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Toxicity to reproduction

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
two-generation reproductive toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
From May 22, 2012 to January 29, 2016
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2016
Report date:
2016

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 416 (Two-Generation Reproduction Toxicity Study)
Version / remarks:
2001
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 870.3800 (Reproduction and Fertility Effects)
Version / remarks:
1998
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
[(3S,4R,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-(cyclopropanecarbonyloxy)-6,12-dihydroxy-4,6a,12btrimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12a,12b-decahydro-11H,12Hbenzo[f]pyrano[4,3-b]chromen-4-yl]methylcyclopropanecarboxylate
Cas Number:
915972-17-7
Molecular formula:
C33H39NO9
IUPAC Name:
[(3S,4R,4aR,6S,6aS,12R,12aS,12bS)-3-(cyclopropanecarbonyloxy)-6,12-dihydroxy-4,6a,12btrimethyl-11-oxo-9-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,12a,12b-decahydro-11H,12Hbenzo[f]pyrano[4,3-b]chromen-4-yl]methylcyclopropanecarboxylate
Test material form:
solid
Details on test material:
- Analytical purity: >94 %
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Batch no.: COD-001545
Expiry: December 31, 2013
Appearance: Solid, yellowish

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Remarks:
Crl:WI(Han)
Details on species / strain selection:
The rat is the preferred animal species for reproduction studies according to test guidelines.
This strain was selected since extensive historical control data were available for Wistar rats.
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Research Models and Services, Germany GmbH
- Females nulliparous and non-pregnant: yes
- Age at study initiation: (F0) 5 wks (36 ± 1 d)
- Weight at study initiation: (F0) Males: 112.5 g - 147.8 g; Females: 103.5 g - 125.2 g
- Housing: Individually except for overnight matings, pregnant animals and their litters were housed together
- Diet: Kliba maintenance diet mouse/rat “GLP” meal, supplied by Provimi Kliba SA, Kaiseraugst, Switzerland, ad libitum
- Water: Tap water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: About 8 days
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature: 22 ± 2°C
- Humidity: 30-70%
- Air changes: ≥15 times/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours per day, lights on at 06:00 and off at 18:00
IN-LIFE DATES: From: 22-May-2012 To: 12-Feb-2013

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Remarks:
Rodent diet
Details on exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
The required quantity of test substance for each dose group was weighed in a beaker and thoroughly mixed with a small amount of food. Then further amounts of food, depending on the dose group, were added to this premix in order to obtain the desired concentrations. Mixing was carried out for about 1 minute in a laboratory mixer.
Details on mating procedure:
In general, each of the male and female animals was mated overnight at a 1 : 1 ratio for a maximum of 2 weeks. Throughout the mating period, each female animal was paired with a predetermined male animal from the same dose group.
The animals were paired by placing the female in the cage of the male mating partner from about 16.00 h until 7.00-9.00 h of the following morning. Deviations from the specified times were possible on weekends and public holidays and were reported in the raw data. A vaginal smear was prepared after each mating and examined for the presence of sperm. If sperm was detected, pairing of the animals was discontinued. The day on which sperm were detected was denoted "gestation day (GD) 0" and the following day "gestation day (GD) 1".
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Analytical verifications of the stability of the test substance in the diet for a period of 34 days at room temperature were carried out prior to the start of the study.
Homogeneity and concentration control analyses were carried out at the beginning of the premating phase. Concentration control analyses were carried out towards the end of the premating phase. Duplicate samples were kept in reserve and will be discarded after report finalization.
The stability of the substance in rat diet was demonstrated for a period of 34 days at room temperature.
The homogeneity of the mixture was verified at various time points during the study period. Concentration control analysis demonstrated that all values for the test material were in the expected range of the target concentration (90-110%) demonstrating the correctness of the diet preparations.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
After the acclimatization period, the test substance was administered to the parental animals as addition to the diet continuously throughout the entire study.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Details on study schedule:
Seventy-five males and 75 females selected after the quarantine/acclimatization period were assigned to two groups in such a way to equalize group means and standard deviations of body weights as closely as possible. These animals were designated as parental animals. After the acclimatization period, the test substance was administered to the parental animals as addition to the diet. The animals of the control group were treated in the same way, with the vehicle (diet only). Treatment ended about 16 hours before sacrifice. At least 75 days after the beginning of treatment, males and females from the same dose group were mated. The females were allowed to deliver and rear their pups (F1 generation pups) until PND 21. Pups were weaned on day 21 of lactation.

F0 generation parental animals and their progeny:
One hundred males and 100 females selected after the quarantine/acclimatizsation period were assigned to the different test groups in such a way to equalize group means and standard deviations of body weights as closely as possible. These animals were designated as parental animals. After the acclimatization period, the test substance was administered to the parental animals as addition to the diet. The animals of the control group were treated in the same way, with the vehicle (diet only). Treatment ended about 16 hours before sacrifice. At least 75 days after the beginning of treatment, males and females from the same dose group were mated. The females were allowed to deliver and rear their pups (F1 generation pups) until PND 4 (standardization) or PND 21.

F1 generation parental animals and their progeny:
After weaning, 25 male and 25 female F1 pups of each test group became F1 generation parental animals. These animals were chosen by lot and each litter was represented as far as technically feasible. If fewer than 25 litters were available in a group or if one sex was missing in a litter, more animals were taken from the other litters of the respective test group to obtain the required number of animals for pairing. All selected animals were treated with the test substance at the same dose level as their parents, from post-weaning through adulthood. At least 74 days after assignment of the F1 generation parental animals, the males and females were mated. The partners were randomly assigned; mating between siblings was avoided. The females were allowed to deliver and rear their pups (F2 generation pups) until PND 4 (standardization) or PND 21.



Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
100 ppm (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
500 ppm (nominal)
Dose / conc.:
2 000 ppm (nominal)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
25
Control animals:
yes, plain diet
Details on study design:
Dose selection rationale: Dose selection was based on existing reproductive and repeated dose toxicity data.

Examinations

Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
A check for moribund or dead animals was made twice daily on working days or once daily (Saturday, Sunday or on public holidays). If animals were in a moribund state, they were sacrificed and necropsied.
A cage side examination was conducted at least once daily for any signs of morbidity, pertinent behavioral changes and signs of overt toxicity. Abnormalities and changes were documented daily for each animal and reported on a weekly basis.
The parturition and lactation behavior of the dams was generally evaluated in the mornings in combination with the daily clinical inspection of the dams.
On weekdays (except Saturday, Sunday and public holidays) the parturition behavior of the dams was inspected in the afternoons in addition to the evaluations in the mornings.

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: No

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
In general, body weights of F0 and F1 parents were determined once weekly. However, during gestation and lactation F0/F1 females were weighed on gestation days (GD) 0, 7, 14 and 20 and on postnatal days (PND) 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
Food consumption for each animal determined and mean daily diet consumption calculated as g food/kg bw/d: Yes
Food consumption of the F0 and F1 parents was determined regularly during the gestation (days 0 - 7, 7 - 14, 14 - 20) and lactation periods (days 1 - 4, 4 - 7, 7 - 14 and 14 - 21).

Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes
The intake of test substance was calculated from the amount of food consumed and expressed in mg/kg body weight per day (mg/kg bw/d).
The calculation of the group values/day was carried out according to the following formula:
Test substance intake (mg/kg bw/d) = [mean food consumption (g/rat/d) x dietary level (ppm)] / mean body weight (g)

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
Blood was withdrawn from fasted animals from the orbital sinus or (if applicable) after decapitation from the vena cava cranialis following isoflurane anesthesia. The following hematological and clinical chemistry parameters were determined in 12 animals/group/sex at the end of the study period:
Hematology: Leukocyte count (WBC), erythrocyte count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), differential blood count, reticulocytes.
Clinical chemistry: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), inorganic phosphate (INP), calcium (CA), urea (UREA), creatinine (CREA), glucose (GLUC), total bilirubin (TBIL), total protein (TPROT), albumin (ALB), globulins (GLOB), triglycerides (TRIG), cholesterol (CHOL), troponin.
Oestrous cyclicity (parental animals):
Estrous cycle length was evaluated by daily analysis of vaginal smear for all F0 and F1 female parental rats for a minimum of 3 weeks prior to mating. Determination was continued throughout the pairing period until the female exhibited evidence of copulation. At necropsy, an additional vaginal smear was examined to determine the stage of estrous cycle for each F0 and F1 female with scheduled sacrifice.
Sperm parameters (parental animals):
Immediately after necropsy and organ weight determination the right testis and cauda epididymis were taken from all male animals.
The following sperm parameter were determined: Motility, morphology, head count (cauda epididymis/testis). Sperm head count were evaluated in the control and high dose group of the F0 generation and in all groups of the F1 generation.
Litter observations:
STANDARDISATION OF LITTERS
On PND 4, the individual litters were standardized in such a way that, where possible, each litter contained 4 male and 4 female pups (always the first 4 pups/sex and litter were taken for further rearing). If individual litters did not have 4 pups/sex, the litters were processed in such a way that the most evenly distributed 8 pups per litter were present for further rearing (e.g., 5 male and 3 female pups). Standardization of litters was not performed in litters with < 8 pups.

PUP DELIVERY STATUS
All pups delivered from the F0 parents (F1 litter) and the F1 parents (F2 litter) were examined as soon as possible on the day of birth to determine the total number of pups, the sex and the number of liveborn and stillborn pups in each litter. At the same time, the pups were also examined for macroscopically evident changes. Pups, which died before this initial examination, were defined as stillborn pups.

