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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
The supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: as mentioned below
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 with logKow as the primary descriptor.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material : 3-Bromoquinoline
- Molecular formula : C9H6BrN
- Molecular weight : 208.057 g/mol
- Smiles notation : c12c(ncc(c1)Br)cccc2
- InChl : 1S/C9H6BrN/c10-8-5-7-3-1-2-4-9(7)11-6-8/h1-6H
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Liquid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
100 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
21+/-0.3°C
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
402.374 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
other: Intoxication

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: EC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((((((((((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" )  and ("d" and ( not "e") )  )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and ("h" and ( not "i") )  )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and "l" )  and "m" )  and ("n" and ( not "o") )  )  and ("p" and ( not "q") )  )  and ("r" and ( not "s") )  )  and ("t" and ( not "u") )  )  and ("v" and ( not "w") )  )  and ("x" and ( not "y") )  )  and ("z" and ( not "aa") )  )  and ("ab" and ( not "ac") )  )  and ("ad" and ( not "ae") )  )  and ("af" and ( not "ag") )  )  and ("ah" and ( not "ai") )  )  and ("aj" and "ak" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as SN2 AND SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation AND SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives AND SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom AND SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 2 (less inert compounds) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified)

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, OH grooup by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non binder, without OH or NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Weak binder, NH2 group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Acetates OR Acylation >> Direct Acylation Involving a Leaving group >> Azlactone OR Acylation >> Ring Opening Acylation OR Acylation >> Ring Opening Acylation >> alpha-Lactams OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Alkyl halides OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Allyl acetates and related chemicals OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> alpha-Halocarbonyls OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> beta-Halo ethers OR SN2 >> SN2 reaction at sp3 carbon atom >> Thiophosphates OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Activated halo-benzenes OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Activated halo-pyridines OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution >> Halo-triazines by Protein binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Basesurface narcotics by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Basesurface narcotics by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Neutral Organics by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "p"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "q"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Polynitrobenzenes OR Pyridine-alpha by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "r"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "s"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Surfactants-Cationic by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "t"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "u"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aliphatic Amines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "v"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "w"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Amides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "x"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "y"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Benzyl Halides by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "z"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "aa"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Esters by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "ab"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "ac"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Phenols, Poly by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "ad"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Halopyrdines by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "ae"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Substituted Ureas by Aquatic toxicity classification by ECOSAR

Domain logical expression index: "af"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic heterocyclic halide AND Aryl AND Aryl halide AND Fused carbocyclic aromatic AND Fused heterocyclic aromatic AND Pyridine AND Quinoline/ Isoquinoline by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "ag"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aldehyde by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "ah"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not categorized by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "ai"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Methyldopa (Hepatotoxicity) Alert by Repeated dose (HESS)

Domain logical expression index: "aj"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= 1.04

Domain logical expression index: "ak"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 3.56

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The median Effective concentration (EC50) value for 3-Bromoquinoline on Daphnia magna in a 48 hour study was estimated to be 402 mg/L on the basis of effects on intoxication
Executive summary:

Using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted for target substance 3-Bromoquinoline (CAS no. 5332 -24 -1). EC50 value was estimated to be 403 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 h duration. Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance 3-Bromoquinoline is considered to be non-toxic to aquatic environment and can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

Using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017) with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, the short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrates was predicted for target substance 3-Bromoquinoline (CAS no. 5332 -24 -1). EC50 value was estimated to be 403 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 h duration. Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance 3-Bromoquinoline is considered to be non-toxic to aquatic environment and can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
403 mg/L

Additional information

Predicted data for the target chemical 3-Bromoquinoline (CAS No. 5332-24-1) and various supporting weight of evidence studies for its closest read across substances with logKow as the primary descriptorwere reviewed to summarize the following information:

 

Short term toxicity on aquatic invertebrate of target chemical3-Bromoquinoline(CAS No. 5332-24-1) is predicted using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances (2017). On the basis of effects observed in a static freshwater system, the effect concentration EC50 value for the substance is estimated to be 402 mg/l for Daphnia magna for 48 hr duration.Based on this value it can be concluded that the substance 3-Bromoquinoline is considered to be non-toxic to aquatic environment and can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

