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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Reference
Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental result using OECD guidelines.
Reference:
Composition 0
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Biodegradation study was conducted according to OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test) for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test substance Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS no. 16245-77-5).
GLP compliance:
no
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (IUPAC name): Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate- Molecular formula: C6H8N2.H2O4S- Molecular weight: 206.221 g/mol- Smiles notation: S(=O)(=O)(O)O.c1(ccc(cc1)N)N- InChI: 1S/C6H8N2.H2O4S/c7-5-1-2-6(8)4-3-5;1-5(2,3)4/h1-4H,7-8H2;(H2,1,2,3,4)- Substance type: Organic - Physical state: Solid
Oxygen conditions:
not specified
Inoculum or test system:
other: Mixed inoculum
Details on inoculum:
Mixed Inoculum Preparation:Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule was added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 107 to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism.
Duration of test (contact time):
42 d
Initial conc.:
4 mg/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS - Composition of medium: OECD mineral medium was used for the study - Test temperature: 20°C - Continuous darkness: Yes - Other: The water used in this study is deionized water. TEST SYSTEM - Culturing apparatus: The apparatus used in this study is BOD bottles; with glass stoppers (125 ml), BOD incubator & oxygen electrode and meter. CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM - Inoculum blank: it contains only test inoculum- Procedure control: contains reference compound and inoculum
Reference substance:
other: Sodium Benzoate
Key result
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
75
Sampling time:
42 d
Remarks on result:
other: Other details not known
Details on results:
The oxygen consumed by the test systems was corrected for oxygen consumption occurring in the blank test systems.The BOD Values (mgO2/mg) and percent biodegradation results for each test system arereported in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The BOD42 value of Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate(CAS No.16245-77-5) was observed to be 0.75 mgO2/mg. ThOD was determined by calculation as 1 mgO2/mg. % Degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and was determined to be 75% at 20 ± 1°C. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.
Results with reference substance:
The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid.

TABLE 1: D.O Values (mg/L)

 

No. of Days

Inoculum Blank

(Control)

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

(Reference Item)

0

7.4

7.31

7.2

7

6.9

6.3

3.6

14

6.6

5.4

2.3

21

6.2

4.7

1.5

28

5.9

4.1

0.7

35

5.6

2.5

0.3

42

5.3

2.2

0.1

TABLE 2: BOD Values (mg O2/mg)

 

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

(Reference Item)

0

0

0

7

0.12

0.77

14

0.27

1.02

21

0.35

1.12

28

0.42

1.25

35

0.75

1.27

42

0.75

1.25

 

TABLE 3: PERCENT BIODEGRDATION RESULTS

No. of Days

Test Suspension

Procedure Control

(Reference Item)

0

0%

0%

7

12%

46.38%

14

27%

61.44%

21

35%

67.46%

28

42%

75.3%

35

75%

76.5%

42

75%

75.3%

 

Table 4: BOD42, THOD AND % BIODEGRADATION VALUES

 

Method details

BOD42 (mgO2/mg)

ThOD (mgO2/mg)

%Biodegradation

Test Item

0.75

1.2

75

Reference Item

1.25

1.66

75.3

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test item Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5) undergoes 75% biodegradation after 42 days in the test condition. Thus, the test item was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.
Executive summary:

42 -days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D was performed to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5). The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 107 to 108 CFU/ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD42 value of test chemical Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was observed to be 0.75 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 42 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 75%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

Description of key information

Based on the study performed according to OECD guideline 301D the test chemical Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5) undergoes 75% biodegradation after 42 days in the test condition. Thus, the test chemical was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
inherently biodegradable

Additional information

Experimental studies according OECD guildeline were performed for target chemical Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5) and its structurally similar read across chemical for biodegradation in water endpoints and their results are summarized below.

The first study was experimental study in this study the 42 -days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D was performed to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5). The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. 1 polyseed capsule were added in 500 ml D.I water and then stirred for 1 hour for proper mixing and functioning of inoculum. This gave the bacterial count as 107to 108CFU/ ml. At the regular interval microbial plating was also performed on agar to confirm the vitality and CFU count of microorganism. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 75.3%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 46.38 % on 7 days & 61.44 % on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum is thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD42 value of test chemical Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate was observed to be 0.75 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 42 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 75%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

Next study was also experimental study in this study the ready biodegradability of the test substance was determined in the Closed Bottle test performed according to slightly modified OECD guidelines. The test was prolonged because the pass level was not reached at day 28 and the test substance was used as received from Akzo Nobel Fibres, Amhem. Validity of the test was confirmed by endogenous respiration of 1.5 mg/L, oxygen concentrations > 0.5 mg/L in all bottles during the test period, and less than 20% differences between replicates. The test substance caused no reduction in the endogenous respiration. Therefore, the test substance is considered to be non-inhibitory to the inoculum. The test substance was biodegraded approximately 30% at day 28 in the Closed Bottle test. After 84 d, the biodegradation percentage did not increase. Therefore, the test substance is inherently biodegradable. The biodegradation percentages found were comparable in the presence and absence of silica gel, suggesting that the test substance is not toxic to activated sludge at the tested concentration.

By considering results of both the studies mentioned above it is concluded that test chemical Benzene-1,4-diammonium sulphate (CAS No.16245-77-5) is inherently biodegradable in nature.