SEX RATIO
On the day of birth (PND 0) the sex of the pups was determined by observing the distance between the anus and the base of the genital tubercle; normally, the anogenital distance is considerably greater in male than in female pups. Later, during the course of lactation, this initial sex determination was followed up by surveying the external appearance of the anogenital region and the mammary line. The sex of the pups was finally confirmed at necropsy. The sex ratio was calculated at PND 0 and PND 21 according to the following formula:
Sex ratio = (number of live male or female pups on PND 0 and 21 / number of live male and female pups on PND 0 and 21) x 100

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS
The live pups were examined daily for clinical symptoms (including gross-morphological findings) during the clinical inspection of the dams and documented for each pup.

BODY WEIGHT
The pups were weighed on the day after birth (PND 1) and on PND 4 (before standardization), 7, 14 and 21. Pups' body weight change was calculated from these results. The individual weights were always determined at about the same time of the day (in the morning) and on PND 4 immediately before standardization of the litters.

SEXUAL MATURATION
Vaginal opening: All female F1 pups selected to become the F1 parental generation females (25/group) were evaluated daily for vaginal patency beginning on PND 27. On the day of vaginal opening the body weights of the respective animals were determined.
Preputial separation: All male F1 pups selected to become the F1 parental generation males (25/group) were evaluated daily for preputial separation beginning on PND 38. On the day of preputial separation the body weights of the respective animals were determined.
Comparison of sexual maturation with body weight development: While treatment-related delays may be indicative of specifically slowed sexual development, impaired general growth can also alter the onset of puberty. To differentiate between these specific and non-specific effects, an analysis was performed to graphically compare the ages and weights at puberty of the individual animals which were selected for further breeding with the average growth progression of all F1 and F2 control animals, using the change in body weight as a marker for general animal development.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
SACRIFICE
After weaning of F1 pups the F0 generation parental animals were sacrificed. The F1 generation parental animals were sacrificed, shortly after the F2 generation pups had been weaned. All F0 and F1 parental animals were sacrificed by decapitation under isoflurane anesthesia.

GROSS NECROPSY
Any gross pathological findings were recorded.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
Organ weights: Adrenal glands, anesthetized animals, brain, cauda epididymis, epididymides, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, pituitary gland, prostate, testes, seminal vesicles including coagulation glands, spleen, thyroid glands (with parathyroid glands), uterus.
Preservation of organs: All gross lesions, adrenal glands, brain, cervix uteri, coagulating glands, heart, kidneys, left epididymis, left testis, liver, ovaries, oviducts, pituitary gland, prostate, seminal vesicles, spleen, thyroid glands (with parathyroid glands), uterus, vagina.
Histopathology: All gross lesions, adrenal glands, cervix uteri, coagulating glands, left testis, left epididymis, ovaries, oviducts, pituitary gland, prostate, seminal vesicles, uterus, vagina.
Differential Ovarian Follicle Count (DOFC) was performed in F1 generation.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
SACRIFICE
Pups after standardization/weaning:
With the exception of those F1 generation pups, which were chosen as F1 rearing animals, all pups were sacrificed under isoflurane anesthesia with carbon dioxide after standardization or weaning.

GROSS NECROPSY
All pups with scheduled sacrifice (i.e. pups culled on PND 4 or sacrificed on PND 21), all stillborn pups and all pups that died before weaning were examined externally and eviscerated; their organs were assessed macroscopically.

ORGAN WEIGTHS
After the scheduled sacrifice the brain, spleen, heart and thymus of 1 pup/sex and litter from the pups were weighed. For the calculation of the relative organ weights, the in-life pup weights determined on PND 21 were used.
Statistics:
Food consumption, body weight and body weight change (for the pup weights, the litter means were used), gestation days, duration of sexual maturation (days to vaginal opening, days to preputial separation): Simultaneous comparison of all dose groups with the control group using the DUNNETT test (two-sided) for the hypothesis of equal means (* for p ≤ 0.05, ** for p ≤ 0.01).
Male and female mating indices, male and female fertility indices, gestation index, females mated, females delivering, females with liveborn pups, females with stillborn pups, females with all stillborn pups: Pair-wise comparison of each dose group with the control group using FISHER'S EXACT test (one-sided) for the hypothesis of equal proportions (* for p ≤ 0.05, ** for p ≤ 0.01).
Mating days until day 0 post coitum, %postimplantation loss, pups stillborn, %perinatal Loss: Pair-wise comparison of the dose group with the control group using the WILCOXON test (one-sided+) with BONFERRONI-HOLM adjustment for the hypothesis of equal medians (* for p ≤0.05, ** for p ≤0.01).
Implantation sites, pups delivered, pups liveborn, live pups day x, viability index, lactation index: Pair-wise comparison of the dose group with the control group using the WILCOXON test (one-sided-) with BONFERRONI-HOLM adjustment for the hypothesis of equal medians (* for p ≤0.05, ** for p ≤0.01).
live male day x, %live female day x: Comparison of the dose group with the control group was performed using the WILCOXON test (two-sided) for the hypothesis of equal medians (* for p ≤0.05, ** for p ≤0.01).
Number of cycles and Cycle Length (days 54 -74), pup organ weights (absolute and relative): Non-parametric one-way analysis using the KRUSKAL-WALLIS test (two-sided). If the resulting p-value was equal or less than 0.05, a pair-wise comparison of the dose groups with the control group was performed using the WILCOXON-test (two-sided) for the hypothesis of equal medians (* for p < 0.05, ** for p < 0.01).
Reproductive indices:
Male mating index (%) = (number of males with confirmed mating / number of males placed with females) x 100
Male fertility index (%) = (number of males proving their fertility / number of males placed with females) x 100
Female mating index (%) = (number of females mated / number of females placed with males) x 100
Female fertility index (%) = (number of females pregnant / number of females mated) x 100
Gestation index (%) = (number of females with live pups on the day of birth / number of females pregnant) x 100
Live birth index (%) = (number of liveborn pups at birth / total number of pups born) x 100
Postimplantation loss (%) = [(number of implantations - number of pups delivered) / number of implantations] x 100
Offspring viability indices:
Pups were checked for death or moribundity twice daily on workdays (once in the morning and once in the afternoon) or as a rule, only in the morning on Saturdays, Sundays or public holidays. The number and percentage of dead pups on the day of birth (PND 0) and of pups dying between PND 1-4, 5-7, 8-14 and 15-21 (lactation period) were determined.
Viability index (%) = (number of live pups on day 4 after birth / number of live pups on the day of birth) x 100
Lactation index (%) = (number of live pups on day 21 after birth / number of live pups on day 4 after birth) x 100

Results and discussion

Results: P0 (first parental generation)

General toxicity (P0)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
see "Details on results"
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food efficiency:
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"

Reproductive function / performance (P0)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Reproductive performance:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"

Details on results (P0)

CLINICAL SIGNS/MORTALITY
There were no treatment-related clinical observations and mortality at any of the tested doses in either sex.
No clinical signs or changes of general behavior, which may be attributed to the test substance, were detected in any of the male and female F0 parental animals in any of the groups.
There were no test substance related clinical findings in any females of all dose groups during the gestation period for F1 litter.
Three sperm positive females of high dose animals, three sperm positive females of mid dose and one sperm positive female of low dose did not deliver F1 pups. These observations were not considered to be associated with the test compound.
There were no test substance-related clinical findings in all F0 females of the low and mid dose groups during the lactation period.
Two dams of of the high dose did not properly nurse their pups. One high dose dam did not properly nurse the pups and had a complete litter loss on PND 5. These observations were considered to be associated with the test compound.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES
High dose parental F0 males (2000 ppm) had statistically significantly lower body weights during major parts of the premating period (up to 7% below the concurrent control values), during the whole mating period (up to 6% below the concurrent control values) and during the whole post mating period (up to 7% below the concurrent control values). The body weights of the mid and low dose parental males (500 ppm and 100 ppm) were comparable to the concurrent control group throughout the entire study period.
The body weight change of the high-dose parental males was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during premating weeks 0 - 1 about 14%, weeks 5 - 6 about 15%, weeks 7 - 8 about 30% and weeks 0 - 10 about 9%. The body weight change of the high dose males during mating and post mating and the body weight change of the mid and low dose males during the whole study period were comparable to the concurrent control group.
The statistically significantly increased body weight change in the low dose males during premating weeks 9 - 10 and the statistically significantly decreased body weight change during the mating period were considered to be spontaneous in nature.
The body weights/body weight change of the high dose females during premating and the body weights/body weight change of the mid and low dose females during the whole study period were comparable to the concurrent control group. The statistically significantly higher body weights in the mid dose females on PND 14, the statistically significantly increased body weight change in the high dose females during premating weeks 2 - 3, during several parts of the lactation period and the statistically significantly increased body weight change in the mid dose females during several parts of the gestation period were considered to be spontaneous in nature.
High dose parental females had statistically significantly lower body weights on GD 20 (about 5%). The body weights remained to be lower during PND 1 - 14 (up to 10% below the concurrent control values) but recovered to control levels until PND 21. Consequently, in these females the body weight change was lower than control during gestation (10% below control) and higher than control during lactation.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
Food consumption of the high dose (2000 ppm) F0 males was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during major parts of the premating period (up to 10%). Food consumption of the male F0 rats in the mid and low dose groups (500 and 100 ppm) was comparable to the concurrent control throughout the entire study.
Food consumption of the high dose F0 females was statistically significantly below control during the entire study period. For the premating period a decrease of up to 13%, for the gestation period up to 15% and for the lactation period up to 24% below the concurrent control values was observed. Food consumption of the female F0 rats in the mid and low dose groups was comparable to the concurrent control throughout the entire study.
Mean test substance intake (dose group 100/500/2000 ppm) in mg/kg bw/d:
F0 males: 7.4 / 37.0 / 143.3
F0 females premating: 8.4 / 41.3 / 155.1
F0 females gestation: 7.3 / 35.9 / 130.4
F0 females lactation: 18.7 / 88.5 / 300.1

