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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to invertebrate was predicted 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) EC50 intoxication value was estimated to be 250.08 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration. It was concluded that 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) was likely to be not toxic to invetebrates.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to algae was predicted 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) EC50 intoxication value was estimated to be 217.95 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72 hrs duration. It was concluded that 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) was likely to be not toxic to algae.

Additional information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Following studies include the predicted data and experimental study for the target chemical and structurally similar read across to conclude the toxicity extent of 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2)towards invertebrate is summarized as follows:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to invertebrate was predicted 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) EC50 intoxication value was estimated to be 250.08 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hrs duration. It was concluded that 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) was likely to be not toxic to invetebrates.

The predicted data for the target chemical is supported by the experimental study of structurally similar read aross 1 -chlorobutane (CAS: 109 -69 -3) from the publication Water Research 1989, suggests that the Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates test was carried out according to the EU method C 2 (Acute toxicity to Daphnia). Test was carried out with 6 to 24 hr aged Daphnia magna under static condition at Hardness: 2.4 mmol/L, Test temp: 20 °C, pH: Test begin: 8.0 ± 0.2Test end: >7 and Dissolved oxygen: >4.0 mg/L O2.

The test vessels were two 50 ml beakers and for volatile or strongly smelling substances, two 50 ml bottles with ground-glass stoppers, each with 20 ml useful capacity. Two parallel preparations were made for each concentration step. Loading amounted to one test animal per 2 ml test medium as ten 6-24 h old daphnids were placed in each test and control vessel, i.e. 20 animals per concentration step. After a test period of 24 h and again after 48 h, the number of animals in the control and test solutions that could still swim were counted.

The Effective concentration EC50 to 50% of Daphnia magna for 1-chlorobutane in 48 h is 3020 mg/L. It can be concluded form the value that the 1-chlorobutane is no toxic to the aquatic environment and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Similar supporting exeprimental study of another structurally similar read aross 1,1,2 -trichloroethane (CAS:79 -00 -5) from the publication Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1983, also suggests that the Acute bioassay was carried for 1,1,2-trichloroethane on daphnia magna for 48 hr to study the effects on aquatic invertebrate. The test was carried out with 5 Daphnia magna at under static conditions and the test conditions were Hardness: 44.7 (43.5 TO 47.5) mg/L CaCO3, Test temp: 20 C, pH: 7.0 TO 7.5 and Dissolved oxygen: 4.1 TO 8.4 mg/L

Test containers were 200 ml Erlenmeyer flasks filled to 200 or 160 ml for unfed and fed tests, respectively. The food concentration was 20 rag/ L dry wt. (trout chow and yeast). The flasks were stoppered with foil wrapped, neoprene stoppers. Four replicates with five animals each were used for the control and six toxicant levels.

Lethal concentration to 50% of Daphnia magna in 48 hr is 170 mg/L. It can be concluded from the value that the 1,1,2-trichloroethane is no toxic to the aquatic invertebrate and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 170 mg/l to 3020 mg/l give the conclusion that test substance 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) was likely to be not toxic to aquatic invertebrate at environmentally relevant concentrations and applying weight of evidence approach it can be considered to benot classifiedas per the CLP classification criteria.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Following studies include the predicted data and experimental study for the target chemical and structurally similar read across to conclude the toxicity extent of 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2)towards algae is summarized as follows:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the closest read across substances, the toxicity to algae was predicted 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) EC50 intoxication value was estimated to be 217.95 mg/l for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for 72 hrs duration. It was concluded that 3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2) was likely to be not toxic to algae.

The predicted data for the target chemical is supported by the experimental study of structurally similar read aross1,2-dichloropropane(CAS: 78 -87 -5) from the publicationChemosphere1994, suggests that the Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria test was carried out for 1,2-dichloropropane to study the effects on aquatic algae. The decrease in Population changes was recorded during the test.

The Effective concentration to 50% of Scenedesmus subspicatus in 72 hr is 168 mg/L. It can be concluded from the value that the 1,2-dichloropropane is not toxic to the aquatic algae and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification criteria for aquatic environment.

Another experimental data of read across chemical 1,1,2-trichloroethane (CAS: 79 -00 -5) from the publication Chemosphere 1994, suggests that the

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria test was carried out for 1,1,2-richloroethane to study the effects on aquatic algae. Decreasing trend of Population changes, were measured during the test.

The Effective concentration EC50 to 50% of Scenedesmus subspicatus in 72 hr for 1,1,2-trichloroethane is 200 mg/L. It can be concluded from the value that the 1,1,2-trichloroethane is not toxic to the aquatic algae and can be considered as “not classified” as per the classification for aquatic environment.

Thus based on the effect concentrations which is in the range 168 mg/L to217.95 mg/lgive the conclusion that test substance3-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile (CAS: 28188-41-2)is likely to be not toxic to aquatic algae at environmentally relevant concentrations and applying weight of evidence approach it can be considered to be “not classified” as per the CLP classification criteria.