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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material : 2-Chloro-p-phenylenediamine SO4
- Molecular formula : C6H7ClN2xH2O4S
- Molecular weight : 240.6661 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: No data
- Impurities (identity and concentrations): No data
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle / solvent:
No data
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Untreated negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Additional information on results:
No data
Remarks on result:
no mutagenic potential (based on QSAR/QSPR prediction)

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and "f" )  and "g" )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and "l" )  and ("m" and ( not "n") )  )  and ("o" and ( not "p") )  )  and ("q" and ( not "r") )  )  and ("s" and ( not "t") )  )  and ("u" and "v" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Radical OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN1 OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine by DNA binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Weak binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (amino-para) OR Anilines (Unhindered) OR Inorganic Compound by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found AND Radical AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) AND Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation AND SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Single-Ring Substituted Primary Aromatic Amines by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3 ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found AND SN1 AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation AND SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine by DNA binding by OECD ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, non cyclic structure AND Weak binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group OR Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Strong binder, NH2 group OR Strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides by Protein binding by OASIS v1.3

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as High (Class III) AND Low (Class I) by Toxic hazard classification by Cramer (original) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >> Michael addition to the quinoid type structures OR AN2 >> Michael addition to the quinoid type structures >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding alerts for Chromosomal aberration by OASIS v1.1

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Hemolytic anemia with methemoglobinemia) Rank A AND Anilines (Hepatotoxicity) Rank C AND Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Chlorphentermine (Hepatotoxicity) Alert by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Hemolytic anemia with methemoglobinemia) Rank A AND Anilines (Hepatotoxicity) Rank C AND Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Thiocarbamates/Sulfides (Hepatotoxicity) No rank by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aryl halide AND No functional group found AND Overlapping groups AND Precursors quinoid compounds by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amine, primary OR Alkyl arenes OR Alkyl halide OR Aminoaniline, meta OR Aniline OR Benzothiazole/ Benzoisothiazole OR Biphenyl OR Carboxylic acid OR Cycloalkane OR Ether by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -1.38

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 0.852

Conclusions:
2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemicals have been reviewed to determine the mutagenic nature of

2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate. The studies are as mentioned below:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, chromosomal aberration was predicted for 2-Chloro-p-phenylenediamine SO4. The study assumed the use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 2-Chloro-p-phenylenediamine SO4 was predicted to not induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

The predicted data is further supported by the data from read across chemicals as mentioned below:

Gentile et al (Mutation Research, 1987) performed gene mutation assay to evaluate the mutagenic nature of structurally and functionally similar read across chemical p-phenylenediamine (RA CAS no 106 -50 -3; IUPAC name: 1,4-diaminobenzene). Plate incorporation and preincubation assay were performed using S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system. The chemical was dissolved in DMSO at dose levels of 0, 10, 100, 1000 or 10000µg/plate. Concurrent solvent and positive controls were run concurrently for each strain in each test. The plates were observed for a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate. p-phenylenediamine did not induce gene mutation in the S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence the chemical is negative for mutation in vitro.

In a study for another structurally similar read across chemical by Zeiger et al (Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1988), m-Amino benzenesulfonic acid (RA CAS no 121 -47 -1; IUPAC name: m-Amino benzenesulfonic acid) was studied for its ability to induce mutations in strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The test compound was dissolved in DMSO and was tested at concentration of 0, 33, 100, 333, 1000 or 3333 µg/plate using Salmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA97 and TA98 in the presence and absence of 10 % and 30 % rat and hamster liver S9 metabolic activation system. Preincubation assay was performed with a preicubation for 20 mins. The plates were observed for histidine independence after 2 days incubation period. Concurrent solvent and positive controls were included in the study.  m-Amino benzene sulfonic acidis not mutagenic to theSalmonella typhimurium TA100, TA1535, TA97 and TA98 in the presence and absence of rat and hamster liver S9 metabolic activation system and hence it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, 2-chlorobenzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no 6219 -71 -2) does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.