HEMATOLOGY
Hemoglobin values were decreased in the rats of both sexes of the high dose group (2000 ppm). In males, this was the only altered red blood cell parameter; the decrease was marginal (mean hemoglobin - 2.3% compared to controls). Therefore, this decrease was regarded as treatment-related, but not adverse. In females of high dose group (2000 ppm), the hemoglobin decrease was a bit more pronounced when compared to that of the males (mean hemoglobin - 6.9% compared to controls). In addition, hematocrit values were decreased and relative reticulocyte counts increased in these rats as compared to the controls. Therefore in this sex, a compound-related, adverse effect was assumed.
In males of high dose (2000 ppm), absolute and relative monocyte counts were decreased, but the values were within historical control ranges (absolute monocyte counts 0.06-0.16 Giga/L; relative monocyte counts 1.3-2.6 %). Therefore, the alterations were regarded as incidental and not treatment-related.

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Some clinical chemistry parameters were changed compared to controls, but the altered values were within historical control ranges and therefore, the changes were regarded as incidental and not treatment-related. This is true for decreased glucose values in rats of both sexes of the high dose group (2000 ppm) and additionally in females of the mid dose (500 ppm) as well as for decreased total bilirubin levels and increased total protein and albumin levels in females of the high dose (2000 ppm) (males glucose 5.11-7.16 mmol/L; females glucose 4.93-6.22 mmol/L; females total bilirubin 1.98-3.46 μmol/L; females total protein 62.13-71.91g/L; females albumin 39.50-42.59 g/L).
In females of the mid and high dose group (500 and 2000 ppm) cholesterol concentrations were increased. The mean of the mid dose group was within the historical control range (cholesterol 1.06-2.27 mmol/L,), but that of the high dose group was above the range. Although elevated cholesterol was the only altered parameter in the females of the high dose group (2000 ppm), these results mirrored the alteration in cholesterol levels of the females of the high dose group (2000 ppm) in the F1 generation. Therefore, this increase was assumed to be a treatment-related adverse effect.

ORGAN WEIGHT/ORGAN-TO-BODY-WEIGHT RATIOS
The increased mean absolute and relative adrenal weights in females of mid dose (500 ppm) and high dose group (2000 ppm) and the decreased mean absolute and relative weights of ovaries in females of high dose (2000 ppm) were considered to be treatment-related.
The decreased mean absolute prostate weight, as well as the increased mean relative weights of adrenal glands, cauda epididymis, epididymidis, testes, brain, liver, spleen and thyroid weights in males of high dose group (2000 ppm) were related to the slightly but not significantly decreased (-6%) terminal body weight in this treatment group. Furthermore, there were no histopathological correlates for the decreased absolute prostate weight, as well as the increased relative weights of adrenal glands, cauda epididymis, epididymidis, and testes.
The mean relative heart weight was significantly decreased in females of the high dose group (2000 ppm). Because the absolute heart weight in these females was only slightly (-4%) reduced and the absolute and relative heart weights in F1 parental females were comparable between control and treatment groups, the decreased relative heart weight was regarded to be incidental. This is in line with the lack of an effect on troponin, a clinical chemistry parameter used to investigate injury of the heart muscle.
The absolute spleen and thyroid weights were significantly increased in females of mid dose (500 ppm) and high dose group (2000 ppm). There was no dose-response relationship, the relative weights were not statistically significantly changed and in F1 generation parental females there was no comparable effect. Therefore, the weight changes were considered to be incidental.
Due to the lack of a dose-response relationship, the increased absolute brain weight in females of the mid dose group (500 ppm) and the increased relative brain weight in females of the low dose group (100 ppm) were regarded to be incidental.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
All gross lesions observed in test animals occurred singularly or non-dose-related. They were considered to be incidental or spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Non-neoplastic: In the adrenal cortex, seven females of the high dose group (2000 ppm) showed a minimally increased vacuolation. In control females, this finding was observed in 3 animals. A treatment-related effect could not be ruled out.
All other findings occurred either individually or were biologically equally distributed over control and treatment groups. They were considered to be incidental or spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.

TROPONIN
The heart was previously demonstrated to be a target organ in F344 rats treated with the test substance. Therefore, troponin, an indicator for heart muscle damaged was measured. Troponin levels in parental animals of both generations were comparable between controls and treated animals.

REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: ESTROUS CYCLE
Estrous cycle data, generated during the last 3 weeks prior to mating for the F1 litter, revealed regular cycles in the females of all test groups including the control. The mean estrous cycle duration in the different test groups was similar: 4.5 days in control, 5.0 in the low-dose group, 4.3 in the mid-dose group and 4.2 in the high-dose group.

REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: SPERM PARAMETERS
Concerning the motility of the sperms and the incidence of abnormal sperms in the cauda epididymidis as well as the sperm head counts in the cauda epididymidis no treatment related effects were observed. The sperm head counts in the testis of males of the high dose group (2000 ppm) were marginally lower compared to those of the controls, but the mean was still in the historical control range. Therefore, these slightly lower sperm head counts in males of the high dose group were regarded as incidental and not treatment-related.

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE
Male mating index: The mating index was comparable between all dose groups in both generations.
Male fertility index: Fertility was proven for almost all F0 parental males with confirmed copulation. One low dose male, three mid dose males and three high dose males did not generate F1 pups. Thus, the male fertility index ranged between 88% and 100% without showing any effect of dosing. These values reflect the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study. The apparently infertile male rats did not show histopathological findings that could explain the infertility.
Female mating index: The female mating index calculated after the mating period for F1 litter was 100% in all test groups The mean duration until sperm was detected (GD 0) varied between 2.4 and 2.7 days without any relation to dosing.
Female fertility index: The fertility index varied between 88% (500 and 2000 ppm), 96% (100 ppm) and 100% (control). Among the F0 females which showed the evidence of copulation, three high dose, three mid dose and one low dose female did not become pregnant. The non-pregnant females did not show a histomorphological correlate to explain the apparent infertility.
The mean duration of gestation values varied between 22.2 and 22.3 days without any relation to dosing. The gestation index was 100% in the control, high and mid dose groups and 96% in the low dose group. These values reflect the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study. All respective values are within the range of the historical control data of the test facility.
Implantation was not affected by the treatment since the mean number of implantation sites was comparable between all test substance-treated groups and the controls, taking normal biological variation into account (12.0 / 12.3 / 12.9 and 11.6 implants/dam in the controls and test groups from low to high dose, respectively). Furthermore, there were no indications for test substance-induced intrauterine embryo- /fetolethality since the postimplantation loss did not show any significant differences between the groups, and the mean number of F1 pups delivered per dam remained unaffected (11.3 / 11.6 / 12.3 and 10.9 pups/dam in in the controls and test groups from low to high dose, respectively).
The rate of liveborn pups was also not affected by the test substance, as indicated by live birth indices of 99.2% (high dose group), 99.6% (control and low dose group) and 100% (mid dose group). Moreover, the number of stillborn pups was comparable between the groups.


Effect levels (P0)

open allclose all
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
General, systemic toxicity
Effect level:
500 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
haematology
clinical biochemistry
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponding to 37 mg/kg bw/d (males) and 55 mg/kg bw/d (females)
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Fertility/Reproductive performance
Effect level:
>= 2 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no treatment-related adverse effects observed

Results: P1 (second parental generation)

General toxicity (P1)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Description (incidence):
see "Details on results"
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food efficiency:
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"

Reproductive function / performance (P1)

Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Reproductive performance:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"

Details on results (P1)

CLINICAL SIGNS / MORTALITY
No mortality was observed. No clinical signs or changes of general behaviour, which may be attributed to the test substance. There were no test substance related clinical findings in the F1 females of all dose groups during the gestation period for F2 litter. One sperm positive female of the high dose group, as well as one sperm positive and two sperm negative females of the mid dose group did not deliver F2 pups. There were no test substance-related clinical findings in the F1 females of all dose groups during the lactation period for F2 litter. Two dams in the F1 high dose group had a complete litter loss (PND 4 and PND 5, respectively). Furthermore one high dose female animal showed insufficient maternal care during PND 1 - 7. These observations were considered to be associated with the test compound.

BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT CHANGES
High dose F1 parental males (2000 ppm) had statistically significantly lower body weights during the entire study. The most distinct effect was noted at the beginning of the premating period (up to 31% below the concurrent control). The body weights of the mid and low dose parental males (500 ppm and 100 ppm) were comparable to the concurrent control group throughout the entire study period.
The body weight change of the high dose parental males was statistically significantly below the concurrent control during several study periods: premating weeks 0 - 3 (up to 11%), weeks 6 - 7 (about 18%), if summarized for premating weeks 0 - 10 (about 7%) and during post mating days 2 - 9 (about 48%).
The body weight change of the high dose males during mating and the body weight change of the mid and low dose males during the whole study period were comparable to the concurrent control group. The statistically significantly decreased body weight change in the low dose males during premating weeks 6 - 7 was considered to be spontaneous in nature.
High dose F1 parental females had statistically significantly lower body weights on premating weeks 0 - 2 (up to 26%), on GD 20 (about 6%) and during PND 1 - 14 (up to 10%) below the concurrent control values. The body weights of the mid and low dose females during the whole study period were comparable to the concurrent control group.
High dose parental females had statistically significantly lower body weight change during premating weeks 7 - 8 (about 50%), during GD 14 - 20 (about 17%) and GD 0 - 20 (about 15%) and during PND 1 - 4 (about 45%) below the concurrent control values.
The body weight change of the mid and low dose females was comparable to the concurrent control group throughout the entire study period. The statistically significantly increased body weight change in the high dose females during premating weeks 1 - 4, during several parts of the lactation period and the statistically significantly increased body weight change in the mid dose females during several parts of the premating period were considered to be spontaneous in nature.

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
Food consumption of the high dose F1 males (2000 ppm) was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during the whole premating period (up to 21%). Food consumption of the male F1 rats in the mid and low dose groups (500 and 100 ppm) was comparable to the concurrent control throughout the entire study.
Food consumption of the high dose F1 females was below the concurrent control during the entire study. The difference gained statistical significance during several study periods including premating weeks 0 – 1, 7 – 8, 9 – 10, gestation days 7 – 20. However, the most severe impairment of food consumption was noted at the beginning of the lactation period (41% below control at PND 1-4). Food consumption of the female F1 rats in the mid and low dose groups was comparable to the concurrent control throughout the entire study.
Mean test substance intake (dose group 100/500/2000 ppm) in mg/kg bw/d:
F1 males: 8.1 / 40.3 / 167.5
F1 females premating: 8.9 / 44.0 / 177.6
F1 females gestation: 7.3 / 35.9 / 143.8
F1 females lactation: 18.9 / 87.8 / 272.5

HEMATOLOGY
In females of the high dose (2000 ppm), red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were only slightly decreased (RBC -4.6%, hemoglobin -8.1%, hematocrit -7.2%) as compared to the controls, whereas relative reticulocyte counts were increased. RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit means were slightly decreased compared to controls. However, an adverse effect cannot be excluded.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCH) and relative basophil counts were decreased in females of the dose groups 500 and 2000 ppm, but the values were within historical control ranges (MCH 1.09-1.24 fmol, relative basophil counts 0.0-1.3 %).
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in females of the mid dose (500 ppm) was decreased, but the values were not dose-dependently changed and therefore this alteration was regarded as incidental and not treatment-related.

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
In rats of both sexes of the high dose (2000 ppm) as well as in females of the mid dose (500 ppm) total bilirubin values were decreased. However, in males of the high dose (2000 ppm) and in females of the mid dose (500 ppm) this was the only altered parameter and therefore the change in these rats was regarded as treatment-related, but not adverse. In females of the high (2000 ppm) the low bilirubin levels can be related to the decreased red blood cell parameter values and were therefore assumed as adverse. Additionally, in females of the high dose (2000 ppm) cholesterol values were increased.
In males of the mid dose (500 ppm) total protein values were increased, but the change was not dose-dependent and therefore it was regarded as incidental and not treatment-related. In males of the high dose (2000 ppm) glucose and triglyceride levels were decreased and urea levels were increased. Urea concentrations were already higher in males of mid dose (500 ppm). However, all mentioned parameter values were within historical control ranges and therefore, these changes were regarded as incidental and not treatment-related (glucose 5.11-7.16 mmol/L; triglycerides 0.55-1.32 mmol/L; urea 4.91-7.42 mmol/L).

ORGAN WEIGHT / ORGAN-TO-BODY-WEIGHT-RATIO
The terminal body weight was significantly decreased (-10%) in males of the high dose group (2000 ppm). This can result in significant decreases in absolute organ weights. As not all organs weighed show close correlation with body weight, some of the resulting statistically significant changes in relative weights are secondary and of no toxicological significance. Thus, decreased mean absolute and increased relative brain weights, decreased mean absolute prostate weight, increased mean relative weight of the cauda epididymis, increased mean relative weights of adrenal glands, pituitary gland, spleen, and thyroid glands were not considered further.
The decreased mean absolute and relative weights of ovaries in females of the high dose (2000 ppm) and the increased adrenal weights in females of mid dose (500 ppm) and high dose (2000 ppm) were considered to be treatment-related but not adverse. For the adrenals a slight increase in the incidence of vacuolation was observed, that did not correlate to the individual increase in organ weight. For the ovaries, no histological correlate was observable and there was no effect on differential ovarian follicle counts.
The relative liver weights were significantly increased in males of mid dose (500 ppm) and high dose (2000 ppm). Because the mean absolute liver weights were nearly comparable between control group (10.097 g) and treatment groups (mid dose: 10.501 g; high dose: 9.955 g), a treatment-related effect is unlikely.
The mean relative kidney weights were significantly increased in males and decreased in females of mid dose (500 ppm) and high dose (2000 ppm). Because the mean absolute kidney weights were nearly comparable between control and treatment groups, a treatment-related effect is unlikely.
The decrease of the absolute and relative weights of the pituitary gland in females of low dose (100 ppm) and high dose (2000 ppm) was not dose-related and there was no histopathological correlate in females of the high dose. Therefore, a treatment-related effect is unlikely.
Due to the lack of a dose-response relationship, the increased absolute thyroid weight in females of mid dose (500 ppm) was considered to be incidental.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
All gross lesions observed in test animals occurred singularly or non-dose-related. They were considered to be incidental or spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.

HISTOPATHOLOGY
Non-neoplastic: In the adrenal cortex, a minimal or slight increased vacuolation was observed in 10 females of the high dose group (2000 ppm).
The increased vacuolation in females of the high dose (2000 ppm) was considered to be treatment-related but not adverse as there was no correlation between incidence of vacuolation and adrenal weight.
All other findings occurred either individually or were biologically equally distributed over control and treatment groups. They were considered to be incidental or spontaneous in origin and without any relation to treatment.

DIFFERENTIAL OVARIAN FOLLICLE COUNT
The results of the differential ovarian follicle count – comprising the numbers of primordial and growing follicles, as well as the combined incidence of primordial plus growing follicles – did not reveal significant differences between controls and animals of high dose.

REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: ESTROUS CYCLE
Estrous cycle data, generated during the last 3 weeks prior to mating for the F2 litter, revealed regular cycles in the females of all test groups including the control. The mean estrous cycle duration in the different test groups was similar: 4.4 days in control, 4.7 days in the low-dose group, 4.3 days in the mid-dose group and 4.2 days in the high-dose groups.

REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION: SPERM MEASURES
Concerning the motility of the sperms and the incidence of abnormal sperms in the cauda epididymidis as well as the sperm head counts in the testis and in the cauda epididymidis no treatment-related effects were observed.

REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE
Mating index: The mating index was comparable between all dose groups in both generations.
Male fertility index: For nearly all F1 parental males, which were placed with females to generate F2 pups, copulation was confirmed. Copulation was not confirmed for two mid dose males with two mid dose females. Thus, the male mating index was 100% in the control, low and high dose groups and 92% in the mid dose group. Fertility was proven for most of the F1 parental males within the scheduled mating interval for F2 litter. Three infertile males did not show histopathological findings that could explain infertility. One apparently infertile male rat showed histopathological findings which might explain its infertility. These included slight to moderately decreased size of epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicle, and testes. Microscopic examinations found debris (grade 3) and aspermia in the left epididymis and grade 4 multifocal tubular degeneration in the left testicle; the prostate and seminal vesicle showed diffuse atrophy (grade 2). No spermatology was available for this individual. Taken together, these findings may explain the apparent infertility; however as they were considered to be incidental, no relation to treatment is assumed.
Female fertility index: Female mating index and duration till mating was comparable between controls and treated animals. Among the F1 females which showed the evidence of copulation, one high dose, and three mid dose females did not become pregnant. The non-pregnant females did not show a histomorphological correlate to explain the apparent infertility. Fertility index and the mean duration of gestation was comparable between treated and control animals.
The fertility index varied between 100% (control and low-dose group), 96% (high-dose group) and 95.7% (mid-dose group). These values reflect the normal range of biological variation inherent in the strain of rats used for this study. The gestation index was 100% (control and low-dose group), 95.8% (high-dose group) and 95.5% (mid-dose group). All respective values are within the range of the historical control data of the test facility and do not show any relation to dosing. The mean duration of gestation was similar in all test groups (i.e. between 22.0 and 22.2 days). All values are within the historical control range of the test facility.
The mean number of implantation sites was statistically significantly reduced in the high dose group (9.8* vs 13.9 in controls). The high dose mean was also marginally lower than the lower limit of the historical control range (10.2 – 13.7). As a consequence of the fewer implants, the mean number of pups delivered was significantly decreased in the high dose group (9.8* vs 12.0 in controls). This mean, however is within the historical control range of the test facility (9.3 – 12.8). While these findings were statistically significant within a dose group, at the litter-level the changes were borderline reductions of a few implants per litter, rather than considerable fluctuation from litter to litter. In addition, mean absolute and relative weights of ovaries were decreased at the high dose level. It should be noted, however, that no morphologic correlate was observed which gave evidence for any effect of the test compound in the ovaries (in particular the number and appearance of primordial and growing follicles), oviducts or uteri. Also, morphology of the male reproductive organs and sperm quality were unaffected. Thus the reason for this small reduction of implants remains indeterminate. A relationship to the treatment cannot be excluded.
There were no indications for test substance-induced intrauterine embryo-/fetolethality since the postimplantation loss did not show any significant differences between the groups. The rate of liveborn pups was also not affected by the test substance, as indicated by live birth indices of 98.6% (control), 99.3% (low dose group), 100% (mid dose group) and 96.4% (high dose group). Moreover, the number of stillborn pups was comparable between the groups.

