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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:

The study does not need to be conducted because the substance is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

Biodegradability of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) was determined by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 with log Kow as primary descriptor. The test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate showed 92.40 % degradation by considering BOD as parameter and Microorganisms as inoculum in aerobic condition in 28 days. On the basis of percent degradation value in 28 days it is concluded that this test chemical is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation in water and sediments:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate(CAS No. 104 -65 -4). If released in to the environment, 26 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of test chemical(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formatein sediment is estimated to be135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1 % (i.e, reported as 0.292 %), indicates that test chemical(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formateis not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104 -65 -4) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 73.5 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low .

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic /sediments:

Using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2017) the estimated bio concentration factor (BCF) for(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) is 15.31 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg. c which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000. Therefore it is concluded that test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate is non bioaccumulative in food chain.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

The Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) was estimated using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) as 248.4 L/kg (log Koc= 2.3951) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has low sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has moderate migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Stability:

Hydrolysis:

The study does not need to be conducted because the substance is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation:

Biodegradation in water:

Predicted data for the target compound (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4)and supporting weight of evidence studies for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

In first prediction the biodegradability of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) was determined by using OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 with log Kow as primary descriptor. The test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate showed 92.40 % degradation by considering BOD as parameter and Microorganisms as inoculum in aerobic condition in 28 days. On the basis of percent degradation value in 28 days it is concluded that this test chemical is readily biodegradable.

Another prediction was done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) to estimate the biodegradation potential of the test compound (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate is expected to be readily biodegradable.

Next, experimental study of read across substance 2E)-2-(phenylmethylidene)heptanal (CAS no. 122-40-7) was conducted to support the prediction study of target chemical (from Food and chemical Toxicolgy journal , 2015) in this study Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of read across substance (2E)-2-(phenylmethylidene)heptanal under aerobic conditions. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test). Concentration of inoculum i.e, sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial read across substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. Aniline was used as a reference substance for the study. Test vessels involve the Bottle 1 & 2: Basal culture medium + activated sludge 30 mg/l + test chemical (100 mg/l); Bottle 3: Basal culture medium + activated sludge 30mg/l+ aniline (100mg/l) and Bottle 4: Basal culture medium + activated sludge 30 mg/l. Reference substance undergoes 61% degradation in 28 days. The percentage degradation of read across substance (2E)-2-(phenylmethylidene)heptanal was determined to be 90% by BOD parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, (2E)-2 -(phenylmethylidene)heptanal is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

One more experimental study was conducted for read across substance 2 -phenylethyl propanoate (PEP) (from Pest Management Science journal, 2008) in this study Biodegradation experiment was conducted for 30 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of 2 -phenylethyl propanoate. Pond water was used as inoculums collected from the Iowa State University Horticulture Farm pond (Ames, IA, USA). Initial read across substance conc. used for the study was 10μg/g. The pH of the water was 7.3, the alkalinity was 91 mg/ml, and the total hardness was 182 mg/ml. Pond water (100 ml) was kept in French square bottles and spiked with 3H-PEP in 300 μl of acetone carrier solvent to result in a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Samples were taken at days 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 30 post-treatment. Quantitative analysis of PEP was performed using a Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA, USA) series 1100 HPLC system with a quaternary pump, an autosampler, a thermostatted column compartment, and a Spectroflow 757 absorbance detector (ABI Analytical, Kratos Division, Ramsey, NJ, USA). Data were collected and analyzed using HP Chemstation system software (REV. A.04.01). An Alltech Adsorbosphere® (Deerfield, IL, USA) C18 column (4.6×250 mm, 5-μm particle size) was used. Detection was conducted at 270 nm with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min at room temperature. The mobile phase was methanol/distilled water (70:30, v/v).Dissipation rates of PEP were calculated using first-order open models. A student’s t-test was used to compare dissipation rates of PEP in light and in dark from the water dissipation studies. Dissipation of PEP in water was very rapid with a DT 50 of 5 days. Volatility loss was negligible in one month with mass balance from 96% to 100%. The primary degradation product was 2-phenylethanol, which was produced from ester hydrolysis of phenethyl propionate; another degradation product was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanol, which was probably a biotransformation product of 2-phenylethanol in microbes. The percentage degradation of read across substance 2-phenylethyl propanoate was determined to be 50% in 5 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2-phenylethyl propanoate is considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

