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EC number: 310-013-6
CAS number: 102110-15-6
A complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained by distillation of the products from a steam-cracking process. It consists predominantly of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers of C5 and dicyclopentadiene and boiling in the range of approximately 30°C to 170°C (86°F to 338°F).
The limited repeat dose toxicity data on
specific streams identified for this category (oral toxicity studies for
CAS 68477-54-3 [Low Dicyclopentadiene
Resin Oil] and CAS 648478-10-4
[Dicyclopentadiene/Codimer Concentrate] provided no evidence of
significant target organ toxicity. However, there are substantial data
on the repeated dose toxicity of a number of specific components
benzene, toluene, styrene and ethylbenzene present in some streams which
demonstrate significant target organ toxicity. Classification witll be
required for streams that contain concentrations greater than or equal
to 1% (benzene) or 10% (toluene).
dose toxicity data on Resin Oils and Cyclic Diene streams is limited
oral OECD guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the
Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test) studies on two
streams - CAS 68477-54-3 [Low Dicyclopentadiene Resin Oil] and CAS
848478-10-4 [Dicyclopentadiene/Codimer Concentrate].
68477-54-3 [Low Dicyclopentadiene Resin Oil]: Oral doses of 0, 35,
125, or 375 mg/Kg/day were administered once daily for 29 or 30 days. At
375 mg/Kg/day clinical signs of toxicity, lower body weight and food
consumption and histopathological changes were observed. In addition,
effects on body weight, clinical signs and food consumption were
observed in males at 125 mg/Kg/day. The NOAEL for systemic toxicity was
35 mg/Kg/day in male and 125 mg/Kg/day in female rats.
648478-10-4 [Dicyclopentadiene/Codimer Concentrate]: Oral gavage
doses of 0, 5, 25, or 100 mg/Kg/day were administered once daily for 29
or 30 days. The only toxicologically significant treatment-related
effects were histopathological changes in the thyroid (follicular cell
hypertrophy) at 25 and 100 mg/Kg/day in both males and females. The
NOAEL for systemic toxicity was 5 mg/Kg/day in male and female rats.
available data on the specific components dicyclopentadiene and xylenes
do not reveal any specific target organ toxicity of a severity that
would warrant classification. Therefore no classification or labelling
is warranted for streams that only contain these components.
(DCPD, dicyclopentadiene) is not classified for repeat dose toxicity
under CLP. While some effects were seen in repeat dose studies, these
are believed to be due to chronic irritation of the lungs and
gastrointestinal tract with secondary stress-related effects rather
specific target organ toxicity. DCPD is irritating; therefore it is
biologically plausible that the mortality is mostly attributable to
respiratory and gastric irritation effects rather than systemic effects.
Liver effects seen in the rat oral study were not considered sufficient
to warrant classification. Repeated
exposure inhalation studies in rodents show mortality at levels that
would be predicted by their LC50s, and appears related to
respiratory irritation/portal-of-entry effects. The original Bushy Run
90-day study showed mortality in the mice at 276 mg/m3. The LC50
in mice is about half that of rats, which might be expected for a
respiratory irritant (higher ventilation rate in the mouse).
specific components which have been identified as present in some
streams are benzene, toluene, styrene and ethylbenzene. These are
identified as producing serious target organ toxicity following repeated
oral, dermal or inhalation exposures in animals and man:
(Classification: GHS/CLP - STOT-RE Category 1, H372): After repeated
dose exposure via oral or inhalation routes, benzene causes adverse
effects on the haematopoietic system of animals and man. The oral LOAEL
was 25 mg/Kg bw/day for male and female mice (NTP, 1986) and the
inhalation LOAEC for haematotoxicity in mice is 10 ppm (32 mg/m3)
(Ward et al, 1985). In humans, a recent study of petroleum distribution
workers exposed to relatively low levels of benzene (Schnatter et al.,
2012) reported associations between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and
benzene exposure, however while the association appeared to be
reasonably robust, it was difficult to ascribe a precise dose/response
relationship. For humans, therefore, a NOAEC of 3.5 ppm (11.2 mg/m3)
is obtained based on the 95% LCL for the threshold level of neutrophils,
the most sensitive endpoint reported by Schnatter et al (2010).
(Classification: GHS/CLP - STOT-RE Category 2, H373): Toluene exposure
can produce central nervous system pathology in animals after high oral
doses. Repeated inhalation exposure can produce ototoxicity in the rat
and high concentrations are associated with local toxicity (nasal
erosion). In humans neuropsychological effects and disturbances of
auditory function and colour vision have been reported, particularly
when exposures are not well controlled and/or associated with noisy
environments. The NOAEC for subchronic oral toxicity in rats is 625
mg/Kg/day based on neuropathology (Huff, 1990). The NOAEC for inhalation
toxicity in the rat is 300 ppm (1131 mg/m3) based on effects
on body weight, mortality and adverse local effects (nasal erosion)
(Gibson and Hardisty, 1983). The NOAEC for neuropsychological effects,
auditory dysfunction and disturbances of colour vision in humans is 26
ppm (98 mg/m3) (Seeber et al, 2004); Schaper et al, 2003,
(Not currently classified): Inhalation studies in animals have reported
damage to the nasal olfactory epithelium in rats and mice, liver damage
in mice, eye irritation in rats and guinea pigs, ototoxicity in rats and
impaired nerve conduction velocity. The EU transitional RAR has
identified a NOAEC of 50 ppm in humans based on color vision
discrimination effects in occupationally exposed workers.
(Not currently classified): No repeated dose toxicity studies in humans
have been identified. The EU transitional RAR (EU, 2008a) concluded
"Repeat-dose or prolonged exposure to ethylbenzene specifically affected
the nervous system, but did not induce overt toxicity of any other organ
system." The auditory system is the most sensitive to the toxic effects
of ethylbenzene after inhalation exposure (Gagnaire et al, 2007) while
the liver is the most sensitive following oral exposure (Mellert et al,
2006). The LOAEL for ototoxicity was 200 ppm (868 mg/m3) and
the NOAEL for hepatotoxicity was 75 mg/Kg/day in a 13 week oral gavage
study in rats.
(2008a). Draft Risk Assessment Report for Ethylbenzene.
are sufficient data available to conclude that streams within this class
which contain less than 1% benzene and less than 10% toluene do not
require classification for this endpoint.
which contain ≥1% but less than 10% benzene should be classified as Cat
2, H373 according to Reg (EC) 1272/2008; streams containing ≥10% benzene
should be classified as Cat 1, H372 according to Reg (EC) 1272/2008.
which contain ≥10% toluene should be classified as Cat 2, H373 according
to Reg (EC) 1272/2008.
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner.
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