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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: northern wheatgrass
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: streambank wheatgrass
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Western wheatgrass
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Spanish onion
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oat
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: American sloughgrass
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Canola
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: cabbage
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: turnip
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mountain bromegrass
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
40.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
16.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
36.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield whole plant
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
23.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
26.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
32.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
common name: mountain bromegrass
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: bluejoint marsh reed
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: cucumber
Species:
Daucus carota
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: carrot
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: red fescue
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: soybean
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: barley
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: June grass
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: lettuce
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: flax
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
common name: little bluestem
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass


Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam field soil
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
16.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
27.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
23.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Duration:
9 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Duration:
9 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
22.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
37 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loamsoil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
30.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
49 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
in yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
field root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
52 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
perennial ryegrass
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
tomato
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
alfalfa
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: tomothy
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
-c ommon name: radish
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: red clover
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: wheat
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: corn
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
17.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
17.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
55.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: on clay loam soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
34.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
30.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
27.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
15.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
47.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
34.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study was performed according to ISO 11269-2 (2000) guidelines and is well documented.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-2 "Soil Quality – Determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora – Part 2: Effects of chemicals on the emergence and growth of higher plants"
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP certificate. However, the study was conducted at a GLP-certified laboratory, staff was appropriately trained and standard operating procedures were followed in terms of experimental performance and raw data documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution and respective dosage solutions (geometric series of dilutions of the stock solution) were prepared immediately before application to the test soil. To adjust the test item concentrations in the test soil, the bulk soil for all test species from the same treatment was mixed with the respective volume of test solution and then distributed to the test pots.
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: (oat)
-type: St. Champion
-Source:Saatenunion, D-30916 Isernhagen, Germany.
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: rape
-type: Akelei
-source: LUFA Speyer D-67346 Speyer, Germany.
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
20 d
Test temperature:
18-25 °C
pH:
6.2
Moisture:
7.1 % dry weight
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: The test plants were cultivated in a controlled environment room
- Testing containers: Plant pots made of polypropylene were used as test pots. Rectangular polystyrene beakers, 18.3 cm by 13.6 cm large and 6.4 cm high were used as water reservoirs for the test pots
- Amount of soil: 900g
- Method of seeding: Plant seeds were randomly picked with a pair of tweezers and pressed 5 to 10 mm deep into the soil at a uniform distance between each other. The soil surface was carefully smoothed afterwards.
- No. of seeds per container: 40
- No. of plants (retained after thinning):
- No. of replicates per treatment group:
- No. of replicates per control:

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Speyer, Germany
- Pesticide use history at the collection site: no fertilizer or pesticides the last two years before sampling
- Organic carbon [%]: 0.99
- pH (0.01 M CaCl2): 6.2
- Cation exchange capacity [mval/100 g]: 7
- Max. water holding capacity [g/100 g]: 34.2
- Particle size according to USDA [mm]: Relative distribution [%]
< 0.002 9.3
0.002 - 0.05 29.1
0.05 - 2.0 61.6
- Soil type: sandy loam
- Pretreatment of soil: sieving (<2 mm)
- From 2006 till 2008: soil uncultivated. From 2004 till 2005: soil cultivated (pumpkin) and fertilization used (400kg/ha in 2004 and 300kg/ha in 2005). Fertilizer was Nirophoska Spezial (12% N, 12% P2O5, 17% K2O)

NUTRIENT MEDIUM (if used)
- Description: After seedling emergence all reservoirs were filled once with a nutrient solution (100 mL,each). The nutrient solution was prepared by diluting 7.0 mL of a commercially available liquid fertilizer (Substral®) per litre of demineralised water.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Light intensity in the CE-room measured approximately at canopy height was at least 4000 lx
- Light source: high presure metal halide lamps
- Day/night temperatures: 18/25 °C
- Relative humidity (%): 40-70%
- Watering regime and schedules: when necessary
- Water source/type: deionised water
- Any pest control method/fertilization (if used): none

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : At the end of the test, seedlings were cut at the soil surface, and shoot length and shoot fresh weight of each individual plant were determined immediately.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg H3BO3/kg soil dry weight,
corresponding to control, 5.5, 10.9, 21.8, 43.7 and 87.4 mg B/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
27.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot biomass
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
39.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
13.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot biomass
Details on results:
Seedling shoot length of A. sativa was significantly reduced at all tested concentrations while shoot mass was reduced at concentrations of 125 mg/kg soil and higher. B. napus shoot length and biomass were reduced at concentrations of 250 and 125 mg/kg soil, respectively.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
All calculations were based on the mean values of the seedlings per pot. EC50, EC20, and EC10. were determined by Probit Analysis. Positive effects (values > control, i.e. >100%) were set to 100%.

