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Epidemiological data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
epidemiological data
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Prevalence of probable kerosene dermatoses among ball-bearing factory workers
Author:
Jee, S-H., Wang, J-D., Sun, C_C and Chao, Y-F.
Year:
1985
Bibliographic source:
Scand. J. Work Environ. Health, Volume 12, Pages 61-65

Materials and methods

Study type:
other: Occupational Epidemiological Study
Endpoint addressed:
skin irritation / corrosion
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Occupational study of workers exposed dermally to kerosine during ball bearing manufacture
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: low viscosity liquid hydrocarbon
Details on test material:
The kerosene used is produced by the China Petroleum Company in Taiwan, Republic of China.
It is composed of paraffin (about 60 volume %), aromatic hydrocarbons (about 20 volume %), and a saturated cyclic compound
The sulfur content is less than 0.1 %.
The boiling point ranges from 150 to 235°C
Flash point is 38-71 °C
The octane hydrocarbon value is 25-35

Method

Type of population:
occupational
Exposure assessment:
estimated
Details on exposure:
Consultation with plant safety personnel allowed the exposure categories to be classified as heavy and light. Workers considered to be in the heavily exposed group were those involved with both process Band C within the same day. Their hands were exposed directly to kerosene about 5 h daily. In processes A, D, and E workers were less exposed because these procedures were carried out mainly by machine, and the ball-bearings were dried onceafter process D. Thus, among the 79 female workers in the assembling department of the ball-bearing factory, 34 were classified as heavily exposed,
and the other 45 as lightly exposed.
Statistical methods:
The prevalence rates of dermatoses among the workers with kerosene exposure and the reference group (from zipper manufacturing company, not exposed to Kerosine) were compared. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant (Mantel-Haenszel chi square = 22.9. p<0.001). The prevalence rate of dermatoses was high for both the heavily exposed group and the lightly exposed group (91 and 78 %). respectively) and the difference between the two was not statistically significant.

Results and discussion

Results:
The difference between highly exposed group and the reference group was statistically significant (Mantel-Haenszel chi square = 22.9. p<0.001). Theprevalence rate of dermatoses was high for both the heavily exposed group and the lightly exposed group (91 and 78 %, respectively) and the difference between the two was not statistically significant. The most common finding was erythema with or without fine desquamation over the interdigital spaces. Eczema was the next most common finding. Defatting dermatitis was also noted, but it was uncommon. The five volunteers who worked in processes Band C with bare hands all developed pain on the second day. On the third day, all developed edema of the hands and blistering over interdigitalspaces. The trial was stopped immediately. The blisters later ruptured, leaving a raw surface.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The findings indicate that kerosine is a skin irritant. Antirust oil used on ball-bearings may also contribute to the irritant effect.
Executive summary:

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dermatoses among workers in a ball-bearing factory and its possible association with their exposure to kerosine.
Two groups of female workers participated in the study.
 The first group included 79 persons with major kerosine exposure during work, while the second, a reference group, was composed of 263 zipper-manufacturing workers with a similar age distribution, educational background, and income. Dermatologic examinations were used to determine the prevalence rate of hand dermatoses (erythema, scaling and eczema). In the exposed group 51 persons (65%) had erythema with or without desquamation over the interdigital spaces, 12 persons (15%) had eczematous lesions, 3 persons (4%) had defatting dermatitis, and only 13 persons (16%) were apparently asymptomatic. In the reference group only one person had hand eczema (<1%). The difference in the occurrence of dermatoses between the two groups was significant according to the Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square test. Patch tests on five workers with eczematous lesions revealed one to be sensitive to mercury. 

The findings indicate that kerosine is a skin irritant. Antirust oil used on ball-bearings may also contribute to the irritant effect.