On the basis of results of above mentioned studies for target chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) (from OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 and EPI suite) and supporting weight of evidence studies. It is concluded that the test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate can be expected to be readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation in water and sediments:

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate(CAS No. 104 -65 -4). If released in to the environment, 26 % of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be15 days (360 hrs). The half-life (15 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is low whereas the half-life period of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate in sediment is estimated to be135 days (3240 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1 % (i.e, reported as 0.292 %), indicates that test chemical(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate is not persistent in sediment.

Biodegradation in soil:

The half-life period of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 73.5 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate in soil is estimated to be 30 days (720 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is low.

Bioaccumulation:

Bioaccumulation: aquatic /sediments:

Various predicted data for the target compound(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4)and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across chemical were reviewed for the bioaccumulation end point which are summarized as below:

In first weight of evidence study bio concentration factor (BCF) value was estimated by using BCFBAF Program (v3.00) model of EPI suite (2017). The estimated BCF value for test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) was 15.31 L/kg wet-wt at 25 deg.

Another prediction was done by using Bio-concentration Factor (v12.1.0.50374) module ofACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, 2017) and bio-concentration Factor at range pH 1-14  of the chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no.104 -65 -4) was estimated to be 25.2 dimensionless.

Next prediction was done by using SciFinder database ofAmerican Chemical Society (ACS, 2017) and the Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate at pH 1-10 and temperature 25 °C was estimated to be 23.3 dimensionless.

 

Another prediction was done from CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application)  V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical)  the bioaccumulation i.e BCF for test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no.104 -65 -4) was estimated to be 13.5 dimensionless. The predicted BCF result was based on the 5 OECD principles.

One more prediction was done by using Chemspider- ACD/PhysChem Suite of Royal Society of Chemistry (ACS, 2017) and Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No: 104-65-4) was estimated in aquatic organisms at pH 5.5 and pH 7.4. The Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate at pH 5.5 and pH 7.4 was estimated to be 34.12 dimensionless. 

In supporting weight of evidence study the bioaccumulation study in fish was conducted for estimating the BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of read across chemical (2E)-3 -phenylprop-2 -enal (CAS no. 104 -55 -2) from authoritative database ( HSDB, 2017). The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) value was calculated using a log Kow of 1.9 and a regression derived equation. The BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of (2E)-3 -phenylprop-2 -enal was determined to be 8 dimensionless.

Another supporting weight of evidence study done from same source as mentioned above ( HSDB, 2017) and the BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of read across chemical (2E)-2 -(phenylmethylidene)heptanal (CAS no. 122-40-7) was determined. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) value was calculated using an estimated log Kow of 4.07 and a regression derived equation. The BCF (bioaccumulation factor) value of (2E)-2 -(phenylmethylidene)heptanal was determined to be 586 dimensionless.

On the basis of above results for target chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) (from EPI suite, ACD labs, Sci Finder database, Chemspider and CompTox Chemistry Dashboard 2017) and for its read across chemicals (From HSDB) it can be concluded that the BCF value of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate ranges from 13.5 to 34.12 dimensionless which does not exceed the bioconcentration threshold of 2000, indicating that the chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate is expected to be nonbioaccumulative in the food chain.

Transport and distribution:

Adsorption/desorption:

Various predicted data for the target compound of(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4)and supporting weight of evidence study for its read across chemical were reviewed for the Adsorption end point which are summarized as below.