For shoot length and biomass data normal distribution was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Test, and homogeneity of the variances by Cochran's Test Procedure.

NOEC and LOEC were determined by applying the Williams multiple sequential t-test
procedure. two sided.

 Shooth Length Avena sativa (mg B/kg dry weight) Brassica napus(mg B/kg dry weight)
EC20  35.7 43.8
EC50  54.7 53.6 
NOEC  <5.5  21.8 (-6.4% inhibition)
NOEC  5.5 (8% inhibition)  43.7 (19.9% inhibition)
Shoot Biomass     
EC10  11.0 13.9
EC20  16.4  18.2
EC50  32.2 30.5
NOEC  10.9 (9.8% inhibition) 10.9 (13.6% inhibition)
LOEC  21.8 (32.9% inhibition) 21.8 (30.2% inhibition)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Study was performed according to ISO 11269-2 (2000) guidelines and is well documented. 20-day EC10 values for shoot length and shoot biomass of 27.8 and 11.0 mg B/kg dry soil, respectively are obtained for Avena sativa (oat) and 20-day EC10 values for shoot length and shoot biomass of 39.4 and 13.9 mg B/kg dry soil, respectively are obtained for Brassica napus (rape). All EC10 values were selected for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed but well performed and well documented study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
90 day plant growth test with Medicago sativa
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Soil and fertilizer materials (KNO3, Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, KCl, FeEDDHA and ZnSO4) were thoroughly mixed and put in 1.8 L pots. Boron was supplied as Na2B4O7.10H2O.
Species:
other: Medicago sativa L.
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: alfalfa
- cultivars: ladak, rambler, riley and agate
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
90 d
pH:
pH in saturated paste:
Keith soil: 8.4
Ulysses soil: 7.3
Ascalon soil: 7.4
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): 1.8 L pots
- No. of replicates: 3
- Two harvests (after 45 and 90 days)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Colorado, USA
- Keith soil:
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Argiustoll
- pH: 8.4
- Organic matter (%): 2.1
- % sand: 16
- % silt: 58
- % clay: 26
- Ulysses soil
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Haplustoll
- pH: 7.3
- Organic matter (%): 1.4
- % sand: 49
- % silt: 30
- % clay: 21
- Ascalon soil
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Argiustoll
- pH: 7.4
- Organic matter (%): 1.1
- % sand: 84
- % silt: 2
- % clay: 14

