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Key value for chemical safety assessment

Genetic toxicity in vitro

Description of key information

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
in vitro gene mutation study in bacteria
Remarks:
Type of genotoxicity: gene mutation
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
Data is from OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3 and the supporting QMRF report has been attached
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: Refer below principle
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.3, 2017
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of assay:
bacterial reverse mutation assay
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of the test material: 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid
- IUPAC name: 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C16H13NO7S2
- Molecular weight: 395.4107 g/mol
- Substance type: Organic
- Smiles: C([C@@H](CCOC(C)=O)C)CCC(C)C
Target gene:
Histidine
Species / strain / cell type:
S. typhimurium TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Details on mammalian cell type (if applicable):
Not applicable
Additional strain / cell type characteristics:
not specified
Cytokinesis block (if used):
No data
Metabolic activation:
with
Metabolic activation system:
S9 metabolic activation system
Test concentrations with justification for top dose:
No data
Vehicle / solvent:
No data
Untreated negative controls:
not specified
Negative solvent / vehicle controls:
not specified
True negative controls:
not specified
Positive controls:
not specified
Positive control substance:
not specified
Details on test system and experimental conditions:
No data
Rationale for test conditions:
No data
Evaluation criteria:
Prediction is done considering a dose dependent increase in the number of revertants/plate
Statistics:
No data
Species / strain:
S. typhimurium, other: TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102
Metabolic activation:
with
Genotoxicity:
negative
Cytotoxicity / choice of top concentrations:
not specified
Vehicle controls validity:
not specified
Untreated negative controls validity:
not specified
Positive controls validity:
not specified
Additional information on results:
No data
Remarks on result:
no mutagenic potential (based on QSAR/QSPR prediction)

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: "Gene mutation"
Estimation method: Takes highest mode value from the 7 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and ("e" and ( not "f") )  )  and ("g" and ( not "h") )  )  and ("i" and ( not "j") )  )  and ("k" and ( not "l") )  )  and ("m" and "n" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Overlapping groups OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] OR Aliphatic Nitrogen, two aromatic attach [-N-] OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Hydroxy, aromatic attach [-OH] OR Hydroxy, sulfur attach [-OH] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Nitrogen, two or tree olefinic attach [>N-] OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Oxygen, one aromatic attach [-O-] OR Suflur {v+4} or {v+6} OR Sulfinic acid [-S(=O)OH] OR Sulfonate, aromatic attach [-SO2-O] by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Amine OR Aromatic compound OR Hydroxy compound OR Phenol OR Secondary amine OR Secondary aromatic amine OR Sulfonic acid OR Sulfonic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinoneimines OR AN2 >>  Michael-type addition, quinoid structures >> Quinones OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation OR AN2 >> Carbamoylation after isocyanate formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition to alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds >> alpha, beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation OR AN2 >> Schiff base formation >> alpha, beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Quinone type compounds OR Michael addition >> Quinone type compounds >> Quinone methides OR Non-covalent interaction OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Aminoacridine DNA Intercalators OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Non-covalent interaction >> DNA intercalation >> Quinones OR Non-specific OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    OR Non-specific >> Incorporation into DNA/RNA, due to structural analogy with  nucleoside bases    >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species OR Radical >> Generation of reactive oxygen species >> Thiols OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation OR Radical >> Radical mechanism by ROS formation >> Acridone, Thioxanthone, Xanthone and Phenazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Hydrazine Derivatives OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> N-Hydroxylamines OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Quinones OR Radical >> Radical mechanism via ROS formation (indirect) >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion (indirect) >> Quinoneimines OR Radical >> ROS formation after GSH depletion >> Quinone methides OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species OR SN1 >> Alkylation after metabolically formed carbenium ion species >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> Acyclic Triazenes OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> Fused-Ring Primary Aromatic Amines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after metabolic nitrenium ion formation >> N-Hydroxylamines OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after nitrenium and/or carbenium ion formation >> N-Nitroso Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic attack after reduction and nitrenium ion formation >> Conjugated Nitro Compounds OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions OR SN1 >> Nucleophilic substitution on diazonium ions >> Specific Imine and Thione Derivatives OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related >> Epoxides and Aziridines OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Alkylation, direct acting epoxides and related after P450-mediated metabolic activation >> Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom OR SN2 >> Alkylation, nucleophilic substitution at sp3-carbon atom >> Sulfonates and Sulfates OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation OR SN2 >> Direct acting epoxides formed after metabolic activation >> Quinoline Derivatives OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an activated carbon atom >> Quinoline Derivatives by DNA binding by OASIS v.1.3