In a weight of evidencestudy from authoritative database (J-CHECK, 2017) of the read across chemical 2-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 69-72-7), short term toxicity to Daphnia magna study was carried out for 48 hrs. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test). The study was based on the effects of the read across compound 2 -hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 69 -72 -7) on Daphnia magna in a static fresh water system. Test chemical concentration used for the study were 5.29, 9.53, 17.1, 30.9, 55.6 and 100 mg/l (geometric ratio 1.8) (nominal concentrations). No. of organisms used were 20 per concentrations, respectively. Based on effect on immobilization of the test organism Daphnia magna, the 48 hr EC50 value was determined to be 76.8 mg/l, respectively. Thus, based on the EC50 value, it can be concluded that the substance 2 -hydroxy benzoic acid can be considered as toxic to aquatic organisms. Since the chemical is readily biodegradable in nature, read across chemical 2 -hydroxy benzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to aquatic organisms and thus can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

In an another study from peer reviewed journal (RENATE KUHN; et. al, 1989) for the read across chemical 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 99-96-7),short term toxicity to Daphnia magna study was carried out for 48 hrs. Acute Daphnia test was performed according to DIN 38412, Part II. The study was based on the effects of the read across compound 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 99-96-7) on Daphnia magna in a static fresh water system at a temperature of 20°C and pH of 8.0±0.2, respectively. Test organism used for the study was 6-24 hr old and no feeding to the organism Daphnia magna was done during the test period. Exact concentration of test chemical used for the study was not known, but the concentration steps of the test solution were selected so as to give 3-4 EC values in a range between EC0 and EC100, of which at least one value was below and one above EC50.The test vessels were two 50 ml beakers and for volatile or strongly smelling substances, two 50 ml bottles with ground-glass stoppers each with 20 ml useful capacity. Two parallel preparations were made for each concentration step. Loading amounted to one test animal per 2 ml test medium as ten 6-24 h old daphnids were placed in each test and control vessel, i.e: 20 animals per concentration step. After a test period of 24 h and again after 48 h, the no. of animals in the control and test solutions that could still swim were counted. After 48 h it was also possible to measure the pH value in order to determine whether the hydrogen ion concentrations were in an acceptable range for the daphnids or whether the result had to be considered as having been influenced by a change in pH during the course of the test. Furthermore, the oxygen content was determined at the end of the test period in order to ensure that it had not fallen below a minimum oxygen concentration of 2 mg/l. The test was considered as valid when fewer than 10% of the animals in the control solutions were unable to swim, when the pH value was not below 7.0 and the O2 value was not below 4.0 m/l. Based on effect on mobility of the test organism Daphnia magna, the 24 hr EC0, EC50 and EC100 value was determined to be 181, 104 and 286 mg/l, respectively and 48 hr EC0, EC50 and EC100 value was determined to be 173, 19 and 204 mg/l, respectively. Thus, based on the 24 and 48 h EC50 value, it can be concluded that the substance 4-hydroxy benzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to aquatic organisms and thus can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

For the same read across chemical 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 99-96-7), short term toxicity to Daphnia sp. study was carried out for 48 hrs. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test). The study was based on the effects of the read across compound 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (CAS no. 99-96-7) on Daphnia sp. in a static fresh water system. Based on effect on immobilization of the test organism Daphnia sp., the 48 hr EC50 value was determined to be 140 mg/l. Thus, based on the EC50 value, it can be concluded that the substance 4-hydroxy benzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to aquatic organisms and thus can be considered to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

 

Thus, based on the overall reported results for target chemical 3-Bromoquinoline(OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3, 2017) and for its read across substance (fromauthoritative database J-CHECK and peer reviewed journal),it can be concluded that the test substance3-Bromoquinolinecan be considered as non-toxic to aquatic environment and can be considered to be notclassified as per the CLP classification criteria.