- Pretreatment of soil: air-dried, ground and sived through 6 mm screen. Soil and fertilizers were thoroughly mixed
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 10, 20, 40 mg B/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 11% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 48% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 20% growth inhibition at NOEC, 37% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 18% growth inhibition at NOEC, 68% inhibition at LOEC (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 18% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 6% growth inhibition at NOEC, 47% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 4% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 33% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 3% growth inhibition at NOEC, 65% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 18% growth inhibition at NOEC, 66% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 32% growth inhibition at lowest dose tested (10 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 13% growth inhibition at NOEC, 62% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 11% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 14% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 4% growth inhibition at NOEC, 43% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 4% growth inhibition at NOEC, 39% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 13% growth stimulation at NOEC, 35% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw))
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 14% growth inhibition at NOEC, 41% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 1% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 28% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 14% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 11% growth inhibition at NOEC, 34% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 19% growth stimulation at NOEC, 26% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 8% growth inhibition at NOEC, 42% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC and LOEC values were derived based on ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% significance level The NOEC/LOEC values are based on the data reported in Table 3 of the original study. Values within a column for each cultivar followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 5% level (Duncan’s multiple range test). Consequently, the NOEC is the highest B dose followed by the same letter as the control.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study does not follow standard test guidelines but is well performed and well documented. All bounded NOEC values are selected for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed but well performed and well documented study
Reason / purpose:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
70-day plant growth test with Zea mays
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boron was added to the soil in powder form (as boric acid). Soils were thoroughly mixed and irrigated to field capacity.
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
10 wk
Post exposure observation period:
not reported
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
7.5
Moisture:
not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Location: greenhouse
- Test container (type, material, size): plastic pots, 1.6L
- Amount of soil: 2 kg
- treatments: B and Zn added to the soil in powder form, each pot was fertilized
- No. of seeds per container: 6 uniform seeds
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 3 (2 weeks after emergence)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: uncultivated field from Iran
- Sampling depth (cm): ap horizon
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 36
- % silt: 42
- % clay: 22
- Soil taxonomic classification: fine, mixed, mesic, fluventic haploxerepts
- Organic matter (%): 0.6
- electrical conductivity: 0.5 dS/m
- CEC: 11.5 cmol/kg
- DTPA extractable Zn: 0.4 mg/kg
- Hot water solubel boron: 0.22 mg/kg
- Pretreatment of soil: air dried and grinded through a 2mm sieve
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 an 80 mg B/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: 7% stimulation compared to control
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
63.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: 6% inhibition compared to control
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
7.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
33.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC and LOEC values for dry matter yield and plant height were derived based on analysis of variance using MSTATC computer program. ECx values were calculated based on data reported and a log-logistic dose-response curve fitted by minimising unweighted squared residuals sum (maximum likelihood).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study does not follow standard test guidelines but is well performed and well documented and therefore reliable. The EC10 values are used for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for hazard assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-1 (1993): barley root elongation
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP status, but it study was performed by qualified staff according to international guidelines and can therefore be considered as GLP-confom.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution of the weak acid H3BO3 was made (25 g/l). Soils were spiked in doses within the range of 0-293 mg B/kg by mixing the B solutions in the soil using a laboratory spoon.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: barley grass
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
4 d
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
Soil E1: 4.4
Soil E2: 5.2
Soil E3: 6.3
Soil E4: 6.7
Soil E5: 6.8
Soil E6: 7.3
Soil E7: 7.8
Soil B1: 5.0
Soil B2: 4.5
Soil B3: 5.2
Soil B4: 6.8
Soil B5: 6.0
Soil B6: 4.4
Soil B7: 7.1
Soil U1: 7.2
Soil U2: 7
Soil U3: 7.4
Soil U4: 7.3
Soil U5: 7.7
Moisture:
80% of pF 2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: growth cabinet
- Test container (type, material, size): cylindrical pots, approximately 2.8 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height
- Amount of soil: 80-100g wet weight
- Method of seeding: Summer barley seeds were pregerminated at 20°C in darkness. Three seeds with a radical length lower than 2 mm were planted in each pot approximately 10 mm beneath the surface of the soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 1
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3
- No. of replicates per control: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Fourteen European soils, 5 soils from USA
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
Soil E1: 9 % sand, 5 % silt, 20 % clay
Soil E2: 81 % sand, 8 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil E3: 43% sand, 16% silt, 27 % clay
Soil E4: 8% sand, 70% silt, 12 % clay
Soil E5: 51% sand, 11 % silt, 33 % clay
Soil E6: 20% sand, 50 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil E7: 34% sand, 16 % silt, 11 % clay
Soil B1: 10% sand, 9 % silt, 13 % clay
Soil B2: 84 % sand, 71 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil B3: 4% sand, 66 % silt, 19 % clay
Soil B4: 31% sand, 34 % silt, 14 % clay
Soil B5: 18% sand, 67 % silt, 17 % clay
Soil B6: 37% sand, 45 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil B7: 17% sand, - % silt, 19 % clay
Soil U1: 5.8 % clay
Soil U2: 9.6 % clay
Soil U3: 2.1 % clay
Soil U4: 31.1 % clay
Soil U5: 17.5 % clay

- Organic carbon (%):
Soil E1: 30.7
Soil E2: 1.8
Soil E3: 3.6
Soil E4: 0.9
Soil E5: 0.6
Soil E6: 2.8
Soil E7: 3.6
Soil B1: nd (not determined)
Soil B2: nd
Soil B3: nd
Soil B4: nd
Soil B5: nd
Soil B6: nd
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: 0.52
Soil U2: 0.72
Soil U3: 0.14
Soil U4: 0.78
Soil U5: 0.60