Effect levels (P1)

open allclose all
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
General, systemic toxicity
Effect level:
500 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
haematology
clinical biochemistry
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponding to 39 mg/kg bw/d (males) and 56 mg/kg bw/d (females)
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Fertility/Reproductive performance
Effect level:
500 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
female
Basis for effect level:
reproductive performance
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponding to 56 mg/kg bw/d

Results: F1 generation

General toxicity (F1)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Sex ratio, see "Details on results"

Developmental neurotoxicity (F1)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined

Developmental immunotoxicity (F1)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Details on results (F1)

CLINICAL SIGNS
For 4 male and 1 female pup of the high dose group a reduced nutritional condition was recorded during several part of the lactation period.

NUMBER OF PUPS DELIVERED
No statistically significant difference was noted in the number of F1 pups delivered between the control group and any of the treated groups.
The number of pups found dead was significantly increased in F1 (0 vs. 9) in the high dose. The number of pups cannibalized / dead was significantly increased in the high dose animals of F1 (2 vs. 9) in comparison to the control. At the high dose pups displayed signs of reduced maternal care, non-proper nursing, reduced general condition as well as no stomach contents at necropsy.

VIABILITY/LACTATION INDEX
The viability index indicating pup mortality shortly after birth (PND 0 - 4) varied between 97.6% (high dose), 99.3% (control), 99.6 (mid dose) and 99.7 (low dose) without showing any association with the treatment.
The lactation index indicating pup mortality during further course of lactation (PND 4 – 21) was 100% (control and low dose), 98.9% (mid dose) and 92.0% (high dose). The lower index in the high-dose group does not differ statistically significantly from control, however the value is slightly below the historical control range (95-100%). This higher rate of dead offspring is related to improper nursing of three high-dose dams which consequentially lost parts of their litters or the entire litter.

BODY WEIGHT
Mean body weights of the high dose F1 male and female pups (2000 ppm) were statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during the whole lactation period (up to 30% [males], up to 28% [females] and up to 29% [both sexes combined]). No test compound-related influence on F1 pup body weights were noted in the low and mid dose groups (100 and 500 ppm).
Body weight change of the high dose F1 pups of both sexes was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during the whole lactation period (up to 42% [males], up to 39% [females] and up to 39% [both sexes combined]). Body weight change of the mid dose F1 pups of both sexes was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during PND 14 - 21 in both sexes (about 8% [males], about 6% [females] and about 7% [both sexes combined]). No test compound-related influence on F1 pup body weight change was noted in the low dose group.

SEXUAL MATURATION
Vaginal opening: Each female F1 pup, which was selected to become a parental F1 female, was evaluated for commencement of sexual maturity. The first day when vaginal opening was observed was PND 27, the last was PND 39. The mean number of days to reach the criterion in the control and 100, 500 and 2000 ppm test groups amounted to 29.8; 30.4; 30.5 and 33.4** (**:p≤0.01) days. The mean body weight on the day, when vaginal opening was recorded, amounted to 92.2 g, 94.1 g, 96.8 g, and 97.9 g in test groups.
Comparison of ages and body weights of individual F1 females in controls and the 2000 ppm group with the mean body weight development of control F1 females reveals that the distribution of the animals in the high dose group is directly right-shifted with respect to the controls; no corresponding increase in body weight is observed in the older animals. Thus, the delay in vaginal opening must be due to the decreased body weight (slowed general development) in this dose group. These data indicate that the delay in vaginal opening reflects the general toxicity in the pups of this dose, rather than any other specific mechanism.
Preputial separation: Each male F1 pup, which was selected to become a F1 parental male, was evaluated for commencement of sexual maturity. The first day when preputial separation was observed was PND 38, the last was PND 53. The mean number of days to reach the criterion in the control and 100, 500 and 2000 ppm test groups was 41.0, 41.3, 42.5*, and 46.4** (*:p≤0.05 or **:p≤0.01) days. The mean body weight on the day when preputial separation was recorded, amounted to 180.1 g, 177.2 g, 183.8 g, and 177.3 g in the control, low, mid or high dose group, respectively.
Comparison of ages and body weights of individual F1 males in the control and the 2000 ppm dose group with the mean body weight development of control F1 males reveals that, like the females, the distribution of the male animals in the high dose group is directly right-shifted with respect to the controls; no corresponding increase in body weight is observed in the older animals. Thus, the delay in preputial separation must also be due to the decreased body weight (slowed general development) in the pups of this dose group. These data indicate that the delay in preputial separation reflects the general toxicity in the pups of this dose, rather than any other specific mechanism. The delay in preputial separation is a direct effect of just one animal. If this animal is removed as an outlier, the mean age at sexual maturation drops from 42.5 (the edge of the historical control range) to a much more normal 42.1±1.65 days. Thus any delay in preputial separation in this dose group is judged to be incidental and unrelated to treatment.

GROSS NECROPSY
A few F1 pups showed spontaneous findings at gross necropsy, such as post mortem autolysis, red discolored thymus, fluid-filled thorax, empty stomach, dilated renal pelvis, pale discolored liver lobe, dilated ureter, hydroureter, distended urine bladder, yellow discolored intestinal content and hydronephrosis. These findings occurred without any relation to dosing and/or can be found in the historical control data at comparable or even higher incidences. Thus, all these findings were not considered to be associated to the test substance.

ORGAN WEIGHT
The decreased absolute brain weights and increased relative brain weights (high dose group) and the decreased absolute and relative spleen and thymus weights in the high and mid dose F1 pups were considered to be secondary to the lower pup body weights in these groups. The hematologic evaluation of F1 animals did not reveal any indication of an adverse effect on the lymphocyte count.

SEX RATIO
The sex distribution and sex ratios of live F1 pups on the day of birth and on PND 21 did not show substantial differences between the control and the test substance-treated groups; slight differences were regarded to be spontaneous in nature.

Effect levels (F1)

open allclose all
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
General, systemic toxicity
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
500 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
food consumption and compound intake
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponds to 40.3 mg/kg bw/d (males) or 44.0 mg/kg bw/d (females)
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Fertility
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
500 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: number of implantation sites, number of pups delivered
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponds to 40.3 mg/kg bw/d (males) or 44.0 mg/kg bw/d (females)
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Developmental toxicity
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
Remarks on result:
other:
Remarks:
Dose corresponding to 7.4 mg/kg bw/d (males) and 11.5 mg/kg bw/d (females) mg/kg bw/d

Results: F2 generation

General toxicity (F2)

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
not examined
Food efficiency:
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
not examined
Clinical biochemistry findings:
not examined
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Sexual maturation:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Gross pathological findings:
effects observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"
Histopathological findings:
not examined
Other effects:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
see "Details on results"

Developmental neurotoxicity (F2)

Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined

Developmental immunotoxicity (F2)

Developmental immunotoxicity:
not examined

Details on results (F2)

CLINICAL SIGNS
Several male (32 animals) and female (27 animals) pups from dams of the high dose group displayed signs of reduced nutritional condition during several time points of lactation.

NUMBER OF PUPS DELIVERED
In F2 the number of pups delivered was significantly reduced from 12.0 in the control to 9.8 in the high dose group (2000 ppm). The rates of stillborn pups was evenly distributed between the groups in F1 and F2.
The number of pups found dead was significantly increased in F2 (0 vs. 9) in the high dose. The number of pups cannibalized / dead was significantly increased in the high dose animals of F2 (0 vs. 28) in comparison to the control. At the high dose pups displayed signs of reduced maternal care, non-proper nursing, reduced general condition as well as no stomach contents at necropsy.

VIABILITY/LACTATION INDEX
The viability index indicating pup mortality during lactation (PND 0 - 4) was statistically significantly decreased in the high dose group and varied between 83.9%** (**:p≤0.01), 99.7% (mid dose) and 100% (low dose and control). The lactation index indicating pup mortality during further course of lactation (PND 4 – 21) was 100% (control, low and mid dose), and 90.2% (high dose). The lower index in the high-dose group does not differ statistically significantly from control, however the value is slightly below the historical control range (95-100%).
These higher rates of died offspring are related to four high-dose dams which suffered from distinct impairments of food consumption/body weight gain during this particular study period and/or were not able to nurse their pups properly. Consequentially, those dams lost parts of their litters or the entire litter. At the high dose pups displayed signs of reduced maternal care, non-proper nursing, reduced general condition as well as no stomach contents at autopsy. This indicates that poor nutritional condition lead to the death/cannibalization of the pups.
This is, in turn, probably secondary to the decreased food consumption by the parental females during the last part of gestation and the early part of lactation. As the quantity and quality of mammary secretions is highly dependent on maternal nutrition, and so is pup growth during the first few weeks of life. To meet the caloric demand, lactating females consume about twice the food than they would otherwise. Thus the parental females, and probably indirectly the offspring, were exposed to twice the effective dosage during this period contributing to the reduced nutritional status of the pups. Furthermore, the doubling of the effective dose during lactation may also be a cause of the small effects on pup body and organ weight seen at the 500 ppm concentration during lactation, as no effects were observed outside of this study period.

