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Ecotoxicological information

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Administrative data

Endpoint:
long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
April 18, 2013 - March 18, 2014
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2014
Report Date:
2014

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 211 (Daphnia magna Reproduction Test)
Version / remarks:
2012
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Chemical name: 4''-Ethyl-2'-fluor-4-propyl-[1,1';4'1'']terphenyl
Purity: 99.86%


TREATMENT OF TEST MATERIAL PRIOR TO TESTING
A saturated solution (100 mg/L) was prepared with dilution water one day before start of each exposure interval. The test item (100 mg/L) was tranferred with an appropriate amount of the dilution water into brown glass flask and shaken overhead with 20 rpm for 24 hours at room temperature. Undissolved test item was removed by filtration with a membrane filter (0.45 µm, RC, Machery-Nagel).

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: 100 mg/L
- Sampling method: The limit concentration of the test item and the control were analysed by HPLC-DAD at the start of the exposure intervals (0h) on days 0, 10, 17 and at the end of the exposure intervals on days 3, 12, 19. For the analyses at the end of the exposure intervals, seperate replicates without algae and daphnids were prepared and stored under test condictions until sampling.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All original and prepared samples were stored at room temeperature.

Test solutions

Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
Elendt M4, according too ELENDT (1990), modified to a total hardness of 160 to 180 mg CaCO3/L
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION
- Method: A saturated solution (100 mg/L) was prepared with dilution water one day before start of each exposure interval. The test item (100 mg/L) was tranferred with an appropriate amount of the dilution water into brown glass flask and shaken overhead with 20 rpm for 24 hours at room temperature. Undissolved test item was removed by filtration with a membrane filter (0.45 µm, RC, Machery-Nagel).
- Vehicle: Elendt M4, according too ELENDT (1990), modified to a total hardness of 160 to 180 mg CaCO3/L

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Strain/clone: Daphnia magna Straus (Clone 5)
- Source: lnstitut für Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene (WaBolu)
- Breeder: DR.U. NOACK-LABORATORIEN, Käthe-Paulus-Str. 1, 31157 Sarstedt, Germany
- Feeding during test: Daily feeding per test vessel with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (0.165 - 0.219 mL) and Desmodesmus subspicatus (0.228 - 0.922 mL) suspension was provided as food corresponding to 0.2 mg C per Daphnia and day.

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: At least 2h in dilution water
- Acclimation conditions: same as test
- Type and amount of food: At least 5 times per week ad libitum with a mix of unicellular green algae, e.g. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Desmodesmus subspicatus, with an algae cell density of > 10^6 cells/mL

Study design

Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
21 d

Test conditions

Hardness:
150 - 178 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
20.6 - 21.8°C
pH:
7.59 - 8.59
Dissolved oxygen:
5.52 - 9.58 mg/L
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentration: 100 mg/L
Measured Concentration: 0.281 µg/L (geometric mean measured concentration)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beakers 100 mL capacity
- Volume of test medium: 50 mL
- Type : open
- Renewal rate of test solution: renewal 3 times per week, i.e. after 48 and 72 hours
- No. of organisms per vessel: 1
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 10
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 10

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Culture medium Elendt M4, according to ELENDT ( 1990), modified to a total hardness of 160 to 180 mg CaC03/L
- Culture medium different from test medium: no
- Intervals of water quality measurement: once within 7 days

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: no
- Photoperiod: 16/8h light/dark cycle
- Light intensity: Max. 20 µE m-2 s-1

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: A non GLP preliminary range finding test was carried out at the test facility as acute immobilisation test to Daphnia magna STRAUS. A limit loading rate of 100 mg/L of the test item was tested under static conditions over a period of 48 h and no immobilisation was seen.
Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
A reference test was conducted as an acute immobilisation test (acc. to DIN 38412 L11 and AQS P 9/2) under static conditions with a test duration of 24h once per month.

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.281 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Remarks on result:
other: NOEC = solubility limit
Key result
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.281 µg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: NOEC = solubility limit
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
reproduction
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
100 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
The measured concentrations of the test item at the start of the exposure intervals were in the range of 0.253 to 0.765 µg/L. At the end of the exposure intervals (48 or 72 h), the measured concentrations of the test item were in the range of 0.165 to 0.250 µg/L. The geometric mean measured concentration of the test item was calculated to be 0.281 µg/L and was used for the assessment of the effect levels.

The average values of living juveniles per parental daphnid was 81 for the control and also for the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L after 21 days. The reproductive output of daphnids in the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L was comparable to the reproductive output of daphnids in the control (t-test, p = 0.05).

The coefficient of varation of the number of living offspring produced per parent was 10% for the control and 8% for the geometric mean measured concentrwation of 0.281 µg/L. Generally in a well-run test, the coefficient of varation around the mean number of living offspring per parent animal should be <= 25%.

The intrinsic rates of natural increase (IR) of the surviving parental daphnids accounting for generation time and number of offspring were used for calculation of population growth and maintenance. The intrinsic rates of the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L were comparable to those in the control (t-test, p= 0.05).

No adult mortality was observed during the test period of 21 days. In the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L and in the control, all parental daphnids survived until the end of the test after 21 days.

The first brood was released between days 8 and 9 by all parental daphnids of the control and the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L. At the geomtric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L and the control, 4 broods were produced by all parental daphnids.

The mean dry body weight and total body length of all parental daphnids of the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L and the control were determined at the end of the study. The mean dry body weight of the parental daphnids was 0.82 mg per daphnid for the control and 0.72 mg per daphnid for the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L. The mean body length of the parental daphnids was 4.98 per daphnid for the control and 5.05 mm per daphnid for the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L.

No stillborn juveniles or aborted eggs were observed in the control and in the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L during the exposure period of 21 days.

No males or ephippia (winter eggs) were observed in the control or in the geometric mean measured concentration of 0.281 µg/L.

Water quality parameters (i.e. pH-value, dissolved oxygen concentration, total water hardness and temperature) were within the acceptable limits.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
The EC50 of the reference item ptassium dichromate was 1.68 mg/L (95% confidence limits: 1.65 - 1.70 mg/L) after 24 hours and therefore within the prescribed concentration range of 0.6 - 2.4 mg/L of quality criteria according to AQS P 9/2 (05/1996) for daphnids clone 5 cultured in Elendt M4 medium. The EC50-value of the reference item is also within the recommended rangeof 0.6 - 2.1 mg/L according to OECD-Guideline 202.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
No significant effects on the reproductive output or adult mortality were observed in this study. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) after 21 days was assessed at 0.281 µg/L, which is the maximum solubility level of the test item in the dilution water.
Executive summary:

This study was performed according to GLP and the methods applied are fully compliant with OECD TG 211. In this study semi-static conditions have been applied. The concentrations of the test item were analytically verified via HPLC-DAD of samples taken at the start of the exposure intervals on days 0, 10, 17 (0 h) and at the end of the exposure intervals on days 3, 12 and 19 (48 or 72 h) of the saturated solution and the control. No significant effects on the reproductive output or adult mortality were observed in this study. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) after 21 days was assessed at 0.281 µg/L, which is the maximum solubility level of the test item in the dilution water.