- CEC (cmolc/kg):
Soil E1: 41.7
Soil E2: 4.1
Soil E3: 30
Soil E4: 12.2
Soil E5: 14.2
Soil E6: 14.3
Soil E7: 14.1
Soil B1: 13.8
Soil B2: 14.6
Soil B3: 9.6
Soil B4: 16.3
Soil B5: 12.2
Soil B6: 37.7
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: nd
Soil U2: nd
Soil U3: nd
Soil U4: nd
Soil U5: nd

- Pretreatment of soil: All soils were air dried at 25° C and sieved to <4 mm.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12h/12h cycle light/darkness
- Light source: natural light
- Day/night temperatures: 20/16°C
- Relative humidity (%): 70

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: root elongation was tested in soils either immediately after spiking with boric acid and after 1 and 5 months equilibration (ageing). Soils were aged at 80% of pF 2 at 20° C in closed pots that had headspace of about 50% of the volume and which were regularly opened for air exchange.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : The endpoint of this assay is the mean length of the longest root of each seedling per pot after 4 days



Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 3.0, 7.5, 18.8, 46.9, 117.2, 293.0 mg added B/kg dry matter
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
27 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E1. 95% CL:17-42
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E2. 95%CL: 2-3
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E3. 95%CL: 11-23
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E4. 95%CL: 6-13
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E6. 95%CL: 12-30
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E7. 95%CL: 7-27
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B2. 95%CL: 5-14
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B3. 95%CL: 5-17
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B4. 95%CL: 9-13
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
18 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B5. 95%CL: 13-24
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
17 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B6. 95%CL: 14-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B7. 95%CL: 14-28
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U1. 95%CL: 5-11
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
13 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U2. 95%CL: 9-18
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U3. 95%CL: 3-6
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U4. 95%CL: 13-31
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Dose-response curves were fitted by a log-logistic model using the Marquardt Method.
The ED10/ED50 model was adjusted to account for hormesis effects when the root growth in the soils with added B was at least 20% higher compared to the control soil. The ‘dose’ in this model is the added B concentration (nominal concentration), and ED10 values and their 95% confidence interval, expressed as added B, are predicted from the appropriate parameters of the curve.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Reliable study. For each soil, the geomean of the EC10 values for all three equilibration periods (immediately after spiking or after 1 or 5 months ageing) is used for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for hazard assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-1 (1993): barley root elongation
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP status, but it study was performed by qualified staff according to international guidelines and can therefore be considered as GLP-confom.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution of the weak acid H3BO3 was made (25 g/l). Soils were spiked in doses within the range of 0-293 mg B/kg by mixing the B solutions in the soil using a laboratory spoon.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: barley grass
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
4 d
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
Soil E1: 4.4
Soil E2: 5.2
Soil E3: 6.3
Soil E4: 6.7
Soil E5: 6.8
Soil E6: 7.3
Soil E7: 7.8
Soil B1: 5.0
Soil B2: 4.5
Soil B3: 5.2
Soil B4: 6.8
Soil B5: 6.0
Soil B6: 4.4
Soil B7: 7.1
Soil U1: 7.2
Soil U2: 7
Soil U3: 7.4
Soil U4: 7.3
Soil U5: 7.7
Moisture:
80% of pF 2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: growth cabinet
- Test container (type, material, size): cylindrical pots, approximately 2.8 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height
- Amount of soil: 80-100g wet weight
- Method of seeding: Summer barley seeds were pregerminated at 20°C in darkness. Three seeds with a radical length lower than 2 mm were planted in each pot approximately 10 mm beneath the surface of the soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 1
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3
- No. of replicates per control: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Fourteen European soils, 5 soils from USA
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
Soil E1: 9 % sand, 5 % silt, 20 % clay
Soil E2: 81 % sand, 8 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil E3: 43% sand, 16% silt, 27 % clay
Soil E4: 8% sand, 70% silt, 12 % clay
Soil E5: 51% sand, 11 % silt, 33 % clay
Soil E6: 20% sand, 50 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil E7: 34% sand, 16 % silt, 11 % clay
Soil B1: 10% sand, 9 % silt, 13 % clay
Soil B2: 84 % sand, 71 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil B3: 4% sand, 66 % silt, 19 % clay
Soil B4: 31% sand, 34 % silt, 14 % clay
Soil B5: 18% sand, 67 % silt, 17 % clay
Soil B6: 37% sand, 45 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil B7: 17% sand, - % silt, 19 % clay
Soil U1: 5.8 % clay
Soil U2: 9.6 % clay
Soil U3: 2.1 % clay
Soil U4: 31.1 % clay
Soil U5: 17.5 % clay