BODY WEIGHT
Mean body weights of the high dose F2 male and female pups (2000 ppm) were statistically significantly below the concurrent control values between PND 4 - 21 in both sexes (up to 31%). Body weights of the mid dose F2 pups of both sexes (500 ppm) were slightly but statistically significantly below the concurrent control values on PND 21 (up to 6%). No test compound-related influence on F2 pup body weights was noted in the low dose group (100 ppm). Body weight change of the high dose F2 pups of both sexes was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during the entire lactation period (up to 54%). Body weight change of the mid dose F2 pups of both sexes was statistically significantly below the concurrent control values during PND 14 - 21 (up to 9%). The change in the last third of lactation was big enough to convey a statistically significant decrease in the average value calculated for the entire lactation period (PND 1 – 21, about 6-7%). No test compound-related influence on F2 pup body weight change was noted in the low dose group.

GROSS NECROPSY
A few F2 pups showed spontaneous findings at gross necropsy, such as situs inversus, red discolored thymus, diaphragmatic hernia, empty stomach and dilated renal pelvis. These findings occurred without any relation to dosing and/or can be found in the historical control data at comparable or even higher incidences. Thus, none of these findings was considered to be associated with the test substance.

ORGAN WEIGHT
The decreased absolute brain weights and increased relative brain weights (high dose group) and the decreased absolute and relative spleen and thymus weights in the high and mid dose F2 pups were considered to be secondary to the lower pup body weights in these groups.

SEX RATIO
The sex distribution and sex ratios of live F2 pups on the day of birth and on PND 21 did not show substantial differences between controls and treated groups. All differences observed were regarded to be spontaneous in nature.

Effect levels (F2)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Remarks:
Developmental toxicity
Generation:
F2
Effect level:
100 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
Remarks on result:
other: Dose corresponding to 8.1 mg/kg bw/d (males) and 11.7 mg/kg bw/d (females)

Overall reproductive toxicity

Key result
Reproductive effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
2 000 ppm
Treatment related:
yes
Relation to other toxic effects:
reproductive effects as a secondary non-specific consequence of other toxic effects
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

Reproduction parameters of male rats

Parental generation

F0

F1

Dose [ppm]

0

100

500

2000

0

100

500

2000

Animals per dose

25

25

25

25

24

24

25

25

Male fertility

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-placed with females

25

25

25

25

24

24

25

25

-mated[n]

25

25

25

25

24

24

23

25

- mating index [%]

100

100

100

100

100

100

92.0

100

- pregnant [n]

25

24

22

22

24

24

22

24

- Fertility index[%]

100

96

88

88

100

100

88

96

 

Reproduction and gestational parameters of female rats

Parental generation

F0

F1

Dose [ppm]

0

100

500

2000

0

100

500

2000

Animals per dose

25

25

25

25

24

25

25

25

Female fertility

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- placed with males

25

25

25

25

24

25

25

25

- mated [n]

25

25

25

25

24

25

23

25

- mating index [%]

96

100

92

100

100

100

92

100

- pregnant [n]

25

24

22

22

24

25

22

24

-Fertility index[%]

100

96

88

88

100

100

95.7

96

Estrous cycle length [days]

4.46

4.99

4.29

4.22

4.44

4.74

4.32

4.23

Mating days until day 0 [days]

2.5

2.4

2.5

2.7

3.2

2.5

2.5

3.2

Duration of gestation [days]

22.3

22.2

22.2

22.2

22.1

22.0

22.0

22.2

Implantation sites, total [n]

299

295

283

255

333

315

256

240

Implantation sites, mean

12

12.3

12.9

11.6

13.9

12.6

11.6

10.0**

Post implantation loss [mean%]

5.56

9.22

4.02

4.87

8.92

3.77

9.37

8.17

Females with liveborn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Gestation index[%]

100

95.8

100

100

100

100

95.5

95.8

- dams with stillborn pups [n]

1

1

0

2

4

2

0

4

- dams with all stillborn [n]

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Pups delivered [n]

282

267

271

239

289

303

242

225

- per dam [mean n]

11.3

11.6

12.3

10.9

12

12.1

11.5

9.8**

- liveborn [n]

281

266

271

237

285

301

242

217

- stillborn [n]

1

1

0

2

4

2

0

8

- Found dead [n]

0

1

1

9

0

0

1

9

- cannibalized / dead [n]

2

0

1

12

0

0

0

28

Pup mortality [n] - Day 0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

2

- Day 1 to 4

2

0

1

7

0

0

0

32

- Day 5 to 7

0

0

0

11

0

0

0

3

- Day 8 to 14

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

- Day 15 to 21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Litters not surviving day 21 [n]

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

3

Pups surviving days 0-4 [n]

279

265

270

230

285

301

241

186

Viability index [mean%]

99.3

99.7

99.6

97.6

100

100

99.7

83.9*

Pups surviving days 4 to 21 [n]

194

183

174

160

191

200

166

151

Lactation index [mean%]

100

100

98.9

92

100

100

100

90.2

Clinical conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- male

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals examined

128

119

130

133

144

150

117

127

# with signs

0

2

0

19

3

1

0

48

Reduced nutritional condition

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

32

Died

0

2

0

12

3

1

0

25

- female

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals examined

154

148

141

106

145

153

125

98

# with signs

1

0

1

11

1

1

0

34

Reduced nutritional condition

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

27

Died

1

0

1

6

1

1

0

14

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01

Values may not calculate exactly due to rounding of values

 

Selected organ weights of F0 and F1 male parental animals

 

Dose [ppm]

F0 Male

F1 Male

Absolute weight

(mean ± SD)

Relative weight[%of bw]

Absolute weight

(mean ± SD)

Relative weight [% of bw]

Terminal weight [g]

0

402.3± 24.4

100

422.4± 40.1

100

100

405.34± 39.8

100

406.6± 30.3

100

500

412.7± 26.2

100

417.8± 41.5

100

2000

377.0± 43.1

100

379.4± 34.3

100

Adrenals [mg]

0

61.28± 7.5

0.015± 0.002

61.32± 6.762

0.015±0.002

100

61.08± 8.1

0.015± 0.002

59.46± 7.003

0.015± 0.002

500

63.80± 6.9

0.015± 0.001

64.76± 11.016

0.016± 0.002

2000

62.60± 8.093

0.017± 0.002*

65.60± 8.986

0.017± 0.002

Brain [g]

0

2.106± 0.075

0.525 ± 0.033

2.148± 0.098

0.512± 0.043

100

2.124± 0.105

0.527± 0.037

2.138± 0.102

0.528± 0.03

500

2.097± 0.069

0.510± 0.033

2.141± 0.074

0.517± 0.053

2000

2.087± 0.106

0.559± 0.057*

2.05± 0.097*

0.543± 0.042*

Cauda

epididymis [g]

0

0.436± 0.04

0.109 ± 0.014

0.457± 0.061

0.109± 0.017

100

0.426± 0.074

0.106± 0.02

0.458± 0.055

0.113± 0.012

500

0.438± 0.045

0.106± 0.012

0.425± 0.093

0.101± 0.021

2000

0.451± 0.056

0.120± 0.015*

0.452± 0.054

0.120± 0.014*

Epididymis [g]

0

1.128± 0.062

0.282 ± 0.026

1.223± 0.097

0.292± 0.033

100

1.099± 0.168

0.272± 0.041

1.18± 0.133

0.29± 0.026

500

1.118± 0.091

0.271± 0.021

1.148± 0.212

0.274± 0.046

2000

1.140± 0.11

0.304± 0.026*

1.161± 0.101

0.307± 0.026

Heart

0

1.094± 0.085

0.272 ± 0.017

1.11± 0.122

0.263± 0.022

100

1.089± 0.099

0.27± 0.02

1.075± 0.106

0.264± 0.015

500

1.091± 0.076

0.265± 0.017

1.109± 0.111

0.266± 0.017

2000

1.032± 0.111

0.275± 0.02

1.032± 0.095

0.273± 0.02

Kidneys [g]

0

2.517± 0.227

0.626 ± 0.044

2.532± 2.532

0.601± 0.048

100

2.474± 0.205

0.612± 0.043

2.464± 0.251

0.607± 0.05

500

2.597± 0.23

0.630± 0.046

2.618± 0.268

0.628± 0.045*

2000

2.525± 0.565

0.683± 0.234

2.463± 0.236

0.650± 0.042*

Liver [g]

0

9.314± 0.835

2.315 ± 0.159

10.097± 1.445

2.388± 0.233

100

9.033± 0.961

2.231± 0.131

9.67± 0.959

2.379± 0.167

500

9.569± 0.749

2.318± 0.107

10.501± 1.753

2.502± 0.273*

2000

9.249± 1.172

2.452± 0.105*

9.955± 0.987

2.629± 0.208*

Pituitary gland [mg]

0

11.76± 2.296

0.003 ± 0.001

10.16± 2.495

0.002± 0.001

100

11.48± 2.7

0.003± 0.001

9.833± 2.099

0.002± 0.001

500

12.2± 2.198

0.003± 0.001

10.28± 3.035

0.002± 0.001

2000

11.04± 2.051

0.003± 0.001

11.16± 2.824

0.003± 0.001

Prostate [g]

