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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2009
Report Date:
2009

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 208 (Terrestrial Plants Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Total accumulated light intensity to be maintained between 10 and 27 Einsteins/m2/day. During the study, total accumulated light intensity dropped below 10 Einsteins/m2/day from May 25 to 29, and on July 21 and 29. There was no impact on study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPPTS 850.4100 (Terrestrial Plant Toxicity Tier I (seedling emergence))
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Total accumulated light intensity to be maintained between 10 and 27 Einsteins/m2/day. During the study, total accumulated light intensity dropped below 10 Einsteins/m2/day from May 25 to 29, and on July 21 and 29. There was no impact on study.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OPP 122-1 (Terrestrial Plant Toxicity Tier I (seedling emergence))
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
Total accumulated light intensity to be maintained between 10 and 27 Einsteins/m2/day. During the study, total accumulated light intensity dropped below 10 Einsteins/m2/day from May 25 to 29, and on July 21 and 29. There was no impact on study.
GLP compliance:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid
Details on test material:
Purity: not specified

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Samples collected from the test concentration spray mixture following test solution preparation were analyzed to confirm the test substance concentration. The rate applied was 500 g a.s./ha.

Calibration standards of the test substance, ranging in concentration from 3.00 to 30.0 mg a.s./L, were prepared in acetonitrile and analyzed with the samples.

Test substrate

Vehicle:
yes
Remarks:
domestic well water purified by reverse osmosis
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
The test substance spray mixture was prepared in the carrier solution, domestic well water purified by reverse osmosis containing 0.125% (v/v) non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80).

All applications were made using an automated research track sprayer equipped with a Teejet 8002 E nozzle. The sprayer was calibrated to apply approximately 400 L water/ha at approximately 2.8 bar (40 psi). High spray volumes were used to maximize coverage of the soil surface. The test solution was applied to the surface of the soil in test pots after the seeds were planted beginning with the water control, followed by the test item concentration.

Test organisms

open allclose all
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Corn
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: 33J56
- Source of seed: Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., Johnston, Iowa, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 94% (lot: 043004)
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oat
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Armor
- Source of seed: Wilken Seed Grains, Inc., Pontiac, Illinois USA
- Historical germination of seed: 84% (lot: 05-23-07)
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Onion
- Plant family: Liliaceae
- Variety: WI-3115
- Source of seed: Wannamaker Seeds, St. Matthews, South Carolina, USA
- Historical germination of seed: >85% (lot: WS08-13)
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Ryegrass
- Plant family: Poaceae
- Variety: Gator 3
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 90% (lot: 846-7-05175)
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Cucumber
- Plant family: Cucurbitaceae
- Variety: Straight Eight
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 85% (lot: H-353)
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oilseed rape
- Plant family: Brassicaceae
- Variety: 46A65
- Source of seed: Pioneer Hi-Bred Production, Ltd., Caledon, Ontario, Canada
- Historical germination of seed: 82% (lot: B-891021)
Species:
Pisum sativum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Pea
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Variety: Laxton Progress #9
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 80% (lot: G-92)
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Soybean
- Plant family: Fabaceae
- Variety: Williams 82
- Source of seed: Missouri Foundation Seeds, Columbia, Missouri, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 98% (lot: 65-15-04)
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Sugar beet
- Plant family: Chenopodiaceae
- Variety: Beta 4609R
- Source of seed: Betaseed, Inc., Shakopee, Minnesota, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 97% (lot: 129024-085-1CD-1)
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Tomato
- Plant family: Solanaceae
- Variety: Rutgers
- Source of seed: Meyer Seed Co., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Historical germination of seed: 80% (lot: C-609)

Study design

Test type:
seedling emergence and seedling growth test
Study type:
other: Greenhouse study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Remarks:
greenhouse soil mixture used in this study consisted of an industrial quartz sand, kaolin clay, peat, fertilizer, and pulverized limestone, which was added to buffer the soil.
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
21 d
Post exposure observation period:
Number of emerged seedlings at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment
Number of survival of test plants at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment
The shoot height of live test plants at 21 days after treatment
Shoot dry weights of plants at 21 days after treatment
The condition (visual response) of test plants at 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment.

