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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental study result was performed accoridng to the OECD guidelines.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Test chemical concentrations used for the study was 100mg/l (nominal concentrations).
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Zebra Fish
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): average 1.96 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): average 0.083 g
- Housing:The fishes were kept in a static tank in tap water passed through reverse osmosis system, under natural conditions along with proper feed and aeration.
- Duration of housing: 15 days
- Photoperiod: 16 hour light and 8 hour darkness
- Diet : Standard brand feed, once daily
- Acclimatization: seven days
- Feeding frequency: Once in a day
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
190 mg of CaCO3
Test temperature:
24.5°C
pH:
7.1
Dissolved oxygen:
7.1 mg/l
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentratioin - 100 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Aquaria
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 5 liters of plastic aquaria filled with 2 liter of water
- Aeration: Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of experiment
- No. of organisms per vessel: 8 fishes

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light and 8 hours dark
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC0
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

OBSERVATIONS:

Mortality and symptoms

Nominal Concentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Mortality (cumulated) after

3 h

6 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

V1

V1

V1

V1

V1

V1

Control

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

Visible Symptoms:

Nominal Concentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

symptom (cumulated) after

3 h

6 h

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

V1

V1

V1

V1

V1

V1

Control

8

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

100

8

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

NS4

 

Explanation of symptoms:

A: apathy

N: Narcotic-like state

C: Swimming near water surface

M: Slow movements compared to control

NS: No abnormal symptoms

S: Surfacing behaviour

L: Loss of equilibrium

SM: Shimming movement

H1: Hyperactivity

H2: Hypo activity

B: Bending behavior

F: Fin rot

IS: Invert Swimming

SB: Swimming behaviour

RF: Respiratory Function

P: Pigmentation

E: Exopthalamos

SC: Schooling Effect

pH and oxygen content:

Nominal Concentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

pH readings after

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

Control

8

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.5

100

8

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.9

 

Nominal Concentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Oxygen content (mg/L) after

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

Control

8

7.0

6.9

6.5

6.7

100

8

7.0

6.8

6.6

6.5

 

Test temperature:

Nominal Concentration

(mg/l)

Number of fish

Temperature (°C) after

24 h

48 h

72 h

96 h

Control

8

23.8

23.5

23.6

23.5

100

8

23.8

23.5

23.6

23.5

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on nominal concentrations, the median lethal concentrations LC50 (96 h) for test chemical on Danio rerio (Zebra Fish) was determined to be > 100 mg/L.
Executive summary:

An acute toxicity test was conducted for 96 hrs for assessing the effect of test chemical on fish. The test was performed in accordance with the OECD guideline No. 203 “Fish Acute Toxicity Test”. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) of average weight 0.083 g and average length of 1.96 cm was used as a test organism for the study. Test fishes were kept in a static tank in tap water passed through reverse osmosis system, under natural conditions along with proper feed and aeration. During the housing period, test fishes were fed once daily with standard brand fed. The test conditions during the housing of the test organisms were oxygen content of 7.0 mg/l, pH 7.1, water temperature 24.5°C and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Limit test was conducted using 100 mg/l of nominal test chemical concentration which was not verified analytically. Total 8 fishes were exposed to test chemical in a 5 lit bowl aquaria containing 4 liters of potable water. The test vessels were placed in a room at a temperature of 24.5°C, pH 7.1, hardness of water 190 mg of CaCO3 and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of the experiment. No mortalities were observed in the control and test vessel. On the basis of effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organism, the median lethal concentration (LC50 (96 h)) value was determined to be > 100 mg/l. Thus, test chemical was considered as non-toxic to aquatic fishes and hence, considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