0

1.13± 0.141

0.282 ± 0.039

1.054± 0.201

0.25± 0.047

100

1.151± 0.202

0.286± 0.052

1.051± 0.182

0.258± 0.038

500

1.123± 0.219

0.272± 0.048

1.028± 0.25

0.245± 0.054

2000

0.974± 0.194*

0.258± 0.044

0.919± 0.117*

0.243± 0.027

 Seminal vesicle [g]

0

1.239± 0.17

0.309 ± 0.046

1.243± 0.225

0.295± 0.052

100

1.287± 0.175

0.321± 0.055

1.3± 0.242

0.319± 0.048

500

1.253± 0.228

0.304± 0.059

1.142± 0.254

0.273± 0.06

2000

1.134± 0.211

0.301± 0.049

1.12± 0.184

 

Spleen [g]

0

0.633± 0.055

0.158 ± 0.014

0.7± 0.101

0.166± 0.022

100

0.632± 0.081

0.156± 0.015

0.665± 0.087

0.164± 0.02

500

0.647± 0.075

0.157± 0.016

0.696± 0.101

0.167± 0.021

2000

0.659± 0.101

0.175± 0.021

0.714± 0.094

0.189± 0.027*

Testes [g]

0

3.673± 0.258

0.916 ± 0.086

3.994± 0.355

0.952± 0.105

100

3.495± 0.593

0.863± 0.143

3.942± 0.407

0.97± 0.08

500

3.605± 0.224

0.875± 0.05

3.782± 0.625

0.903± 0.139

2000

3.691± 0.299

0.988± 0.105*

3.812± 0.385

1.01± 0.113

Thyroid gland [mg]

0

25.92± 5.291

0.006 ± 0.001

24.32± 5.886

0.006± 0.001

100

24.80± 4.6

0.006± 0.001

23.79± 3.514

0.006± 0.001

500

26.84± 4.516

0.007± 0.001

24.16± 5.281

0.006± 0.001

2000

26.88± 4.167

0.007± 0.001

25.72± 4.722

0.007± 0.001*

* p ≤ 0.05

 

 

Selected organ weights of F0 and F1 female parental animals

 

Dose [ppm]

F0 Female

F1 Female

Absolute weight

(mean ± SD)

Relative

weight [% of bw]

Absolute

weight

(mean ± SD)

Relative

weight [% of bw]

Terminal weight [g]

0

240.4± 17.28

100

237.4 ± 20.7

100

100

237.5± 14.2

100

233.7 ± 15.737

100

500

252.4± 19.9

100

243.9 ± 16.747

100

2000

245.8± 16.1

100

240.3 ± 19.8

100

Adrenals [mg]

0

78.16± 9.384

0.033 ± 0.004

78.375 ± 7.878

0.033 ± 0.004

100

81.12± 12.283

0.034 ± 0.004

75.1 ± 11.341

0.032 ± 0.004

500

89.40± 10.79*

0.036 ± 0.005

85.7± 8.473*

0.035± 0.004*

2000

94.12± 15.501*

0.038 ± 0.004

85.3± 11.866*

0.036 ± 0.005

Brain [g]

0

1.956± 0.081

0.818 ± 0.074

1.953 ± 0.098

0.826 ± 0.046

100

1.996± 0.073

0.842± 0.041*

1.979 ± 0.092

0.85 ± 0.061

500

1.999± 0.084*

0.796 ± 0.065

1.957 ± 0.067

0.805 ± 0.042

2000

1.941± 0.064

0.792 ± 0.038

1.919 ± 0.09

0.804 ± 0.073

Heart [g]

0

0.928± 0.062

0.387 ± 0.028

0.851 ± 0.072

0.36 ± 0.029

100

0.93± 0.085

0.392 ± 0.034

0.858 ± 0.087

0.368 ± 0.036

500

0.957± 0.09

0.38 ± 0.036

0.852 ± 0.067

0.35 ± 0.035

2000

0.892± 0.097

0.362 ± 0.025

0.855 ± 0.092

0.356 ± 0.03

Kidneys [g]

0

1.916± 0.138

0.798 ± 0.046

1.815 ± 0.146

0.768 ± 0.062

100

1.928± 0.173

0.812 ± 0.059

1.77 ± 0.156

0.759 ± 0.067

500

2.016± 0.182

0.801 ± 0.071

1.773 ± 1.49

0.727 ± 0.045

2000

1.928± 0.189

0.783 ± 0.043

1.787 ± 0.234

0.749 ± 0.132

Liver [g]

0

7.649± 1.084

3.179 ± 0.363

7.384 ± 0.753

3.121 ± 0.308

100

7.812± 1.427

3.285 ± 0.549

7.184 ± 0.826

3.07 ± 0.244

500

8.231± 1.55

3.265 ± 0.584

7.336 ± 0.802

3.016 ± 0343

2000

8.634± 1.708

3.492 ± 0.556

7.764 ± 1.133

3.228 ± 0.382

Ovaries [mg]

0

110.0± 15.411

0.046 ± 0.006

109.708 ± 21.8

0.046 ± 0.009

100

109.4± 14.989

0.046 ± 0.006

103.7 ± 18.569

0.044 ± 0.007

500

114.8± 14.666

0.046 ± 0.007

108.2 ± 16.128

0.045 ± 0.008

2000

95.8± 18.141*

0.039± 0.008*

92.4± 18.225*

0.038± 0.006*

Pituitary gland [mg]

0

13.52± 3.111

0.006 ± 0.001

14.167 ± 2.408

0.006 ± 0.001

100

13.12± 2.833

0.006 ± 0.001

11.12 ± 3.18

0.005 ± 0.001

500

14.36± 3.29

0.006 ± 0.001

13.72 ± 1.99

0.006 ± 0.001

2000

12.08± 2.272

0.005 ± 0.001

12.48 ± 3.016

0.005 ± 0.001

Spleen [g]

0

0.513± 0.065

0.214 ± 0.026

0.488 ± 0.084

0.206 ± 0.031

100

0.512± 0.058

0.216 ± 0.024

0.465 ± 0.094

0.199 ± 0.039

500

0.552± 0.056*

0.219 ± 0.018

0.488 ± 0.087

0.200 ± 0.035

2000

0.548± 0.066*

0.223 ± 0.024

0.493 ± 0.102

0.206 ± 0.042

Thyroid glands

[mg]

0

17.68± 3.705

0.007 ± 0.001

18.92 ± 3.063

0.008 ± 0.001

100

18.4± 3.488

0.008 ± 0.001

18.92 ± 4.122

0.008 ± 0.002

500

20.88± 5.167

0.008 ± 0.002

21.92 ± 4.061

0.009 ± 0.002

2000

20.76± 4.648

0.008 ± 0.002

20.48 ± 3.698

0.008 ± 0.001

Uterus [g]

0

0.722± 0.2

0.303 ± 0.091

0.673 ± 0.251

0.285 ± 0.109

100

0.69± 0.191

0.29 ± 0.077

0.631 ± 0.183

0.271 ± 0.081

500

0.798± 0.349

0.319 ± 0.14

0.708 ± 0.27

0.288 ± 0.099

2000

0.736 ± 0.29

0.3 ± 0.12

0.586 ± 0.244

0.245 ± 0.105

* p0.05

 


Selected hematology parameters of F0 and F1 male parental animals

Parameter

Dose

F0 Male

F1 Male

 

 

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

HGB [mmol/L]

0

9.0± 0.3

9.0± 0.2

 

100

9.1± 0.4

9.0± 0.3

 

500

9.1± 0.2

9.0± 0.3

 

2000

8.8± 0.2*

8.9± 0.4

MONOA [giga/L]

0

0.13± 0.05

0.13± 0.04

 

100

0.12± 0.04

0.14± 0.03

 

500

0.12± 0.04

0.14± 0.05

 

2000

0.07± 0.03**

0.13± 0.05

MONO[%]

0

2.4± 0.7

2.2±0.9

 

100

2.2± 0.8

2.1± 0.4

 

500

2.1± 0.5

2.2± 0.5

 

2000

1.5± 0.6*

2.1± 1.0

* p0.05; ** p0.01

 

 

Selected hematology parameters of F0 and F1 female parental animals

Parameter

Dose

F0 Female

F1 Female

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

RBC [tera/L]

0

8.89 ± 0.39

8.71 ± 0.38

100

8.77 ± 0.46

8.93 ± 0.38

500

8.71 ± 0.34

8.88 ± 0.44

2000

8.39 ± 0.46

8.31± 0.48*

HGB [mmol/L]

0

10.1 ± 0.4

9.9 ± 0.3

100

10 ± 0.4

9.9 ± 0.3

500

10 ± 0.4

9.7 ± 0.3

2000

9.4± 0.4**

9.1± 0.3*

HCT [L/L]

0

0.475 ± 0.024

0.471 ± 0.013

100

0.473 ± 0.020

0.474 ± 0.020

500

0.465 ± 0.019

0.461 ± 0.013

2000

0.443± 0.020**

0.437± 0.016*

MCV [fL]

0

53.4 ± 1.9

54.2 ± 2.1

100

54.0 ± 2.0

53.1 ± 1.6

500

53.4 ± 1.7

52.0± 1.9**

2000

52.9 ± 2.3

52.6 ± 1.6

MCH [fmol]

0

1.14 ± 0.04

1.14 ± 0.05

100

1.15 ± 0.04

1.11 ± 0.03

500

1.14 ± 0.04

1.09± 0.06*

2000

1.13 ± 0.05

1.09± 0.05*

RET [%]

