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EC number: 310-013-6 | CAS number: 102110-15-6 A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by distillation of the products from a steam-cracking process. It consists predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers of C5 and dicyclopentadiene and boiling in the range of approximately 30°C to 170°C (86°F to 338°F).
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Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344N rats received 0, 312, 625, 1250, 2500, or 5000 mg toluene/Kg in corn oil by gavage for 13 weeks. All rats in the 5000 mg/Kg group died within the first week. In the 2500 mg/Kg group 8 males and one female died before termination of the study. The final mean body weight of males that received 2500 mg/Kg was 19% lower than that of vehicle controls. Clinical signs included prostration, hypoactivity, ataxia, piloerection, lachrymation, and excessive salivation in the 5000 and 2500 mg/Kg groups. Absolute and relative kidney weight was increased in males at 625 mg/Kg and higher, and in females at 1,250 mg/Kg and higher.
The differences in absolute and relative liver weights for female rats that received 2500 or 1250 mg/Kg (22-62% relative liver weight increase) and for males that received 1250 or 625 mg/Kg (8-78% relative liver weight increase) were statistically significant. Statistically significant increases were also seen in absolute and relative heart weight for male and female rats at 2500 and females at 1250 mg/Kg. Absolute, but not relative brain weight was reduced in both sexes at 2500 mg/Kg. There were no treatment related effects in the haematological and serum chemical analyses or urinalyses. Neuropathological changes in the brain, consisting of neuronal cell necrosis in the dentate gyrus and Ammons horn of the hippocampus, was seen in male and female rats that received 2500 or 1250 mg/Kg. In addition to the hippocampal lesions, necrosis and/or mineralisation were present in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Haemorrhage was present in the mucosa, submucosa, or muscularis of the urinary bladder of males and females of the two highest dose groups. A dose of 312 mg/kg did not cause any effects.
The NOAEL for repeat dose oral toxicity is considered to be 625 mg/Kg. At this dose increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weight (up to 46% increase in relative kidney weight, up to 78% increase in relative liver weight) were unaccompanied by histopathological findings were present. Therefore, the increased relative weights of liver and kidney are interpreted as toxicologically non-significant signs of metabolic activity related to exposure.
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