An acute toxicity test was conducted for 96 hrs for assessing the effect of test chemical on fish (Experimental study report, 2018). The test was performed in accordance with the OECD guideline No. 203 “Fish Acute Toxicity Test”. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) of average weight 0.083 g and average length of 1.96 cm was used as a test organism for the study. Test fishes were kept in a static tank in tap water passed through reverse osmosis system, under natural conditions along with proper feed and aeration. During the housing period, test fishes were fed once daily with standard brand fed. The test conditions during the housing of the test organisms were oxygen content of 7.0 mg/l, pH 7.1, water temperature 24.5°C and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Limit test was conducted using 100 mg/l of nominal test chemical concentration which was not verified analytically. Total 8 fishes were exposed to test chemical in a 5 lit bowl aquaria containing 4 liters of potable water. The test vessels were placed in a room at a temperature of 24.5°C, pH 7.1, hardness of water 190 mg of CaCO3 and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of the experiment. No mortalities were observed in the control and test vessel. On the basis of effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organism, the median lethal concentration (LC50 (96 h)) value was determined to be > 100 mg/l. Thus, test chemical was considered as non-toxic to aquatic fishes and hence, considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Various experimental studies of the test chemical and supporting weight of evidence studies for its functionally similar read across chemicals were reviewed for short term toxicity to fish end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental study from study report (2018), an acute toxicity test was conducted for 96 hrs for assessing the effect of test chemical on fish. The test was performed in accordance with the OECD guideline No. 203 “Fish Acute Toxicity Test”. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) of average weight 0.083 g and average length of 1.96 cm was used as a test organism for the study. Test fishes were kept in a static tank in tap water passed through reverse osmosis system, under natural conditions along with proper feed and aeration. During the housing period, test fishes were fed once daily with standard brand fed. The test conditions during the housing of the test organisms were oxygen content of 7.0 mg/l, pH 7.1, water temperature 24.5°C and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Limit test was conducted using 100 mg/l of nominal test chemical concentration which was not verified analytically. Total 8 fishes were exposed to test chemical in a 5 lit bowl aquaria containing 4 liters of potable water. The test vessels were placed in a room at a temperature of 24.5°C, pH 7.1, hardness of water 190 mg of CaCO3 and under a photoperiod of 16:8 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of the experiment. No mortalities were observed in the control and test vessel. On the basis of effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organism, the median lethal concentration (LC50 (96 h)) value was determined to be > 100 mg/l.

 

Another short term toxicity to fish study was carried out for 48 hrs (from Yashuhide TONOGAI et. al., 1982, authoritative databases and secondary source). The study was performed according to the procedure of Japan Industrial Standards. The study was based on the effects of the test chemical on Oryzias latipes in a static system at a temperature of 25°C. Oryzias latipes (Himedaka) of the same age (about 2 cm in length, 0.2 g In weight) was used as a test organism. Test organism Oryzias latipes was acclimated for 10 days in the tap water before experiment. Test chemical solution was prepared by dissolving the chemical in water and neutralized with 0.01 N NaOH or HCl, if necessary. Total 10 fishes of Himedaka per one trial were kept in 2 liter of deionized water at 25°C and, after 24 or 48 hrs, lethal concentration of 50% fish was determined. Based on effect on mortality of the test organism Oryzias latipes, the 24 and 48 hrs LC50 value was determined to be 1000 mg/l.

 

In a supporting weight of evidence study,short term toxicity to fish study was conducted for 96 hrs for assessing the effect of test chemical (Study report, 2016). The test was performed following the OECD guideline No. 203 “Fish Acute Toxicity Test”. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) of average weight 0.335 g and average length of 3.42 cm was used as a test organism for the study. Test fishes were kept in a static tank in tap water passed through reverse osmosis system, under natural conditions along with proper feed and aeration. During the housing period, test fishes were fed once daily with standard brand fed. The test conditions during the housing of the test organisms were oxygen content of 7.06 mg/l, pH 7.23, water temperature 24.53°C and under a photoperiod of 12:12 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Limit test was conducted using 100 mg/l of nominal test chemical concentration which was not verified analytically. Total 8 fishes were exposed to test chemical in a 5 lit bowl aquaria containing 4 liters of potable water. The test vessels were placed in a room at a temperature of 25°C, pH 7.01, hardness of water 148.5 mg of CaCO3 and under a photoperiod of 12:12 hr light: dark conditions, respectively. Aeration in test vessels was provided 1 day before the start of the experiment. No mortalities were observed in the control and test vessel. On the basis of effect of test chemical on mortality of the test organism, the median lethal concentration (LC50 (96 h)) value was determined to be > 100 mg/l.

 

For the test chemical, short term toxicity to fish study was conducted for 96 hrs for assessing the effect of test chemical (Secondary source, 2019). Pimephales promelas (Fathead minnow) was used as a test organism. The study was performed under static conditions at a temperature of 15°C, pH 6.6 to 7.1, alkalinity of 19 -32 mg/l as CaCO3 and dissolved oxygen≥ 5 mg/l. On the basis of the effect on mortality of the test organism Pimephales promelas, the 96 hr LC50 was determined to be > 180 mg/l (nominal conc.).  

 

On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that the test chemical can be considered as non-toxic to fish and hence, considered to be ‘not classified’ as per the CLP classification criteria.