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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Short term toxicity to fish:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the seven closest read across substances, toxicity on Danio rerio predicted for test chemical 2-furoic acid. The LC50 value was estimated to be 163.370 mg/L when 2-furoic acid exposed to Danio rerio for 96 hrs.

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the six closest read across substances, toxicity on daphnia magna predicted for 2-furoic acid. The EC50 value was estimated to be 116.78 mg/L when test chemical 2- furoic acid was exposed to daphnia magna for 48hrs.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

Toxicity of test chemical 2-furoic acid (CAS no. 88-14-2) was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.4 with log Kow as primary descriptor and considering the eight closest read across substances. When test chemical 2-furoic acid was exposed for 72 hrs on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum) alga, EC50 value was estimated to be 123.40 mg/L. Since EC50 value is greater than 100 mg/L it is concluded that this test chemical can be considered to be not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to microrganisms:

Toxicity to microrganism of target chemical 2- furoic acid was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.4 using Log kow as primary descriptor and considering seven closest read across substances. IGC50 value of target chemical 2 furoic acid was estimated to be 459.221 mg/L when exposed to Tetrahymena pyriformis for 48 hrs.

Additional information

Short term toxicity to fish:

Different predicted data study for target chemical 2-furoic acid from different sources and experimental studies for read across chemical have been conducted to determine short term toxicity to fish which are summarized below.

First predicted data study was done by using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the seven closest read across substances, toxicity on Danio rerio predicted for test chemical 2-furoic acid. The LC50 value was estimated to be 163.370 mg/L when 2-furoic acid exposed to Danio rerio for 96 hrs.

Another prediction done by EPI suite, ECOSAR version 1.1 (2017), on the basis of similarity of structure to chemicals for which the aquatic toxicity has been previously measured by structure-activity relationships (SARs) program, to determine the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic fish . On the basis of this program, the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic fish was predicted to be 7336.407 mg/l for 2-furoic acid in 96 hrs.

Last predicted data study was done according to aquatic toxicity module i. e ACD/Labs I-Lab 2.0; Algorithm Version: v5.0.0.184 (2017) the lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance 2 -furoic acid as predicted to be 730 mg/L on fish species Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Based on the LC50 calculation the estimated Reliability Index (RI) of test chemical 2-furoic acid predicted to be 0.7 (As per model substance have moderate and high reliability if RI > 0.5). Thus reported RII value indicates it has moderate reliability. And LC50 value indicates that the test substance 2-furoic acid considered as non-toxic, to aquatic organisms and thus cannot classified as per the CLP criteria.

Next study was experimental study done from authoritative database (Ecotox, 2017) In this study Short term toxicity to fish Leuciscus idus ssp. Melanotus was determined by exposing it to read across chemical furfuryl alcohol (CAS no. 98-00-0). LC 50 value was determined to be 701 mg/L in 48 hrs. Since LC 50 value is greater than 100 mg/L read across chemical furfuryl alcohol is considered as not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

Last study was also experimental study done from same source as mentioned above (Ecotox, 2017) In this study Short term toxicity to fish Leuciscus idus ssp. Melanotus was determined by exposing it to read across chemical 2-Methylfuran (CAS no. 534-22-5). LC 50 value was determined to be 237 mg/L in 48 hrs. Since LC 50 value is greater than 100 mg/L read across chemical 2-Methylfuran is considered as not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

By considering results of all above mentioned studies for target chemical 2-furoic acid and its read across chemical LC50 value falls in range of 163.370 – 7336.407 mg/L . Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance 2-furoic acid is considered to be non toxic to aquatic environment and can be classified in non classified category as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates:

Following studies include the predicted data and for the target chemical and and experimental study for structurally similar read across to conclude the toxicity extent of 2- furoic acid (CAS: 88-14-2) towards aquatic invertebrate are summarized as follows:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log Kow as the primary descriptor and considering the six closest read across substances, toxicity on daphnia magna predicted for 2-furoic acid. The EC50 value was estimated to be 116.78 mg/L when test chemical 2- furoic acid was exposed to daphnia magna for 48hrs.

In another study prediction was done by EPI suite, ECOSAR version 1.1, on the basis of similarity of structure to chemicals for which the aquatic toxicity has been previously measured by structure-activity relationships (SARs) program, the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was predicted. On the basis of this program, the LC 50 value for short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates was predicted to be 3796.986 mg/L for test chemical 2 -furoic acid in 48 hrs.

Next predicted data study was based on the average value of both models (Leadscope Enterprise model and SciMatics SciQSAR model), the results were predicted in Battery model. Based on the Danish (Q)SAR Database, the 48 hours EC50 was estimated to be 106.54 mg/L on Daphnia Magna for substance 2 -furoic acid with immobilization effects.

