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Description of key information

The skin sensitization potential of target chemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was assessedin various experimental studies which were conducted on guinea pigs and humans for target chemicaltartrazine (CAS No: 1934-21-0)and Brilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4). The predicted data usingQSAR toolboxhas also been compared with the experimental data.Based on the available data for the target and read across substances and applying the weight of evidence approach, it can be concluded that chemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) is unable to cause skin sensitization and thus can be considered as not sensitizing. Comparing the above annotations with the criteria of CLP regulation, it can be classified under the category “Not Classified”.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Skin sensitisation

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
skin sensitisation
Remarks:
in vivo
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: estimated below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using QSAR Toolbox version 3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study:
guinea pig maximisation test
Justification for non-LLNA method:
not specified
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material : 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid
- Molecular formula : C18H16N4O12S3
- Molecular weight : 576.538 g/mol
- Smiles notation : O=C(O)C1=NN(C(=O)[C@@H]1\N=N\c1ccc(S(=O)(=O)CCOS(=O)(=O)O)cc1)c1ccc(S(=O)(=O)O)cc1
- InChl : 1S/C18H16N4O12S3/c23-17-15(16(18(24)25)21-22(17)12-3-7-14(8-4-12)36(28,29)30)20-19-11-1-5-13(6-2-11)35(26,27)10-9-34-37(31,32)33/h1-8,15H,9-10H2,(H,24,25)(H,28,29,30)(H,31,32,33)/b20-19+
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Species:
guinea pig
Strain:
Dunkin-Hartley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
No data available
Route:
intradermal and epicutaneous
Vehicle:
not specified
Concentration / amount:
No data available
Day(s)/duration:
No data available
Adequacy of induction:
not specified
No.:
#1
Route:
epicutaneous, occlusive
Vehicle:
not specified
Concentration / amount:
No data available
Day(s)/duration:
72 hours
Adequacy of challenge:
not specified
No. of animals per dose:
20
Details on study design:
No data available
Reading:
1st reading
Hours after challenge:
72
Group:
test group
Dose level:
No data available
No. with + reactions:
0
Total no. in group:
20
Clinical observations:
No skin sensitization was observed in treated guinea pigs.
Remarks on result:
no indication of skin sensitisation
Cellular proliferation data / Observations:
No skin sensitization was observed in treated guinea pigs.

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Skin Sensitisation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and "h" )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and "m" )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and "s" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Vinyl Sulfones by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid moiety OR Amides OR Hydrazines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl diazo by Protein binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Schiff base formation OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives OR Schiff base formation >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones derivatives >> Pyrazolones and Pyrazolidinones  by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Unsaturated heterocyclic azo by DNA binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Michael-type addition on alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation by aldehyde formed after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation after aldehyde release >> Specific Acetate Esters OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes OR AN2 >> Shiff base formation for aldehydes >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> DNA Intercalators with Carboxamide Side Chain OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Amino Anthraquinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitro Azoarenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after diazonium or carbenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Amino Anthraquinones OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitro Azoarenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> p-Substituted Mononitrobenzenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Acylation OR SN2 >> Acylation >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group  >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Acylation involving a leaving group after metabolic activation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction OR SN2 >> Alkylation, ring opening SN2 reaction >> Four- and Five-Membered Lactones OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation OR SN2 >> DNA alkylation >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) OR SN2 >> Internal SN2 reaction with aziridinium and/or cyclic sulfonium ion formation (enzymatic) >> Vicinal Dihaloalkanes OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 Carbon atom >> Specific Acetate Esters OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation OR SN2 >> Nucleophilic substitution at sp3 carbon atom after thiol (glutathione) conjugation >> Geminal Polyhaloalkane Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 OR SN2 >> SN2 attack on activated carbon Csp3 or Csp2 >> Nitroarenes with Other Active Groups by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation AND Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group AND Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates AND SN2 AND SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom AND SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl diazo by Protein binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group All Lipid Solubility < 0.01 g/kg AND (!Undefined)Group CNS Surface Tension > 62 mN/m AND Group All log Kow < -3.1 AND Group All Melting Point > 200 C AND Group CNS log Kow < 0.5 AND Group CNS log Kow < -2 AND Group CNS Melting Point > 120 C AND Group CNS Melting Point > 50 C by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as (!Undefined)Group C Surface Tension > 62 mN/m OR (!Undefined)Group CN Lipid Solubility < 0.4 g/kg OR (!Undefined)Group CNHal Lipid Solubility < 4 g/kg OR (!Undefined)Group CNHal Lipid Solubility < 400 g/kg OR Group All log Kow > 9 OR Group C Aqueous Solubility < 0.0001 g/L OR Group C Melting Point > 55 C OR Group C Molecular Weight > 350 g/mol OR Group C Vapour Pressure < 0.0001 Pa OR Group CHal log Kow > 4.5 OR Group CHal Melting Point > 65 C OR Group CHal Molecular Weight > 280 g/mol OR Group CN Aqueous Solubility < 0.0001 g/L OR Group CN Aqueous Solubility < 0.1 g/L OR Group CN log Kow > 4.5 OR Group CN log Kow > 5.5 OR Group CN Melting Point > 180 C OR Group CN Molecular Weight > 290 g/mol OR Group CN Molecular Weight > 540 g/mol OR Group CN Vapour Pressure < 0.001 Pa OR Group CNHal Aqueous Solubility < 0.001 g/L OR Group CNHal Aqueous Solubility < 0.1 g/L OR Group CNHal log Kow > 3.8 OR Group CNHal Molecular Weight > 370 g/mol OR Group CNHal Molecular Weight > 380 g/mol OR Group CNS Molecular Weight > 620 g/mol by Skin irritation/corrosion Exclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters of organic sulfonic or sulfuric esters by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amines by Skin irritation/corrosion Inclusion rules by BfR

