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Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

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Description of key information

Short-term toxicity

Acute oral toxicity:

In an acute oral toxicity test (BASF SE, 704047, 2014) according to OECD 213 (1998) with the test item, the LD50 (96 h) was estimated to be > 93.7 µg/bumblebee.

 

Acute contact toxicity:

In an acute contact toxicity test (BASF SE, 704047, 2014) according to OECD 214 (1998) with the test item, the LD50 (48 h) was estimated to be > 100 µg/bumblebee.

 

Long-term toxicity

In a 28-day Folsomia candida reproduction study (BioChem agrar, 394892, 2015) according to OECD 232 (2009), in which collembolans were exposed to the test substance the NOEC for mortality were determined to be 154.3 mg/kg soil dry weight. The NOEC for reproduction was determined to be 154.3 mg/kg soil dry weight. The EC10 and EC50 values for reproduction were calculated to be 162.0 and 425.3 mg/kg soil dry weight, respectively.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for soil dwelling arthropods:
154.3 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

 

Short-term toxicity

Acute oral toxicity

In an acute oral toxicity test (BASF SE, 704047, 2014) according to OECD 213 (1998) on bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) (30 bumblebees (replicates) per concentration tested) was conducted with the test substance. Nominal test doses were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/bumblebee (resulting in an actual uptake of 6.09, 13.0, 25.0, 50.9 and 93.7 µg a.i./bumblebee, respectively). Furthermore, a control (50% (w/w) aqueous sucrose solution + 10% ratio of honey + 1% acetone and Tween20®) and a positive control (dimethoate,0.75 µg/bumblebee) were included. Within 96 h in the oral toxicity test, no mortality was observed in the control group and after oral consumption of 13.0, 25.0 and 50.9 µg/bumblebee. After the oral consumption of 6.09 µg/bumblebee, 3.3% mortality occurred and in the highest dose of 93.7 µg/bumblebee, a mortality of 6.7% could be observed after 96 h. No statistically significant differences on survival of bumblebees could be observed during the 96 h test.

Behavioral abnormalities were observed after oral consumption of the test substance at all doses throughout the entire study period. Nearly all bumblebees were affected and showed reduced coordination. In the lowest dose (actual uptake of 6.09 µg/bumblebee), the affected bumblebees showed some recovery; in the 4 hour assessment, 28 bumblebees out of 30 were affected whereas after 24 hours only 9 bumblebees and after 48 hours and 72 hours 4 bumblebees were affected and after 96 hours, 1 bumblebee was affected. After 96 hours the LD50 (96 h) was estimated to be > 93.7 µg/bumblebee. In addition in an acute oral toxicity test (BioChem agrar, 394407, 2013) according to OECD 214 (1998) with the test substance, the LD50 (48 h) was determined to be > 100.0μg/bee.

In addition in an acute oral toxicity test (BioChem agrar, 394407, 2013) according to OECD 213 (1998) with the test substance the LD50 (48 h) was determined to be > 100.0 μg/bee.

 

Acute contact toxicity

In an acute contact toxicity test (BASF SE, 704047, 2014) according to OECD 213 (1998) with the test item on bumblebees (Bombus terrestirs) (3 replicates per concentration with 10 bumblebees each were tested) was conducted with the test substance. Nominal test doses were 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/bumblebee. Furthermore, a solvent control and a positive control (dimethoate, 4 µg/bumblebee) were included. After 96 hours of contact exposure, 6.7 % mortality occurred in the solvent control group. 3.3 % mortality was observed in the 6.25 µg/bumblebee group, 13.3 % mortality in the 12.5 µg/bumblebee group and no mortality occurred at doses of 25 and 50 µg/bumblebee. 3.3 % mortality was observed in the highest dose of 100 µg/bumblebee. No statistically significant effects on survival of bumblebees could be observed during the 96 h contact toxicity test. Nearly all bumblebees of the test item treated groups showed behavioral abnormalities throughout the study, such as reduced coordination. Additionally, 1 individual of the 12.5 µg/bumblebee group was apathetic in the 24 h assessment and 1 individual was in a moribund state at 48 h. Also, in the highest dose group (100 µg/bumblebee) 1 animal was apathetic in the 24 h assessment. A slight recovery of the bumblebees after 72 and 96 h was observed in the lowest dose rate (6.25 µg/bumblebee). Reduced coordination was then limited to 10 bumblebees out of 30 bumblebees. The LD50 was estimated to be > 100 µg/bumblebee.

 

In addition in an acute contact toxicity test (BioChem agrar, 394407, 2013) according to OECD 214 (1998) with the test substance the LD50 (48 h) was determined to be > 200.0 μg/bee.

 

Long-term toxicity

In a 28-day Folsomia candida reproduction study (BioChem agrar, 394892, 2015) according to OECD 2009, collembolans (Folsomia candida) were exposed to the test substance for 28 days in artificial soil (OECD 232 substrate with 5% organic matter). The test was conducted in 150 mL glass containers covered with lids, containing 30 g artificial soil. Soil concentrations of8.2, 14.7, 26.5, 47.6, 85.7, 154.3, 277.8 and 500 mg/kg dry soil were tested in 4 replicates of 10 collembolans each. Additionally, an untreated solvent control with 8 replicates each containing 10 collembolans was included. The vessels were maintained at 19.4 - 22.0 °C under a 16 hours light (540 lux) and 8 hours dark photoperiod. Soil moisture was maintained at 58 - 60% of the WHC (water holding capacity). Assessment of mortality, reproduction and behavior was carried out 28 days after treatment.   Statistically significant effects on mortality compared to the solvent control were observed at concentrations of 277.8 and 500 mg/kg soil dry weight (Multiple Sequentially-rejective Fisher Test After Bonferroni-Holm,α= 0.05, one-sided greater). Mortality rates of 0 % - 72.5 % were recorded in the test item treatment groups. 3.8 % parental mortality was observed in the solvent control. Statistically significant effects (Williams-t-test,α= 0.05, one-sided smaller) on number of juveniles compared to the solvent control group were recorded at concentrations of 277.8 and 500 mg/kg soil dry weight. The mean number of juveniles counted 28 days after introduction of the parental collembolans into the test vessels was 700 in the solvent control and 699, 705, 684, 693, 681, 690, 454 and 310 at concentrations of 8.2, 14.7, 26.5, 47.6, 85.7, 154.3, 277.8 and 500 mg/kg dry soil, respectively. The feeding activity of the earthworms was not reduced up to and including the highest concentration of 473 mg per kg soil dry weight. The NOEC for mortality was determined to be 154.3 mg/kg soil dry weight. The NOEC for reproduction was determined to be 154.3 mg/kg soil dry weight. The EC10 and EC50 values for reproduction were calculated to be 162.0 and 425.3 mg/kg soil dry weight, respectively.