The supporting experimental study done from authoritative database Ecotox (2017) in this study the short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrate i.e., Daphnia Magna was determined by exposing it to read across chemical furfuryl alcohol (CAS no. 98-00-0). LC 50 value was determined to be 115 mg/L. Since LC 50 value is greater than 100 mg/L read across chemical furfuryl alcohol is considered as not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

Another experimental study done from same source as mentioned above (Ecotox, 2017) in this study the short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrate i.e., Daphnia Magna was determined by exposing it to fresh water containing read across chemical 2-Methylfuran (CAS no. 534-22-5) in static condition. LC50 value was determined to be 910 mg/L on the basis of intoxication of daphnia magna. Since LC 50 value is greater than 100 mg/L read across chemical 2-Methylfuran is considered as not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 106.54 - 3796.986 mg/L give the conclusion that test substance 2- furoic acid (CAS: 88-14-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic invertebrate at environmentally relevant concentrations and applying weight of evidence approach it can be considered to be “not Classified” as per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

Results of predicted data study for target chemical2 -furoic acid(CAS no. 88-14-2) and experimental studies for read across chemical have been conducted to determine toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria endpoint are summarized below.

In first weight of evidence study toxicity of test chemical2 -furoic acid (CAS no. 88-14-2) was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.4 with log Kow as primary descriptor and considering the eight closest read across substances. When test chemical2 -furoic acid was exposed for 72 hrs on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (previous names: Raphidocelis subcapitata, Selenastrum capricornutum) alga, EC50 value was estimated to be 123.40 mg/L. Since EC50 value is greater than 100 mg/L it is concluded that this test chemical can be considered to be not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

In second weight of evidence study the short-term toxicity of the test substance 2 -furoic acid (CAS no. 88-14-2) to green algae was predicted using EPI Suite ECOSAR version 1.10. On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system during a 96 hr exposure, the effect concentration (EC50) for the substance is estimated to be 1928.156 mg/L. Based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 2 -furoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to green algae at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

In third weight of evidence study the estimated 72 hrs EC 50 value of test substance 2 -furoic acid on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was determined by three different models i.e, Battery, Leadscope and SciQSAR used within Danish QSAR database. The average EC50 value was given by the third model i.e, Battery model. Based on inhibition in growth rate of test organism Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in a static freshwater system, the estimated 72 hrs EC50 value was predicted to be 186.338 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of EC50 value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 2 -furoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to green algae at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Fourth was experimental weight of evidence study done from authoritative database (Ecotox, 2017) for read across chemical furfuryl alcohol. Short term toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanoabacteria i.e., Chlorococcales was determined by exposing it to read across chemical furfuryl alcohol (CAS no. 98-00-0) for 24 hrs. EC 50 value was determined to be 1000 mg/L.

Last study was also experimental study done from same source as mentioned above ( Ecotox database, 2017) for read across chemical (2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid. Short term toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria i.e., Haematococcus pluvialis was determined by exposing it to fresh water containing read across chemical (2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid (CAS no. 110-16-7) in static condition. EC50 value was determined to be 125 mg/L.

By considering all the weight of evidence study mentioned above for target chemical it concluded that EC50 value of chemical 2-furoic acid will be in range of 123.40- 1928.156 mg/L  when test chemical exposed to aquatic algae. Since EC50 value is greater than 100 mg/L test chemical 2 furoic acid is considered as not classified according to CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to microrganisms:

Predicted data study for target chemical 2 furoic acid and experiment studies have been carried out for its read across chemicals for toxicity to microorganism endpoint and results of all the studies are summaried below.

First study was weight of evidence study in this study toxicity to microorganism of target chemical 2- furoic acid was estimated by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.4 using Log kow as primary descriptor and considering seven closest read across substances. IGC50 value of target chemical 2 furoic acid was estimated to be 459.221 mg/L when exposed to Tetrahymena pyriformis for 48 hrs.

Another study was supporting weight of evidence study in this IC 50 value of read across chemical 1H-Indazole (CAS no. 271-44-3) was determined to be 82.56 mg/L on the microorganisms Tetrahymena pyriformis (Ciliate) on the basis of population growth rate in 60 hrs at temperature 28 oC.

In Last weight of evidence study an experiment was performed on microorganisms Tetrahymena pyriformis on (Ciliate) and EC 50 value was obtained on the basis of proliferation in 60 hours of read across chemical 1-H-Pyrazole (CAS no. 288-13-1). EC50 value was determined to be 3530. 556 mg/L. 

Based on all the studies mentioned above it is concluded that this test chemical is non toxic.