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates OR Acylation >> P450 Mediated Activation to Isocyanates or Isothiocyanates >> Formamides OR Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Hydroquinones OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition OR Michael addition >> Polarised Alkenes-Michael addition >> Alpha, beta- unsaturated ketones OR Schiff base formers OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers OR Schiff base formers >> Direct Acting Schiff Base Formers >> Alpha-beta-dicarbonyl OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Polycyclic (PAHs) and heterocyclic (HACs) aromatic hydrocarbons-SN1 OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Iminium Ion Formation >> Aliphatic tertiary amines OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Aromatic azo OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Primary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN2 OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom OR SN2 >> SN2 at an sp3 Carbon atom >> Sulfonates by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Strong binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Moderate binder, OH grooup OR Non binder, impaired OH or NH2 group OR Non binder, MW>500 OR Non binder, non cyclic structure OR Non binder, without OH or NH2 group OR Very strong binder, OH group OR Weak binder, OH group by Estrogen Receptor Binding

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Non-Metals by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alkali Earth by Groups of elements

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -1.43

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 3.65

Conclusions:
4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.
Executive summary:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the predicted result it can be concluded that the substance is considered to not toxic as per the criteria mentioned in CLP regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed (negative)

Genetic toxicity in vivo

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Gene mutation in vitro:

Prediction model based estimation and data from read across chemicals have been reviewed to detrmine the mutagenic nature of

4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid . The studies are as mentioned below:

Based on the prediction done using the OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 with log kow as the primary descriptor and considering the five closest read across substances, gene mutation was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2 -sulfonic acid was predicted to not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence, according to the prediction made, it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Gene mutation toxicity was predicted for 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid using the battery approach from Danish QSAR database (2017). The study assumed the use of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in the Ames test. The end point for gene mutation has been modeled in the Danish QSAR using the three software systems Leadscope, CASE Ultra and SciQSAR. Based on predictions from these three systems, a fourth and overall battery prediction is made. The battery prediction is made using the so called Battery algorithm. With the battery approach it is in many cases possible to reduce “noise” from the individual model estimates and thereby improve accuracy and/or broaden the applicability domain. Gene mutation toxicity study as predicted by Danish QSAR for 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid is negative and hence the chemical is predicted to not classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

In a study for structurally and functionally similar read across chemical by Zeiger et al (Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 1992), Preincubation assay was performed to evaluate the mutagenic nature of the 4-(2-Naphthylamino)phenol (RA CAS no 93 -45 -8). The study was performed as described by Haworth et al 1983 with slight modification. The study involved the use of test chemical dose levels of 0, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 33, 66, 100, 166, 333 or 666 µg/plate and Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100, TA1535, TA 1537, TA 97 and TA98 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system. 4-(2-Naphthylamino)phenol did not induce gene mutation in the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence is negative for gene mutation in vitro.

In a study for another read across chemical, Gene mutation toxicity study was performed by Chung et al (Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1981) to determine the mutagenic behaviour of structurally and functionally similar read across chemical R salt (RA CAS no 135 -51 -3, IUPAC name: disodium 3-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate). The study was performed by the standard plate incorporation assay and the preincubation method using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 with and without S9 metabolic activation system. Also, the liquid preincubation assays were timed for 30 min at 37°C in a Dri-block. The test chemical was dissolved in DMSO and upto a maximum nontoxic dose of 5000 µg/plate for plate incorporation assay and 1000 µg/plate for preincubation assay. Concurrent solvent and positive controls were also included in the study. R salt did not induce gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98, and TA100 in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation system and hence it is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the data available for the target chemical and its read across, 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS no 25251 -42 -7)

does not exhibit gene mutation in vitro. Hence the test chemical is not likely to classify as a gene mutant in vitro.