Registration Dossier

Environmental fate & pathways

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

Administrative data

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: sediment simulation testing
Remarks:
& surface water testing
Data waiving:
study scientifically not necessary / other information available
Justification for data waiving:
other:
Cross-referenceopen allclose all
Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2013-01-21 - 2013-03-18
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: well-documented GLP guideline study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method C.4-D (Determination of the "Ready" Biodegradability - Manometric Respirometry Test)
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: US EPA Draft OPPTS 835.3110 (Paragraph q)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Remarks:
Federal Office of Public Health, Swiss GLP Monitoring Authorities, Bern
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
No surrogate or analogue material was used.
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
sewage, predominantly domestic, adapted
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge: aerobic activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (ARA Ergolz II, Füllinsdorf, Switzerland) treating predominantly domestic sewage water
- Preparation: The sludge was washed twice with tap water by centrifugation and the supernatant liquid phase was decanted. A homogenized aliquot of the final sludge suspension was weighed, thereafter dried and the ratio of wet to dry weight was calculated
- Pretreatment: Holding period was 1 day before use at which the sludge was aerated at room temperature. The slugde was thoroughly mixed and diluted with test water to a concentration of 1 g/L (dry weight basis). Defined amounts were added to obtain a final concentration of 30 mg dry material / L.
Duration of test (contact time):
55 d
Initial conc.:
30 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) measurement
Details on study design:
TEST SYSTEM
- Culturing apparatus: The test flasks (500 mL reaction vessels, labeled with the necessary information to ensure mistakable identification) were incubated under continuous stirring in a SAPROMAT D12 (Voith GmbH, Heidenheim, Germany). Oxygen consumption was recorded manually by taking a daily reading at least on each working day.
- Electro-chemical analysis process: The biodegradation process consumes the dissolved oxygen in the test medium and generates CO2. The CO2 is adsorbed by soda lime, which results in a decrease of the total pressure in the aritight test flasks. The pressure drop is detected and converted into an electrical signal by means of an electrode type manometer. The consumed oxygen is replaced by electrolytically generated oxygen from a copper sulfate solution.
- Test duration: 55 days. In accordance with the testing guidelines the test was prolonged since the biodegradation curve of the test substance showed that biodegradation had started but the plateau had not been reached.
- Light conditions: Darkness
- Test temperature: 22 °C, maintained with a built-in thermostat and checked at least each working day
- pH: prior to test start, the pH was measured in each test flask before the addition of the activated sludge inoculum. At the end of incubation, the pH was measured again in each test flask.

TEST WATER
Analytical grade salts were dissolved in purified water to obtain the following stock solutions:
1) 8.50 g/L KH2PO4, 21.75 g/L K2HPO4, 33.40 g/L Na2HPO4 x 2H2O, 0.50 g/L NH4Cl (pH of this solution: 7.4)
2) 22.50 g/L MgSO4 x 7H2O
3) 36.40 g/L CaCl2 x 2H2O
4) 0.25 g/L FeCl3 x 6 H2O, stabilised with one drop of concentrated HCl per L
Final test water preparation: 10 mL of stock solution No. 1 and 1 mL of each stock solution 2, 3 and were combined and made up to 1000 mL with purified water. The pH was adjusted from 8.1 to 7.4 with a diluted hydrochloric acid solution.

TOXICITY CONTROL
- Composition: Test substance and reference substance
- Percent biodegradation: calculated based on the COD of the test substance and the ThOD of the reference substance
- Results: 47 % after 14 days, 54 % after 28 days and 60 % after 55 days
- Conclusion: The test substance had no inhibitory effect on activated sludge microorganisms at the tested concentration of 101 mg/L since biodegradation was > 25 % within 14 days.
Reference substance:
other: Sodium benzoate (99.7 % purity)
Preliminary study:
No preliminary study was performed. In accordance with the testing guidelines, the experiment was prolonged (55 instead of 28 days), since the biodegradation curve showed that biodegradation had started but the plateau had not been reached.
Test performance:
Neither unusual observations during the experiment nor any other information is available affecting the obtained results.
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
24
Sampling time:
55 d
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
13
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers was found to be biodegradable under the applied test conditions within 55 days. However, the pass level for ready biodegradability, i.e. biodegradation of at least 60 % of the COD in a 10-day window within the 28-day period of the experiment, was not reached.
Parameter:
COD
Value:
1.54 mg O2/g test mat.
Results with reference substance:
81 % after 14 days, 87 % after 28 days and 91 % at the end of the test (Day 55)

Table 2. Oxygen consumption in the test flasks

 

Cumulative oxygen consumption [mg/L]

 

Test item

Inoculum
control

Procedure
control

Toxicity
control

Time

Replicate No.

