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Environmental fate & pathways

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Description of key information

- QSAR estimation of biodegradability using EPISUITE v4.11, BIOWIN v4.10 prediction method, common functional groups within the substance indicating that the substance falls within the applicabiliy model, RL2, result: readily biodegradable

- non-GLP, non-guideline study, RL3, detection of alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism in E.coli, supporting the assumption that 2 -oxoglutaric acid is readily biodegradable.

- non-GLP, non-guideline study, RL3, detection of alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism in Alcaligenes eutrophus, supporting the assumption that 2 -oxoglutaric acid is readily biodegradable.

- non-GLP, non-guideline study, RL3, detection of alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism in E.coli, supporting the assumption that 2 -oxoglutaric acid is readily biodegradable.

Additional information

There are no biodegradation screening studies available for 2-oxoglutaric acid. However, it is known that 2-oxoglutaric acid is an integral part of the intermediary metabolism (common textbooks of biochemistry). The enzymes involved in the catabolism of 2-oxoglutaric acid are also well known and it was shown that they are ubiquitously expressed in many species (Biryukov et al., 1996). Testing of biodegradability of 2-oxoglutaric acid was omitted due to available published studies that provide information about the degradation of the test item in some bacteria. Additionally, the biodegradation was estimated using EPISuiteTM Software/ BIOWWIN. The results of both sources , QSAR and published results are complementary, 2-oxoglutaric acid is assumed to be readily biodegradable.

In one available study the inhibition of α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex activity by glutamate-phosphoanalogues was measured in E.coli and pigeon breast muscle extracts. α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex activity was determined by the α-ketoglutarate consumption in these cells extracts. However, the results demonstrate that the specific substrate for α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex is α-ketoglutarate and that structurally similar phosphoanalogues can inhibit its metabolism. These results show that the substance is an integral part of the intermediary metabolism and substantiate the assumption that it is readily biodegradable.

In another study the activity of the TFDA enzyme from Alcaligenes eutrophus (α-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenase) was determined in the absence and presence of α-ketoglutarate. CO2 evolution was also measured using radiolabeled α-ketoglutarate. The trapped radioactivity was 63.5 and 72.2 %, respectively. Thus, these results demonstrate that α-ketoglutarate is an important part of the intermediary metabolism of Alcaligenes eutrophus and is readily degradable by these bacteria.

The third study was performed in order to provide evidence that α-ketoglutarate is able to take up CO2 if the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate is reversed in E. coli. Thus, it was demonstrated that α-ketoglutarate is an essential part of the intermediary metabolism in E. coli.

The biodegradability was also estimated by QSAR prediction: Using EPISUITE software and the BIOWIN models 2-oxoglutaric acid was considered to be readily biodegradable.

Recapitulatory, there are sufficient reliable and adequate information about the biodegradability of 2-oxoglutaric acid to conclude a very low bioaccumulation potential.

Hence, according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP) classification is not necessary with respect to biodegradation.