The first predicted data study was done by using EPI suite KOCWIN Program (v2.00) and the Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e. Koc value of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) was estimated to be 248.4 L/kg (log Koc= 2.3951) by means of MCI method at 25 deg. C.  This log Koc value indicates that test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has low sorption to soil and therefore test chemical has moderate migration potential to ground water.

Another study was done by using Adsorption Coefficient module (v12.1.0.50374) program of (ACD (Advanced Chemistry Development)/I-Lab predictive module, (2017) and Soil Adsorption Coefficient i.e Koc value of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 124 -65 -4) was estimatedto be Koc 351 dimensionless (log Koc= 2.5453). This log Koc value indicates that the test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has a moderate sorption to soil and therefore have slow migration potential to groundwater.

Next weight of evidence study was done by Using Sci Finder database of American Chemical Society (ACS, 2017) and soil adsorption co-efficient i.e., Koc value of test chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) was estimated to be 331.0 dimensionless ( log Koc = 2.5198) at pH 1-10 at temperature 25 deg.c. this value suggests that this test chemical has moderate sorption to soil and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

Similarly, another study was done by Using Chemspider-ACD/Phy chem suite of Royal Society of Chemistry (ACS, 2017) and soil adsorption co-efficient i.e., Koc value of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate was estimated to be 435.46 dimensionless (log Koc= 2.6389) at pH 5.5 and 7.4 and temperature 25 deg.C This Koc value at different pH indicates that the chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has moderate sorption to soil and sediments and therefore test chemical has slow migration potential to ground water.

Last predicted data study was done from CompTox Chemistry Dashboard using OPERA (OPEn (quantitative) structure-activity Relationship Application) V1.02 model in which calculation based on PaDEL descriptors (calculate molecular descriptors and fingerprints of chemical)  the adsorption coefficient i.e KOC for test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS no. 104 -65 -4) was estimated to be 100.0 L/kg (log Koc = 2.00) .The predicted KOC result was based on the 5 OECD principles. Thus based on the result it is concluded that the test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore has moderate migration potential to ground water

Further, in supporting weight of evidence study done from Authoritative database (HSDB, 2017) the adsorption coefficient (Koc) value was calculated using a structure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices. The adsorption coefficient (Koc) value of read across substance (2E)-2 -(phenylmethylidene)heptanal was estimated to be 680 (Log Koc = 2.83). This Koc value indicates that the read across substance (2E)-2 -(phenylmethylidene)heptanal has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

Another supporting weight of evidence study conducted for read across chemical 2 -benzylideneheptanal (CAS No.122 -40 -7) (from UERL, report 2017). The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge 2 -benzylideneheptanal was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals. The solutions of the read across substance and reference substances were prepared in appropriate solvents. The read across solution concentration was 388 mg/l and pH was 6.2. Each of the reference substance and read across substance were analysed by HPLC at 210 nm. After equilibration of the HPLC system, Urea was injected first, the reference substances were injected in duplicate, followed by the read across chemical solution in duplicate. Reference substances were injected again after test sample, no change in retention time of reference substances was observed. Retention time tR were measured, averaged and the decimal logarithms of the capacity factors k were calculated. The graph was plotted between log Koc versus log k(Annex - 2).The linear regression parameter of the relationship log Koc vs log k were also calculated from the data obtained with calibration samples and therewith, log Koc of the read across substance was determined from its measured capacity factor. The Log Koc value was determined to be 2.989 ± 0.003at 25°C. This log Koc value indicates that the read across substance 2 -benzylideneheptanal has a moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have slow migration potential to ground water.

On the basis of above results for target chemical(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate (CAS No. 104-65-4) (from EPI suite, ACD labs, Sci Finder database, Comptox chemistry dashboard and Chemspider 2017) and for its read across chemicals (From authoritative database HSDB and UERL report) it can be concluded that the log Koc value of test substance (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate ranges from 2.00 to 2.6389 indicating that the chemical (2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl formate has low to moderate sorption to soil and sediment and therefore test chemical has moderate to slow migration potential to ground water.

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