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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
15 May 2008 - 12 June 2008
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Remarks:
Study was performed according to the OECD Test Guideline, however no statement of GLP compliance has been made in the test report, and the level of detail contained in the report is limited.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 A (Ready Biodegradability: DOC Die Away Test)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
ISO 7827 (Evaluation in an Aqueous Medium of the "Ultimate" Aerobic Biodegradability of Organic Compounds - Method by Analysis of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
sewage, domestic (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge (e.g. location, sampling depth, contamination history, procedure): Klagshamn waste water plant, Sweden.
- Laboratory culture: Not reported
- Method of cultivation: Not reported
- Storage conditions: Not reported
- Storage length: Not reported
- Preparation of inoculum for exposure: Not reported
- Pretreatment: Not reported
- Concentration of sludge: Not reported
- Initial cell/biomass concentration: 5.9 g suspended solids / L.
- Water filtered: Not reported
- Type and size of filter used, if any: Not reported. A 0.45 µm, OE 67, 45 mm filter was used to filter that water for DOC samples, but no reference is made to filters used to filter inoculum.
Duration of test (contact time):
42 d
Initial conc.:
68 mg/L
Based on:
formulation
Initial conc.:
42 - 43 mg/L
Based on:
DOC
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
DOC removal
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS
- Composition of medium: Refer to additional information
- Test temperature: 20 - 25 ºC
- pH: 7.4
- pH adjusted: yes. Media adjusted prior to use
- Aeration of dilution water: All media aerated throughout test.
- Suspended solids concentration: 5.9 g/L (inoculum)
- Continuous darkness: no
- Other:


TEST SYSTEM
- Culturing apparatus:
- Number of culture flasks/concentration: two flasks for test group
- Method used to create aerobic conditions: Air bubbled by an air pump through a tube which ended at the bottom of the flask.
- Measuring equipment: Not specified. DOC and TOC analysis were performed according to the accredited method SS-EN 1484.
- Other:


SAMPLING
- Sampling frequency: DOC determined at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days. TOC determined at days 0 and 28.


CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM
- Inoculum blank: Yes
- Abiotic sterile control: Yes
- Toxicity control: Yes
- Other:


STATISTICAL METHODS:
Reference substance:
acetic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
<= 87
Sampling time:
35 d
Remarks on result:
other: Plateau reached after 35 days
Details on results:
Test material was incubated beyond 28 days because pass level criterion was almost fulfilled (DOC removal was almost 70% after 28 days).
Results with reference substance:
Degredation of greater than 90% was seen after 14 days.

The quantity of the DOC which was degraded in the flask containing the sample and the reference compound (flask containing the inhibition medium) corresponds to the part that comes from the reference compound. This shows that the test article was not inhibitory to the inoculum.

No removal of DOC in the flask containing the Sterile Medium indicates that no abiotic removal has taken place.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
The OECD guideline criteria for ready biodegradability were not fulfilled for Di-Trimethylolpropane, and therefore it cannot be considered readily biodegradable. When incubated for 35-42 days, the pass level criterion for inherent biodegradability is fulfilled but the 10-day window is not; according to REACH this eliminates the need for additional testing of biodegradability in inherent tests.

The test substance Di-Trimethylolpropane can therefore be considered inherently biodegradable.
Executive summary:

A ready biodegradability test was performed on the test substance Di-Trimethylolpropane by AnoxKaldnes, Sweden on behalf of Perstorp Speciality Chemicals, Sweden. The test was performed according to ISO and OECD Test Guidelines.

The test substance did not meet the criteria for ready biodegradability over 28 days, and therefore cannot be considered readily biodegradable.

However as removal of DOC had almost reach the 70% mark by the end of the 28 day study period the test was extended in order to investigate the inherent biodegradability of the test substance. When incubated further (for up to 42 days) the test material passed the pass level criterion for inherent biodegradability but not the 10-day window, eliminating the need for further biodegradability testing.

As such the substance should be considered to be inherently biodegradable.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
documentation insufficient for assessment
Remarks:
Robust summary is based on information found on the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation website; no test details could be confirmed.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 C (Ready Biodegradability: Modified MITI Test (I))
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
not specified
Oxygen conditions:
not specified
Inoculum or test system:
not specified
Details on inoculum:
- Initial cell/biomass concentration: 30 mg/L
Duration of test (contact time):
4 wk
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
not specified
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
TOC removal
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
test mat. analysis
Remarks:
HPLC
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Remarks:
Indirect analysis - BOD.
Parameter:
% degradation (TOC removal)
Value:
1
Sampling time:
4 wk
Remarks on result:
other: Individual values 0, 2, 1%.
Parameter:
% degradation (test mat. analysis)
Value:
2
Sampling time:
4 wk
Remarks on result:
other: Analysis by HPLC. Individual results 1, 3, 2%.
Parameter:
other: BOD
Value:
1
Sampling time:
4 wk
Remarks on result:
other: Individual values 1, 0, 2%
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
not inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test substance 2,2'-Diethyl-2,2'(oxymethyl)bis(propane-1,3-diol) was found to be non-biodegradable under the conditions applied during the test.
Executive summary:

The result of a biodegredation test on Di-TMP ( 2,2'-Diethyl-2,2'(oxymethyl)bis(propane-1,3-diol), CAS number 23236 -61 -2) was posted on the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation website (www.safe.nite.go.jp). The results was based on a MITI-I test, OECD test guideline 301C and was pusblished in the Official Bulletin of Economy, Trade and Industry on 22 December 2005.

Di-TMP was found to be non-biodegradable under the conditions applied in the test. This can be taken as envidence that Di-TMP is not readily biodegradable.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: inherent biodegradability
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Test was performed according to a method equivalent to a relevant OECD test guideline, however no claim of GLP compliance is included in the test report, and the level of detail included in the report is insufficient to confirmcompliance with GLP.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: SS-EN 29 888:1993 "Zahn-Wellen test"
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
not specified
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, adapted
Details on inoculum:
- Source of inoculum/activated sludge (e.g. location, sampling depth, contamination history, procedure): Activated sludge taken from the Perstorp on-site WWTP (waste water treatment plant).
- Initial cell/biomass concentration: 1 g/L
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
440 mg/L
Based on:
DOC
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
DOC removal
Details on study design:
TEST CONDITIONS


TEST SYSTEM


SAMPLING
- Sampling frequency: Samples taken at 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, and on days 3, 5, 7, 15, 21, and 28.


CONTROL AND BLANK SYSTEM
- Inoculum blank: Yes


STATISTICAL METHODS:
Parameter:
% degradation (DOC removal)
Value:
90
Sampling time:
28 d
Details on results:
Lag time = 0 days.
Rate of biodegredation = 12%/(g SS . day); 46 mg DOC/(g SS . day)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Interpretation of results:
inherently biodegradable
Conclusions:
The test substance Ditrimethylolpropane was found to be degradable. Degredation of the test substance started without a lag time.
Executive summary:

A biodegredation study was performed by Anox, Sweden, on behalf of Perstorp, Sweden, to determine the degradability of 19 substances and Waste Water Outlet from the Perstorp on-site waste water treatment plant. One of the substances tested was Di-TMP.

The test was performed in acordance with SS-EN 29 888:1993 "Zahn-Wellen Test", which is identical to OECD method 302B (1992). No claim of GLP compliance was made in the report.

Ditrimethylolpropane

was found to be biodegradable under the conditions applied during the test. Biodegredation commenced without any lag time.

Removal of DOC for Ditrimethylolpropane reached over 90% by the end of the 28 day study period. The result of this study confirms the classification of Ditrimethylolpropane as inherently biodegradable. The pass level of 70% was achieved in 7 days.

Description of key information

The substance Ditrimethylolpropane is inherently and ultimately biodegradable.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
inherently biodegradable
Type of water:
freshwater

Additional information

The potential for biodegradation of Ditrimethylolpropane was assessed in two studies with further supportive information coming from a Japanese NITE report.

A ready biodegradability test was performed on Di-Trimethylolpropane according to ISO and OECD Test Guidelines.

The test substance did not meet the criteria for ready biodegradability over 28 days, and therefore cannot be considered readily biodegradable.

However when incubated further (for up to 42 days) the test material passed the pass level criterion for inherent biodegradability.As such the substance is considered to be inherently biodegradable.

 

A further biodegredation study wasin acordance with SS-EN 29 888:1993 "Zahn-Wellen Test", which is identical to OECD method 302B (1992).

Ditrimethylolpropane was found to be biodegradable under the conditions applied during the test. Biodegredation commenced without any lag time.

Removal of DOC for Ditrimethylolpropane reached over 90% by the end of the 28 day study period. The result of this study confirmed the classification of Ditrimethylolpropane as inherently biodegradable. The pass level of 70% was achieved in 7 days.

The result of a biodegredation test on Ditrimethylolpropane was posted on the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation website (www.safe.nite.go.jp). Ditrimethylolpropane was found to be non-biodegradable under the conditions applied in the test. This can be taken as supportive envidence that Ditrimethylolpropane is not readily biodegradable.

 

Despite the fact that Ditrimethylolpropane was not classified as readily biodegradable its classifcation as inherently biodegradable suggests that it will be significantly removed by biological processes in the STP. It is thus expected that Ditrimethylolpropane will not persist in soil, sediment or in the environment generally.