Test conditions

Test temperature:
All species except for ryegrass, tomato, and oilseed rape: 18.3-34.0 °C
Ryegrass: 19.8-35.3 °C
Oilseed rape and tomato: 19.7-35.4°C
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container: Standard plastic pots (16 cm diameter, 12 cm deep)
- Seed planting: Soil was added to the test pots, and a template was used to prepare 10 holes of similar size and depth. Seeds were visually examined for malformations and variations in size. Seeds used in the test were of similar size, otherwise, one indiscriminately selected seed was placed in each of ten holes, for a total of ten planted seeds in each pot. Holes were then closed by slightly depressing the soil surface.
- No. of seeds per container: 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per negative control: 4

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Sampling depth (cm): 12
- Texture: Sandy loam
- pH: 6.0 (water), 5.7 (CaCl2)
- % sand: 67
- % silt: 13
- % clay: 20
- Bulk density: 1.23 g/cm3
- Moisture at 1/3 Bar: 16%
- Organic matter: 1.5% (0.9% organic carbon)
- CEC: 7.5 meq/100 g
- Potassium: 53 ppm
- Magnesium: 95 ppm
- Calcium: 835 ppm
- Sodium: 10 ppm

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours with natural light augmented with high-pressure sodium lamps
- Light intensity and quality: All species except for ryegrass, tomato, and oilseed rape: Photosynthetically active radiation between 7.0 and 14.4 moles per square meter per day (Einsteins). Ryegrass: between 10.0 and 15.6 moles per square meter per day (Einsteins). Oilseed rape and tomato: between 8.3 and 12.7 moles per square meter per day (Einsteins).
- Relative humidity: All species except for ryegrass, tomato, and oilseed rape: ranging from 28 to 93%; Ryegrass: ranging from 40 to 93%; Oilseed rape and tomato: ranging from 41 to 94%
- Watering regime and schedules: After treatment, an initial watering was made from the top to ensure movement of the test substance into the soil profile. Subsequently, the test containers were watered by sub-irrigation with domestic well water as needed for seedling growth.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Carrier control, surfactant control (0.125% non-ionic surfactant), 500 g a.s./ha.
Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: 11% reduction from control
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: shoot dry weight
Remarks on result:
other: 9% reduction from control
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot height
Remarks on result:
other: 13% reduction from control
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: shoot dry weight
Remarks on result:
other: 15% reduction from control
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual response
Remarks on result:
other: 9% reduction from control
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual response
Remarks on result:
other: 15% reduction from control
Species:
Pisum sativum
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual response
Remarks on result:
other: 10% reduction from control
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual response
Remarks on result:
other: 15% reduction from control
Species:
Beta vulgaris
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual resopnse
Remarks on result:
other: 9% reduction from control
Species:
other: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
Duration:
21 d
Effect conc.:
500 g/ha
Basis for effect:
other: visual response
Remarks on result:
other: 11% reduction from control
Details on results:
The results for the most sensitive parameter for the available species at 21 days after soil exposure to the test substance are summerized in the table above.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Inhibition of all measured parameters for all species tested at a single limit test rate was less than 25% relative to the untreated control plants.
Executive summary:

Non-target terrestrial plant response to a single application rate of the test substance was evaluated on ten common plant species according to OECD guideline 208. Effects on seedling emergence and early growth following soil surface application to planted seeds prior to emergence were assessed. The single test rate was 500 grams of active substance per hectare (g a.s./ha). All tests were conducted in an artificial green house soil mixture (pH: 6.0, O.M.: 1.5%, T.O.C.: 0.9%) under greenhouse conditions. The test system was comprised of four replicates with ten planted seeds for the test rate(s) and control. Applications were made with a track sprayer calibrated to apply approximately 400 L water/ha. Test duration was 21 days. The number of plants emerged, visual rating of plant condition, and the number of plants surviving was recorded on days 7, 14, and 21. In addition, plant shoot height was recorded on day 21. Dry weight was determined from plant shoots collected at test termination on day 21.

Inhibition of all measured parameters for all species tested at a single limit test rate was less than 25% relative to the untreated control plants.