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Similarity boundary:Target: OC(=O)C1C(N=Nc2ccc(S(=O)(=O)CCOS(O)(=O)=O)cc2)C(=O)N(c2ccc(S(O)(=O)=O)cc2)N=1
Threshold=20%,
Dice(Atom centered fragments)
Atom type; Count H attached; Hybridization

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Thiocarbamates/Sulfides (Hepatotoxicity) No rank by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic compound AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Heterocyclic compound AND Sulfonic acid AND Sulfonic acid derivative AND Sulfuric acid derivative AND Sulfuric acid monoester by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Sulfenic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -7.06

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= -1.08

Interpretation of results:
other: Not sensitizing
Conclusions:
The chemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was estimated to be not sensitizing to the skin of Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. Based on the estimated result 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) failed to induce skin sanitization effects and hence is considered to be not sensitizing to Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs.
Executive summary:

The skin sensitization potential of 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was estimated using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log Pow as the primary descriptor. The chemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was estimated to be not sensitizing to the skin of Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. Based on the estimated result 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) failed to induce skin sanitization effects and hence is considered to be not sensitizing to Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs and can be classified under the category ˋ Not Classified’ as per CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (not sensitising)
Additional information:

Various studieshas been investigated for the test chemical4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) to observe the potential for skin sensitization to a greater or lesser extent. The studies are based on in vivo experiments in guinea pigs and humans for target chemical4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) and its structurally similar read across substancestartrazine (CAS No: 1934-21-0)and Brilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4).The predicted data using the OECD QSAR toolbox has also been compared with the experimental data and summarized as below;

 

The skin sensitization potential of 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was estimated using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.4 with log Pow as the primary descriptor. The substance 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) was estimated to be not sensitizing to the skin of guinea pigs. Based on the estimated result 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) failed to induce skin sanitization effects and hence is considered to be not sensitizing to guinea pigs.

 

The S. Pestana, M. Moreira and B. Oleja conducted {Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2010;38(3):142–146} double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC)   to assess the sensitization potential of read across chemical Tartrazine (CAS No: 1934-21-0) in humans. Double-blind placebo controlled cross-over challenge (DBPCC) was used, gold standard method in the diagnosis of allergic reactions to food and drugs. Capsules were manufactured by an external pharmacist who maintained the code until all the challenges were completed. Briefly, each volunteer was challenged either with tartrazine (Yellow dye no. 5, FD & C) in one visit, or placebo (talc) on another visit, one week apart. In the first visit, patients were randomised to receive three identical opaque capsules containing tartrazine or placebo (talc) in three steps. The administered dose of tartrazine was progressively increased from 5mg in the first administration to 10mg in the second one and to 20 mg in the last one. Patients were examined for Erythematous rash, Pruritus and Urticaria/angioedema fifty minutes after the ingestion of each capsule, and 2 h after the last one. All patients stayed under observation for three hours after taking the last dose. All the subjects answered a questionnaire about symptoms after this period and were interviewed by phone the next day. No Erythematous rash, Pruritus, Urticaria/angioedema observed in any of the 26 human volunteers. Tartrazine was considered to be not sensitizing when atopic adults were tested by using Double-blind placebo controlled challenge.

 

 

The above results were further supported by the experimental study reported by the INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY (IPCS INCHEM) {Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives; (WHO Food Additives Series 16; IPCS INCHEM; 1975} and EFSA {EFSA Journal 2010;8(4):1540} on read across chemical Brilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4)in guinea pigs.Since the guinea pigs did not elicit any sensitizing effect, the test chemicalBrilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4)was considered to be not sensitizing to the guinea pigs.

 

Thus on the basis of available data for thetarget chemical4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) and its structurally similar read across substancestartrazine (CAS No: 1934-21-0)and Brilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4),it can be concluded thatchemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) is unable to cause skin sensitization and considered as non-skin sensitizer. Comparing the above annotations with the criteria of CLP regulation, it can be classified under the category “Not Classified”.

Respiratory sensitisation

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Justification for classification or non-classification

The skin sensitization potential of test substance 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) and its structurally similar read across substancestartrazine (CAS No: 1934-21-0)and Brilliant Black 1 (CAS No: 2519-30-4) were observed in various studies. From the results obtained from these studies it is concluded that the chemical 4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[[4-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]-1-(4-sulphophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (CAS No: 10149-98-1) is not likely to cause skin sensitization and hence can be classified as non-skin sensitizer.