- Organic carbon (%):
Soil E1: 30.7
Soil E2: 1.8
Soil E3: 3.6
Soil E4: 0.9
Soil E5: 0.6
Soil E6: 2.8
Soil E7: 3.6
Soil B1: nd (not determined)
Soil B2: nd
Soil B3: nd
Soil B4: nd
Soil B5: nd
Soil B6: nd
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: 0.52
Soil U2: 0.72
Soil U3: 0.14
Soil U4: 0.78
Soil U5: 0.60

- CEC (cmolc/kg):
Soil E1: 41.7
Soil E2: 4.1
Soil E3: 30
Soil E4: 12.2
Soil E5: 14.2
Soil E6: 14.3
Soil E7: 14.1
Soil B1: 13.8
Soil B2: 14.6
Soil B3: 9.6
Soil B4: 16.3
Soil B5: 12.2
Soil B6: 37.7
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: nd
Soil U2: nd
Soil U3: nd
Soil U4: nd
Soil U5: nd

- Pretreatment of soil: All soils were air dried at 25° C and sieved to <4 mm.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12h/12h cycle light/darkness
- Light source: natural light
- Day/night temperatures: 20/16°C
- Relative humidity (%): 70

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: root elongation was tested in soils either immediately after spiking with boric acid and after 1 and 5 months equilibration (ageing). Soils were aged at 80% of pF 2 at 20° C in closed pots that had headspace of about 50% of the volume and which were regularly opened for air exchange.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : The endpoint of this assay is the mean length of the longest root of each seedling per pot after 4 days



Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 3.0, 7.5, 18.8, 46.9, 117.2, 293.0 mg added B/kg dry matter
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
31 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E1. 95% CL:21-45
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E2. 95%CL: 5-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E3; 95% CL: 8-16
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
17 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E4. 95%CL: 12-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E6. 95%CL: 12-33
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E7. 95%CL: 3-23
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B1; 95% CL: 17-25
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B2. 95%CL: 7-10
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B3. 95%CL: 13-19
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B4. 95%CL: 5-12
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
36 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B5. 95%CL: 24-52
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B6. 95%CL: 26-42
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B7. 95%CL: 7-10
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U1. 95%CL: 5-9
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U2. 95%CL: 8-14
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U3. 95%CL: 3-6
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U4. 95%CL: 12-30
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
21 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E1. 95%CL: 10-45
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E2. 95%CL: 4-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E3. 95%CL: 9-24
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E4. 95%CL: 10-18
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
30 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E6. 95%CL: 18-50
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E7. 95%CL: 8-35
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B1. 95%CL: 11-22
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B2. 95%CL: 5-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B3. 95%CL: 7-11
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B4. 95%CL: 5-17
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
12 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B5. 95%CL: 7-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B6. 95%CL: 15-32
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B7. 95%CL: 13-20
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U1. 95%CL: 18-26
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
38 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U2.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U3. 95%CL: 11-16
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
26 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U4; 95% CL: 15-38
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Dose-response curves were fitted by a log-logistic model using the Marquardt Method.
The ED10/ED50 model was adjusted to account for hormesis effects when the root growth in the soils with added B was at least 20% higher compared to the control soil. The ‘dose’ in this model is the added B concentration (nominal concentration), and ED10 values and their 95% confidence interval, expressed as added B, are predicted from the appropriate parameters of the curve.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Reliable study. For each soil, the geomean of the EC10 values for all three equilibration periods (immediately after spiking or after 1 or 5 months ageing) is used for PNEC derivation.

Description of key information

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

In total 190 individual high quality NOEC/EC10 values (for 28 different species) are selected for the PNEC derivation, ranging from 3 mg B/kg for barley root elongation in Zwijnaarde soil (Van Laer et al., 2010) to 84.0 mg B/kg forwheat shoot length, canola shoot yield and western wheatgrass root yield (Aquaterra, 1998).

A large number of papers were assessed from the literature, yet only a limited toxicity dataset could be created due to the poor quality of most of the data.