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Sediment toxicity

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Description of key information

Short-term toxicity

Freshwater

In a key 10-day flow-through acute toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International, 719770, 2014) according to EPA OPPTS 850.1735 (Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity of Invertebrates, freshwater, (1996)) with Chironomus dilutus the LC50 of the test substance for survival was determined to be > 804 μg/ kg, the highest concentration tested, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 265 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water.

 

Marine water

In a 10-day static acute toxicity laboratory study (Smithers Viscient, 776871, 2015) according to EPA OPPTS 850.1740 (Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity of Invertebrates, marine (1996)) with Leptocheirus plumulosus the LC50 of the test substance for survival was > 810 μg/kg, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 0.5 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. 

 

Long-term-toxicity

Freshwater

In a 40-day flow-through chronic toxicity laboratory key study (Wildlife International , 394399, 2015) according to EPA 600/R-99/064 (2000) with Chironomus dilutus the LC50 of the test substance was > 24.9 μg/kg, based on initial measured concentrations in the sediment and > 0.217 μg/L, based on initial measured concentrations in the pore water. The NOEC for survival was ≥ 24.9 μg/kg, based on initial measured concentrations in the sediment and ≥ 0.217 μg/L, based on initial measured concentrations in the pore water.

 

Marine water

No marine water test was performed for the chronic toxicity.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC10, LC10 or NOEC for freshwater sediment:
24.9 µg/kg sediment dw

Additional information

Short-term toxicity

Freshwater

In a key 10-day flow-through acute toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International, 719770, 2014) according to EPA OPPTS 850.1735 (Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity of Invertebrates, freshwater, (1996)), freshwater midges, Chironomus dilutus, (10 days old) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 63, 125, 250, 500 and 1000/kg sediment dry weight, corresponding to mean measured concentrations of 57, 104, 207, 458 and 804 µg/kg in the sediment and 12, 25, 58, 121 and 265 µg/L in pore water, respectively. The midges were tested in groups of 10 animals in 300 mL glass beakers containing filtered freshwater and approximately 100 mL (2.6 cm) of sediment with eight replications per concentration. Two additional replicates were added also to each treatment and control group for analytical sampling of sediment, pore and overlying water. The midges were observed daily for mortality and abnormal behavior during the test. The biological results of the study are based on the mean measured concentrations in the sediment and in pore water. All organisms appeared normal during the test with some observations of organisms leaving the sediment or climbing the walls of the test compartments. Mean percent survival at test termination in the negative control, solvent control, 57, 104, 207, 458 and 804 μg/kg treatment groups was 91, 86, 90, 91, 94, 96 and 96 %, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the treatment groups for the survival data compared to the negative control. The average ash-free dry weight per midge in the negative control, solvent control, 57, 104, 207, 458 and 804 μg/ kg treatment groups was 2.06, 2.07,1.96, 1.94, 1.90, 1.83 and 1.97 mg, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between the negative control and any of the treatment groups.

The LC50 of the test substance for survival was determined to be > 804 μg/ kg, the highest concentration tested, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 265 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. There were no test substance related effects observed on behavior, survival, or growth.

Moreover in a 10-day flow-through acute toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International, 147A-298, 2014) 7 days old freshwater amphipods (Hyalella azteca) the LC50 of the test substance for survival was determined to be> 805μg/kg, the highest concentration tested, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 280 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. 

Additionally in a 10-day flow-through acute toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International, 719771, 2014) with Chironomus dilutes the LC50 of a metabolite of the registered substance for survival was determined to be > 13 mg /kg, the highest concentration tested, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 6.3 mg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. There were no test substance related effects observed on behavior, survival, or growth.

 

Marine Water

In a 10-day static acute toxicity laboratory study (Smithers Viscient, 776871, 2015) according to EPA OPPTS 850.1740 (Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity of Invertebrates, marine (1996)) marine amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus) were exposed to nominal concentrations of 63, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg /kg sediment dry weight, corresponding to mean measured concentrations of 49, 99, 190, 390 and 810 μg/kg in the sediment and 0.22, 0.50, 1.0, 2.3 and 5.0 μg/L in pore water, respectively. The test included also a water and a solvent control. The amphipods were tested in groups of 20 animals in 1-L glass beakers containing filtered seawater and approximately 2 cm of sediment with five replications per concentration. Four additional replicates were added also to each treatment and control group for chemical analysis and monitoring water quality of the pore water. Observations of mortality and abnormal behavior were made daily during the test. The biological results of the study are based on the mean measured concentrations in the sediment and in pore water. After 10 days of exposure, the mean survival of amphipods in the negative control, solvent control, 49, 99, 190, 390 and 810 μg/kg treatment groups were 98, 96, 94, 94, 95, 100 and 97 %, respectively. There were no substance related effects observed on survival. The LC50 of the test substance for survival was > 810 μg/kg, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and > 0.5 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. 

In addition in a 10-day static supporting acute toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International, 394401, 2014) marine amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus) according to EPA OPPTS 850.1740 (Whole Sediment Acute Toxicity of Invertebrates, marine (1996)). The LC50 of the test substance for survival was 351 μg/kg, based on mean measured concentrations in the sediment and 74 μg/L, based on mean measured concentrations in the pore water. Despite the fact that the study meets the validity criteria for the biology portion of the study it cannot be seen as fully reliable due to the some analytical issues.

 

Long-term toxicity

Freshwater

In a 40-day flow-through chronic toxicity laboratory study (Wildlife International , 394399, 2015) according to EPA 600/R-99/064 (2000), the first instar larvae of Chironomus dilutus were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.63, 1.3, 2.5, 5.0, 10 and 20 µg/Kg sediment corresponding to initial measured concentrations of 0.852, 1.56, 3.24, 6.22, 11.0 and 24.9 µg/ kg, respectively. The test was initiated with 12 replicate test compartments, with an additional four replicates (for use as auxiliary male replicates) initiated on Day 9, for a total of 16 replicate test compartments in each treatment and control group. Each test compartment was initiated with 12 midge larvae for a total of 192 individuals per treatment group and control. Three additional replicates (defined as “water quality” replicates) were added to each treatment and control group to be sacrificed for measurements of sediment pH and pore water ammonia. Three additional replicates (defined as “analytical” replicates) were added in each treatment and control group to be sacrificed for analytical sampling of water and sediment. The “analytical” and “water quality” replicates sampled on Day 0 did not contain midge larvae, while midge larvae were added at test initiation to the “analytical” and “water quality” replicates sampled on Days 16 and 40.  The biological results are based on initial measured concentrations in sediment. All organisms appeared normal during the test. On Day 16, there were no statistical differences observed on survival or growth relative to the pooled control group in any of the treatment groups. At test termination (Day 40) there were no biologically meaningful statistical differences on any of the emergence or reproductive endpoints when the treatment groups were compared to the pooled control. The LC50 of the test substance was > 24.9 μg/kg, based on initial measured concentrations in the sediment and > 0.217 μg/L, based on initial measured concentrations in the pore water. The NOEC for survival was ≥ 24.9 μg/kg, based on initial measured concentrations in the sediment and ≥ 0.217 μg/L, based on initial measured concentrations in the pore water.

In addition in a 25-day static chronic toxicity laboratory supporting study (BASF SE, 394400, 2013) with Chironomus riparius the NOEC of the test substance for both emergence rate and development rate was determined to be ≥ 37.2μg/L, based on initial measured concentrations. Due to a lack of effects the EC10 and EC50 could not be calculated and were considered to be > 37.2μg a/L, based on initial measured concentrations.

 

Marine water

No marine water test was performed for the chronic toxicity.