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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: screening tests
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
The supporting QMRF report has been attached.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Principles of method if other than guideline:
prediction was done by using OECD QSAR tool box v.3.3
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name (IUPAC): 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid
- Molecular formula: C16H13NO7S2
- Molecular weight: 395.4107 g/mol
- Smiles notation: c1cc(cc(c1)S(=O)(=O)O)Nc2ccc3cc(cc(c3c2)O)S(=O)(=O)O
- InChl : 1S/C16H13NO7S2/c18-16-9-14(26(22,23)24)6-10-4-5-12(8-15(10)16)17-11-2-1-3-13(7-11)25(19,20)21/h1-9,17-18H,(H,19,20,21)(H,22,23,24)
- Substance type: Organic
-Physical state: light grey coloured crystalline solid
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
other: microorganisma
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: BOD
Parameter:
other: BOD
Value:
4.48
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: other details not available
Details on results:
The test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 4.48 % biodegradability by considering BOD as parameter in 28 days.

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: BOD
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 5 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

(((((((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" )  and "e" )  and "f" )  and "g" )  and "h" )  and "i" )  and ("j" and ( not "k") )  )  and "l" )  and "m" )  and ("n" and "o" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aromatic amine OR Aryl OR Fused carbocyclic aromatic OR Naphtalene OR Overlapping groups OR Phenol OR Sulfonic acid by Organic Functional groups (nested) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] OR Aliphatic Nitrogen, two aromatic attach [-N-] OR Aromatic Carbon [C] OR Hydroxy, aromatic attach [-OH] OR Hydroxy, sulfur attach [-OH] OR Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) OR Nitrogen, two or tree olefinic attach [>N-] OR Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] OR Oxygen, one aromatic attach [-O-] OR Suflur {v+4} or {v+6} OR Sulfinic acid [-S(=O)OH] OR Sulfonate, aromatic attach [-SO2-O] by Organic functional groups (US EPA) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Amine OR Aromatic compound OR Hydroxy compound OR Phenol OR Secondary amine OR Secondary aromatic amine OR Sulfonic acid OR Sulfonic acid derivative by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Not calculated by Biodeg BioHC half-life (Biowin) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as days - weeks by Biodeg primary (Biowin 4) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Does NOT Biodegrade Fast by Biodeg probability (Biowin 5) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Does NOT Biodegrade Fast by Biodeg probability (Biowin 7) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as weeks - months by Biodeg ultimate (Biowin 3) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as No alert found by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Michael addition OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Alkyl phenols OR Michael addition >> P450 Mediated Activation to Quinones and Quinone-type Chemicals >> Arenes OR SN1 OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation OR SN1 >> Carbenium Ion Formation >> Allyl benzenes OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Secondary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrenium Ion formation >> Tertiary aromatic amine OR SN1 >> Nitrosation-SN1 OR SN1 >> Nitrosation-SN1 >> N-Nitroso-SN1 OR SN2 OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related OR SN2 >> Direct Acting Epoxides and related >> Epoxides by DNA binding by OECD

Domain logical expression index: "l"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Reactive unspecified by Acute aquatic toxicity MOA by OASIS ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "m"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Class 5 (Not possible to classify according to these rules) by Acute aquatic toxicity classification by Verhaar (Modified) ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "n"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of Molecular weight which is >= 295 Da

Domain logical expression index: "o"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of Molecular weight which is <= 417 Da

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
not readily biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 4.48 % biodegradability by considering BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. Since percent biodegradability is very low it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.
Executive summary:

Biodegradability of test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7) is predicted using OECD QSAR tool box v.3.3 using log Kow as primary descriptor. The test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 4.48 % biodegradability by considering BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. Since percent biodegradability is very low it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.

Description of key information

Biodegradation in water:

Biodegradability of test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7) is predicted using OECD QSAR tool box v.3.3 using log Kow as primary descriptor. The test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 4.48 % biodegradability by considering BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. Since percent biodegradability is very low it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

Predicted data for the target compound 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7) and supporting weight of evidence studies for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

Biodegradability of test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7) is predicted using OECD QSAR tool box v.3.3 using log Kow as primary descriptor. The test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 4.48 % biodegradability by considering BOD as parameter and microorganisms as inoculum in 28 days. Since percent biodegradability is very low it is concluded that this test chemical is not readily biodegradable.

Another prediction done by using Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) to estimate the biodegradation potential of the test chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI Linear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid is not readily biodegradable.

In a supporting weight of evidence study from Authoritative database (J Check, 2017) of read across chemical 4-hydroxy-7-(phenylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS no.119-40-4) biodegradation experiment was carried out by taking sludge as inoculums. Biodegradation was analyzed by using three parameters that are O2 consumption, DOC removal and test material analysis by HPLC. The biodegradation test was conducted for 4 weeks (28 days).The read across chemical 4-hydroxy-7-(phenylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid showed 0 % degradation by O2 consumption parameter and test material analysis by HPLC parameter and 2 % degradation by DOC removal parameter in 28 days. So it is concluded that read across chemical 4-hydroxy-7-(phenylamino)naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid is not readily biodegradable.

In another supporting weight of evidence study from same source as mentioned above ( J Check, 2017) of read across chemical 6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic Acid (CAS no. 90-51-7) biodegradation experiment was carried out by taking sludge as inoculums at concentration of 30 mg/L. Biodegradation was analyzed by using three parameters that are O2 consumption (BOD), TOC removal and test material analysis by UV vis . The biodegradation test was conducted for 2 weeks (14 days). The initial concentration of read across chemical used was 100 mg/L and test equipments used were of standard type. The test chemical 6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic Acid showed 5.3 % degradation by O2 consumption (BOD) parameter, 0.4 % degradation by TOC removal parameter and less than 0.0% degradation by test material analysis by UV vis parameter in 14 days.So it is concluded that read across chemical 6-Amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalenesulfonic Acid is not readily biodegradable.

On the basis of above results for target chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (CAS No: 25251-42-7)from (EPI suite 2017 and OECD QSAR tool box v3.3 2017) and for its read across substances (from authoritative database) the target chemical 4-hydroxy-6-[(3-sulfophenyl)amino]naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid expected to be not readily biodegradable.