0

0.2 ± 0.1

0.3 ± 0.2

100

0.2 ± 0.1

0.3 ± 0.1

500

0.3 ± 0.2

0.2 ± 0.1

2000

0.7± 0.3*

0.9± 0.7**

Baso [%]

0

0.3 ± 0.1

0.8 ± 0.3

100

0.3 ± 0.1

0.8 ± 0.3

500

0.3 ± 0.1

0.6± 0.3*

2000

0.3 ± 0.2

0.6± 0.2*

* p0.05; ** p0.01


 

Selected biochemical parameters of F0 and F1 male parental animals

Parameter

Dose

F0 Male

F1 Male

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

Urea [mmol/L]

0

7.1 ± 0.94

5.64± 0.97

100

7.1 ± 0.88

5.89± 0.55

500

7.27 ± 0.95

6.48± 0.68*

2000

7.67 ± 0.80

6.72± 0.84*

GLUC [mmol/L]

0

7.21 ± 0.73

7.82± 1.05

100

6.91 ± 0.81

7.48± 0.76

500

6.77 ± 0.75

7.35± 0.57

2000

5.84± 0.84**

6.28± 0.74**

TBIL [mmol/L]

0

2.07 ± 0.44

2.06± 0.42

100

2.22 ± 0.33

2.12± 0.26

500

1.89 ± 0.37

1.77± 0.39

2000

1.72± 0.48

1.24± 0.35**

TPROT[g/L]

0

64.68 ± 2.65

62.83± 1.58

100

65.59 ± 1.73

62.91± 1.77

500

65.83 ± 1.56

64.79± 1.51**

2000

66.55 ± 1.70

63.32± 2.29

TRIG [mmol/L]

0

0.82 ± 0.41

1.31± 0.64

100

0.82 ± 0.44

1.14± 0.29

500

0.81 ± 0.27

1.10± 0.28

2000

0.53± 0.17

0.61± 0.17**

* p0.05; ** p0.01

 

Selected biochemical parameters of F0 and F1 female parental animals

Parameter

Dose

F0 Female

F1 Female

 

 

Mean ± SD

Mean ± SD

GLUC [mmol/L]

0

6.17± 0.58

5.30± 0.95

 

100

5.88± 0.88

5.29± 0.90

 

500

5.30± 0.52**

5.33± 0.50

 

2000

5.29± 0.57**

4.66± 0.64

TBIL [mmol/L]

0

3.24± 0.77

1.71± 0.35

 

100

2.94± 0.95

1.85± 0.35

 

500

2.65± 0.46

1.20± 0.33**

 

2000

2.10± 0.34**

1.05± 0.31**

TPROT[g/L]

0

65.49± 2.32

64.38± 3.45

 

100

66.82± 3.09

64.28± 2.36

 

500

67.84± 2.47*

64.81± 2.83

 

2000

68.47± 1.75**

65.09± 1.55

ALB [g/L]

0

39.04± 1.39

36.02± 1.91

 

100

39.54± 1.73

36.31± 1.41

 

500

40.09± 1.60

36.12± 0.95

 

2000

40.52± 0.58**

36.25± 1.44

CHOL[g/Ll]

0

1.99± 0.37

1.88± 0.31

 

100

1.89± 0.40

1.96± 0.46

 

500

2.19± 0.26*

1.79± 0.49

 

2000

2.63± 0.47**

2.53± 0.50**

* p0.05; ** p0.01


 

F1: Selected histopathological findings

Adrenal cortex

Female animals

Test group

 

 

 

 

[ppm]

0

100

500

2000

Organs examined

25

25

25

25

Vacuolation increased

1

1

0

10

  Grade 1

1

1

 

8

  Grade 2

 

 

 

2

 

F1: Differential ovarian follicle count

Dose

Number of animals

Priomordial

Growing

Primordial + growing

Absolute values

Mean values

Absolute values

Mean values

Absolute values

Mean values

0

25

5006

200.24

551

22.04

5557

222.28

2000

25

5745

229.80

538

21.52

6283

251.32


 

Pup survival, sex-ratio, and body weights

Pup generation

F1

F2

Dose [ppm]

0

100

500

2000

0

100

500

2000

Number of litters

25

23

22

22

24

23

21

23

Pups delivered [n]

282

267

271

239

289

303

242

225

- per dam [mean n]

11.3

11.6

12.3

10.9

12

12.1

11.5

9.8**

- liveborn [n]

281

266

271

237

285

301

242

217

- stillborn [n]

1

1

0

2

4

2

0

8

- Found dead [n]

0

1

1

9

0

0

1

9

- cannibalized / dead [n]

2

0

1

12

0

0

0

28

Pup mortality [n]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Day 0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

2

- Day 1 to 4

2

0

1

7

0

0

0

32

- Day 5 to 7

0

0

0

11

0

0

0

3

- Day 8 to 14

0

0

2

3

0

0

0

0

- Day 15 to 21

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Litters not surviving day 21 [n]

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

3

Pups surviving days 0-4 [n]

279

265

270

230

285

301

241

186

Viability index [mean%]

99.3

99.7

99.6

97.6

100

100

99.7

83.9

Pups surviving days 4 to 21 [n]

194

183

174

160

191

200

166

151

Lactation index [mean%]

100

100

98.9

92

100

100

100

90.2

Clinical conditions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- male

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals examined

128

119

130

133

144

150

117

127

# with signs

0

2

0

19

3

1

0

48

Reduced nutritional condition

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

32

Died

0

2

0

12

3

1

0

25

- female

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals examined

154

148

141

106

145

153

125

98

# with signs

1

0

1

11

1

1

0

34

Reduced nutritional condition

0

0

0

5

0

0

0

27

Died

1

0

1

6

1

1

0

14

Sex ratio [% live males]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

- Day 0

45.6

44.4

48

55.3

49.5

49.5

48.3

56.7

Male pup weight[g]

- lactation day 1

7.0

7.0

7.0

6.5*

6.8

6.7

6.7

6.4

- lactation day 4

10.6

10.6

10.5

8.6**

10.3

10.2

10.2

8.0**

- lactation day 7

17.2

17.1

17.0

12.9**

16.7

16.5

16.2

12.1**

- lactation day 14

34.5

34.7

34.3

25.6**

33.6

33.6

32.3

24.2**

- lactation day 21

54.9

54.5

52.9

38.3**

52.8

52.7

49.7*

36.8**

Body weight gain: day 1 to 21

47.8

47.5

45.9

31.8**

46.0

46.0

43.0*

30.4**

Female pup weight[g]

- lactation day 1

6.7

6.6

6.6

6.2*

6.4

6.3

6.4

6.0

- lactation day 4

10.3

10.1

10.1

8.4**

9.8

9.8

9.9

7.5**

- lactation day 7

16.8

16.5

16.5

12.6**

16.0

15.8

15.7

11.4**

- lactation day 14

33.7

33.8

33.4

25.5**

32.5

32.3

31.3

23.2**

- lactation day 21

52.6

52.3

51.0

37.9**

50.8

50.1

48.1*

35.0**

Body weight gain: day 1 to 21

45.9

45.6

44.3

31.6**

44.4

43.8

41.7*

28.9**

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01


 

F1: Absolute pup organ weights [g]

Test group

[ppm]

0

100

500

2000

Brain

(male)

1.538

1.561

1.560

1.491*

Brain

(female)

1.491

1.507

1.500

1.444**

Brain

(male+female)

1.518

1.534

1.530

1.464**

Spleen

(male)

0.268

0.260

0.245

0.131**

Spleen

(female)

0.263

0.259

0.236*

0.126**

Spleen

(male+female)

0.266

0.260

0.240*

0.128**

Thymus

(male)

0.266

0.250

0.247

0.166**

Thymus

(female)

0.274

0.263

0.248*

0.177**

Thymus

(male+female)

0.270

0.257

0.247*

0.169**

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01

 


 

F1: Relative pup organ weights, compared to control (=100%)

Test group

[ppm]

100

500

2000

Brain
(male)

101%

103%

135%**

Brain
(female)

103%

103%

134%**

Brain

(male+female)

102%

103%

135%**

Spleen
(male)

96%

92%*

68%**

Spleen
(female)

100%

92%

66%**

Spleen

(male+female)

98%

92%*

67%**

Thymus
(male)

94%

94%*

86%**

Thymus
(female)

98%

93%*

89%**

Thymus
(male+female)

96%

94%*

87%**

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01

 


 

F2: Absolute pup organ weights [g]

Test group

[ppm]

0

100

500

2000

Brain

(male)

1.525

1.555

1.520

1.447*

Brain

(female)

1.487

1.495

1.461

1.373**

Brain

(male+female)

1.506

1.525

1.491

1.410**

Spleen

(male)

0.251

0.262

0.217**

0.126**

Spleen

(female)

0.255

0.254

0.215**

0.115**

Spleen

(male+female)

0.253

0.258

0.216**

0.120**

Thymus

(male)

0.249

0.244

0.220*

0.157**

Thymus

(female)

0.242

0.245

0.233

0.159**

Thymus

(male+female)

0.246

0.245

0.226*

0.158**

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01

 


 

F2: Relative pup organ weights, compared to control (=100%)

Test group

[ppm]

100

500

2000

Brain
(male)

102%

105%**

137%**

Brain
(female)

102%

102%

135%**

Brain

(male+female)

102%

104%*

136%**

Spleen
(male)

104%

91%*

71%**

Spleen
(female)

101%

88%**

65%**

Spleen

(male+female)

102%

89%**

68%**

Thymus
(male)

98%

93%*

88%**

* p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion