vehicle (DMSO) and positive control groups were also included in mutagenicity assay.

 

The vehicle (dimethyl sulphoxide) control plates gave counts of revertant colonies within the normal range. All of the positive control chemicals used in the test induced marked increases in the frequency of revertant colonies, both with or without metabolic activation. Thus, the sensitivity of the assay and the efficacy of the S9-mix were validated.

 

In the initial toxicity-mutation assay, the maximum dose tested was 5000 μg/plate; this dose was achieved using a concentration of 100 mg/mL and a 50 μL plating aliquot. The dose levels tested were 1.5, 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 or WP2uvrA in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains. Due to confluent bacterial growth, tester strain TA1537 was not evaluated for mutagenicity but was retested based on the precipitate and toxicity profile observed (i.e., toxicity at 5000 μg/plate and no precipitate). Based on the findings of the initial toxicity-mutation assay, the maximum dose plated in the retest and confirmatory mutagenicity assays was 5000 μg/plate.

 

In the retest of the initial toxicity-mutation assay, no positive mutagenic responses were observed with tester strain TA1537 in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed at 5000 μg/plate.

 

In the confirmatory mutagenicity assay, no positive mutagenic responses were observed with any of the tester strains in either the presence or absence of S9 activation. The dose levels tested were 5.0, 15, 50, 150, 500, 1500 and 5000 μg/plate. No precipitate was observed. Toxicity was observed beginning at 1500 or at 5000 μg/plate with all Salmonella tester strains.

 

Under the test condition, test substance is not mutagenic with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and E.coli WP2 uvrA according to the criteria of

the Annex VI of the Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP). Therefore, the registered substance Clary sage oil  is not not considered as mutagenic in bacterial system.

Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
[Further information is included as attachment to Section 13]
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 471 (Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay)
Deviations:
not applicable
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species / strain:
other: TA 92, TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 94 and TA 98
Metabolic activation:
with and without
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not applicable
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were detected in any S. typhimurium strains at the maximum concentration.
Conclusions:
Under the test conditions, Linalool is not considered as mutagenic in bacterial system. Therefore, the registered substance Clary sage oil is not considered as mutagenic in bacterial system.
Executive summary:

In a reverse gene mutation assay in bacteria, performed similarly to the OECD Guideline 471, strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA 92, TA 1535, TA 100, TA 1537, TA 94 and TA 98) were exposed to Linalool up to 1 mg/plate, with and without metabolic activation (30 % v/v S9 fraction of Fischer rats liver induced with polychlorinated biphenyls) according to the pre-incubation method.

 No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were detected in any S. typhimurium strains at the maximum concentration.

 Under the test conditions, linalool is not considered as mutagenic in this bacterial system. Therefore, the registered substance Clary sage oil is not considered as mutagenic in bacterial system.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

A Bacterial Reverse mutation Assay (Ames test) was performed according to OECD test guideline No 471 with Lavender oil. No significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies were recorded for

any of the bacterial strains, with any dose, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation.

Lavender oil does not induce gene mutations in bacteria under the test conditions whereas the positive control chemical (with and without metabolic activation) induced significant increase of colonies.

A Bacterial Reverse mutation Assay (Ames test) was performed, equivalently to guideline OECD 471 with Linalool. No significant increases in the frequency of revertant colonies were recorded for

any of the bacterial strains, with any dose, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation

Lavender oil, linalool and therefore clary sage oil, are considered as non-mutagenic according to the Ames test.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Harmonized classification:

The registered substance has no harmonized classification according to the Regulation (EC) No.1272/2008.

Self-classification:

Based on the available information, no classification is proposed.