Replicate No.

Replicate No.

Replicate No.

[days]

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

7

0

9

2

3

1

2

4

80

74

82

3

8

2

6

6

105

96

109

4

8

3

7

6

124

114

127

5

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

6

10

7

10

9

136

128

141

7

12

8

12

11

142

134

146

8

13

11

14

13

146

138

150

9

13

11

14

13

148

138

151

10

14

11

14

13

149

142

154

11

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

12

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

13

17

14

16

15

154

146

166

14

19

17

18

17

156

150

170

15

22

19

18

17

157

152

172

16

24

21

18

18

158

152

175

17

26

24

18

18

160

154

176

18

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

19

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

20

32

32

21

19

164

156

183

21

34

33

21

21

165

158

185

22

36

35

22

21

166

158

187

23

36

36

22

21

167

160

188

24

38

37

22

21

167

160

189

25

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

26

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

27

42

41

23

21

170

163

194

28

44

42

23

21

170

163

195

29

44

44

24

22

171

163

196

30

46

45

25

23

172

173

197

31

46

47

25

23

173

173

199

32

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

33

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

34

48

48

25

23

174

173

202

35

50

49

25

23

175

173

203

36

50

50

25

23

176

173

205

37

51

51

25

23

176

173

206

38

53

52

27

24

177

173

207

39

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

40

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

41

57

56

27

24

179

173

212

42

57

57

27

25

180

173

213

43

57

58

28

25

181

173

214

44

59

59

29

26

182

175

215

45

59

60

29

27

183

175

216

46

59

60

29

27

183

175

216

47

59

61

29

27

183

175

217

48

61

62

29

27

183

175

218

49

63

64

30

27

184

178

219

50

63

64

30

28

184

178

220

51

63

65

30

28

184

178

220

52

63

67

30

28

185

178

221

53

65

67

31

28

185

178

222

54

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

55

66

70

31

29

186

178

224

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Validity criteria of the applied guideline are met.
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
The well-documented report describes a valid guideline study which was conducted under certificated GLP compliance. At Exposure Day 28 and at test end after 55 days, the mean biodegradation of 1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers amounted to 13 % and 24 % of the COD, respectively.
Executive summary:

The test substance 1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers was investigated for its ready biodegradability in a manometric respirometry test over 55 days according to the OECD Guideline 301 F, EU Method C.4‑D and US EPA Draft OPPTS 835.3110 (Paragraph (q)) (Eisner, 2013). In accordance with the testing guidelines the test was prolonged to 55 days since the biodegradation curve of the test item showed that biodegradation had started but the plateau had not been reached by Day 28. The percent biodegradation of the test item was calculated based on the chemical oxygen demand of 1.54 mg O2/mg test item. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers in the test media increased from test start until test termination after 55 days. At Exposure Day 28 and at test end after 55 days, the mean biodegradation of 1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers amounted to 13 % and 24 % of the COD, respectively. Consequently, the test substance was considered as not readily biodegradable under the test conditions. The pass level for ready biodegradability, i.e. biodegradation of at least 60 % of the COD in a 10‑day window within the 28‑day period of the test, was not reached. In the toxicity control containing both1,2,3-Propanetriol, glycidyl ethers and the reference item sodium benzoate, the run of the curve of the oxygen consumption over the 55‑day exposure period was similar but significantly higher than the one of the two procedure controls, containing only the reference item. Within 14 days of exposure, biodegradation amounted to 47 % and reaching 60 % at the end of the test at Day 55. Thus, according to the test guidelines, the test item had no inhibitory effect on activated sludge microorganisms at the tested concentration of 101 mg/L because biodegradation in the toxicity control was > 25 % within 14 days. In the procedure controls, the reference item was degraded by an average of 81 % by Exposure Day 14, thus confirming suitability of the activated sludge. At Day 28, the reference item was degraded by an average of 87 % and by 91 % at the end of test (Day 55).

Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reference
Endpoint:
partition coefficient
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Scientifically accepted calculation method.
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction
Principles of method if other than guideline:
KOWWIN v1.67 uses the chemical structure of a compound to predict the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient (logPow), which is calculated by determining LogPow contributions from individual molecular fragments and then summing up these contributions.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
Not applicable.
Type of method:
other: QSAR prediction
Partition coefficient type:
octanol-water
Type:
log Pow
Partition coefficient:
-1.78
Remarks on result:
other: Main component with clorine
Type:
log Pow
Partition coefficient:
-1.94
Remarks on result:
other: Main component without chlorine
Details on results:
The single fragments were detected as: aliphatic carbons (-CH2 (8 times) and –CH (4 times)) with coefficients of 0.49 and 0.36, respectively. A hydroxy aliphatic attach (-OH) with a coefficient of -1.41 and 5 oxygen as aliphatic attachments (-O-) with coefficients of -1.25, each. The main component containing chlorine possesses furthermore a single coefficient of 0.31 for the –CL fragment.
Conclusions:
The study report describes a scientifically accepted calculation method for determination of the partition coefficient using the US-EPA software KOWWIN v1.67. No GLP criteria are applicable for the usage of this tool and the QSAR estimation is easily repeatable.
Executive summary:

The partition coefficient of the test substance was determined by the computer program KOWWIN v1.67 (EPIWIN software) by US-EPA (Chemservice S.A., 2011; prediction was performed by the data owner). This program uses the chemical structure of a compound to predict the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient (logPow). Structures are used in their SMILES notation. LogPow is calculated by determining LogPow contributions from individual molecular fragments and then summing up these contributions. The single fragments were detected as: aliphatic carbons (-CH2 (8 times) and –CH (4 times)) with coefficients of 0.49 and 0.36, respectively. A hydroxy aliphatic attach (-OH) with a coefficient of -1.41 and 5 oxygen as aliphatic attachments (-O-) with coefficients of -1.25, each. The main component containing chlorine possesses furthermore a single coefficient of 0.31 for the –CL fragment. As overall result, the partition coefficient of the substance was calculated to be -1.78 with and -1.94 without chlorine.

Reason / purpose:
data waiving: supporting information
Reference
Endpoint:
adsorption / desorption
Remarks:
adsorption
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Scientifically accepted calculation method
Justification for type of information:
QSAR prediction
Principles of method if other than guideline:
KOCWIN program (v4.10): scientifically accepted calculation method for soil adsorption estimation of organic chemicals. Two different models are used for this estimation: the Sabljic Molecular Connectivity Index (MCI) method as well as the so-called traditional method, which is based on the LogPow.
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
not applicable
Type of method:
other: QSAR estimation
Media:
soil
Analytical monitoring:
not required
Computational methods:
Using the computer tool KOCWIN v2.00 by US-EPA (EPIWIN) the organic-normalized sorption coefficient for soil (soil adsorption, Koc) can be estimated. The following two different models are used: Salbjic molecular connectivity method (MCI) and the traditional method, which is based on the logPow value of the substance. In general, the MCI method is taken more seriously into account, due to the fact that it includes improved correction factors.
Phase system:
other: Koc
Type:
other: Koc
Value:
0.203 L/kg
Remarks on result:
other: LogPow-based estimate (traditional method)
Phase system:
other: Koc
Type:
other: Koc
Value:
10 L/kg
Remarks on result:
other: MCI method, includes improved correction factors - most relevant
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
scientifically accepted calculation method
Conclusions:
The Koc of the substance 1,2,3-propanetriol, glycidyl ethers was calculated to be 10 L/kg using the MCI method of KOCWIN program (v4.10), whereby the traditional method reveals a value of 0.2034 L/kg. In general, the MCI method is taken more seriously into account, due to the fact that it includes improved correction factors.
Executive summary:

The prediction for soil adsorption property of the substance 1,2,3-propanetriol, glycidyl ethers was determined by the computer program KOCWIN v2.00 (EPIWIN software) by US-EPA (Chemservice GmbH, 2011). The program estimates the organic-normalized sorption coefficient for soil, which is designated as Koc. The following two models are used: the Salbjic molecular connectivity (MCI) method as well as the traditional method which is based on the logPow value of the substance. The MCI method is taken more seriously into account, due to the fact that is includes improved correction factors, resulting in a Koc value of 10 L/kg. The traditional method gives a value of 0.2034 L/kg.

Data source

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion