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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
(Q)SAR
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
results derived from a valid (Q)SAR model and falling into its applicability domain, with limited documentation / justification
Justification for type of information:
The supporting QMRF report has been attached
Reference:
Composition 1
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 203 (Fish, Acute Toxicity Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Prediction is done using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 with log Kow as the primary descriptor.
GLP compliance:
no
Test material information:
Composition 1
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- EC name:3,5 Diaminobenzoic acid
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): C7H5NO4
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 167.1195 g/mol
- Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): c1(cc(ccc1)[N+](=O)[O-])C(=O)O
- InChI: 1S/C7H5NO4/c9-7(10)5-2-1-3-6(4-5)8(11)12/h1-4H,(H,9,10)
- Substance type: Organic
- Physical state: Solid
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Vehicle:
not specified
Test organisms (species):
Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio)
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
26 deg.C
pH:
6.8
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
No data
Conductivity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
No data
Details on test conditions:
No data
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
110.92 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
estimated
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality

The prediction was based on dataset comprised from the following descriptors: LC50
Estimation method: Takes average value from the 6 nearest neighbours
Domain  logical expression:Result: In Domain

((((("a" or "b" or "c" or "d" or "e" )  and ("f" and ( not "g") )  )  and "h" )  and "i" )  and ("j" and "k" )  )

Domain logical expression index: "a"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Anilines (Acute toxicity) by US-EPA New Chemical Categories

Domain logical expression index: "b"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aminoaniline, meta AND Aniline AND Aryl AND Carboxylic acid by Organic Functional groups

Domain logical expression index: "c"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Aminoaniline, meta AND Carboxylic acid AND Overlapping groups by Organic Functional groups (nested)

Domain logical expression index: "d"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acid, aromatic attach [-COOH] AND Alcohol, olefinic attach [-OH] AND Aliphatic Nitrogen, one aromatic attach [-N] AND Aromatic Carbon [C] AND Carbonyl, olefinic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Carbonyl, one aromatic attach [-C(=O)-] AND Miscellaneous sulfide (=S) or oxide (=O) AND Olefinic carbon [=CH- or =C<] by Organic functional groups (US EPA)

Domain logical expression index: "e"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Amine AND Aromatic compound AND Carbonic acid derivative AND Carboxylic acid AND Carboxylic acid derivative AND Primary amine AND Primary aromatic amine by Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider (checkmol)

Domain logical expression index: "f"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as AN2 AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  AND AN2 >> Michael-type addition to quinoid structures  >> Substituted Anilines by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "g"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Acylation OR Acylation >> Acylation involving an activated (glucuronidated) sulfonamide group OR Acylation >> Acylation involving an activated (glucuronidated) sulfonamide group >> Arenesulfonamides OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis OR Acylation >> Ester aminolysis >> Amides OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition at polarized N-functional double bond OR AN2 >> Nucleophilic addition at polarized N-functional double bond >> Arenesulfonamides OR SNAr OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds OR SNAr >> Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds >> Activated aryl and heteroaryl compounds by Protein binding by OASIS v1.4

Domain logical expression index: "h"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Very fast by Bioaccumulation - metabolism half-lives ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "i"

Referential boundary: The target chemical should be classified as Bioavailable by Lipinski Rule Oasis ONLY

Domain logical expression index: "j"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is >= -2.08

Domain logical expression index: "k"

Parametric boundary:The target chemical should have a value of log Kow which is <= 1.47

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The short-term toxicity of the test substance 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) to fish species Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) is predicted using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 (2017), based on the effects observed in a static freshwater system during a 96 hr exposure. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the substance is estimated to be 110.92 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The short-term toxicity of the test substance 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) to fish species Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) is predicted using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 (2017), based on the effects observed in a static freshwater system during a 96 hr exposure. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the substance is estimated to be 110.92 mg/L. Based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to fish Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

The short-term toxicity of the test substance 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) to fish species Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) is predicted using OECD QSAR Toolbox version 3.4 (2017), based on the effects observed in a static freshwater system during a 96 hr exposure. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the substance is estimated to be 110.92 mg/L. Based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to fish Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations and can be considered not-classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
110.92 mg/L

Additional information

Three studies including predicted data from validated models and experimental results from peer reviewed journal for short term fish toxicity endpoint of test chemical 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) with read across chemical which is closest to target using log kow as the primary descriptor were reviewed as follows:

In first study 96 hrs aquatic toxicity estimation was done to assess toxic effects of the test compound 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) using QSAR toolbox version 3.4. The prediction was based on the effects of the test compound on Danio rerio (previous name: Brachydanio rerio) in a static fresh water system. The predicted data suggests the lethal concentration (LC50) for the test compound 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid (CAS no. 535 -87 -5) was estimated to be 110.92 mg/l on the basis of mortality effect. Thus, based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid can be considered as non toxic to fish and thus not consider for the further classification for aquatic environment as per the CLP classification criteria.

Above prediction is supported by EPI Suite ECOSAR version 1.10 predicted model which indicate the 96 hours LC50 was estimated to be 22426.16 mg/l on Fish for substance 3,5 Diaminobenzoic acid  (CAS no. 535-87-5) on the basis of mortality effect. Thus, based on this value, it can be concluded that the test chemical 3,5 Diaminobenzoic acid can be considered as non-toxic to fish.

Another experimental study (J. Hydrol.51:359-367;1981) for read across Sulfanilic acid (Cas no. 121-57-3) indicate that static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 chemicals including chemical Sulfanilic acid (Cas no. 121-57-3) with the fresh-water fathead minnow fish. Test condition maintained as 40 to 48 mg/L CaCO3, 22 deg.C test temp., 7.2 to 7.9 pH, > 40 % Sat dissolved oxygen, 120 to 160 uS/cm conductivity and ALKALINITY used as 30 to 35 mg/L CaCO3. During the 96-hr. test penod, deaths were recorded and bodies removed. At the end of the experiment the lethal concentration (LC50) on the basis of mortality effect was observed to be >100.4 mg/l for exposure period of 96 hrs. Thus based on the lethality concentration of chemical Sulfanilic acid (Cas no. 121-57-3) it is concluded that the chemical non toxic to fish and thus not consider for the aquatic classification as per the CLP criteria.

Thus all above target data and other supported reports arrive at a judgement as the test substance 3,5 Diaminobenzoic acid  (CAS no. 535-87-5) can be considered as non-toxic to fish and thus cannot be classified as hazardous to aquatic environment as per the CLP criteria.