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Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Skin irritation / corrosion

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Administrative data

skin corrosion: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
6-13 May 2013
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study (OECD); to GLP

Data source

Reference Type:
study report
Report date:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
according to guideline
OECD Guideline 435 (In Vitro Membrane Barrier Test Method for Skin Corrosion)
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Test material form:
solid: particulate/powder
migrated information: powder
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Tris(nitrato-O)nitrosylruthenium - solid
- Physical state: Red solid.
- Analytical purity: Not specified.
- Impurities (identity (concentration in ppm)): Ag (<50), Au (<50), Ca (<500), Cu (<50), Fe (<50), Ir (<50), Mg (<100), Na (33000), Pd (<100), Pt (<100), Rh (<50), Si (<50).
- Composition of test material, percentage of components: Ruthenium content 28.84% w/w
- Isomers composition: Not specified.
- Purity test date: Not specified.
- Lot/batch No.: 7538/00-10
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 5 March 2014
- Stability under test conditions: Not specified.
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature.

Test animals

other: Not applicable.
other: Not applicable.
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:
The CORROSITEX™ Assay is a standardized, quantitative in vitro test for skin corrosivity and has been validated by the ECVAM for testing acids, bases and their derivatives.

The test was performed on a synthetic macromolecular bio-barrier membrane resting on top of a chemical detection system (CDS). The BIOBARRIER was prepared at least 2 hours prior to tests. BIOBARRIER diluent and matrix powder were combined and heated to 68 deg C under smooth agitation. After complete dissolution, the solution was allowed to sit for 5 minutes. 200 µl of the BIOBARRIER were pipetted into each membrane disc, set on the tray and kept in the cold (2-8 deg C) for at least 2 hours.

Test system

Type of coverage:
other: Not applicable.
Preparation of test site:
other: Not applicable.
unchanged (no vehicle)
other: Negative control: citric acid (10% aq.); positive controls: nitric acid (69%), phosphoric acid (85%)
Amount / concentration applied:
500 mg
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Up to 4 hours.
Observation period:
The test system was observed until a reaction was detected (or for a total of 4 hours).
Number of animals:
Not applicable.

The test was performed on a total of eight BIOBARRIERS (four BIOBARRIERS for the test item).
Details on study design:
Test system:
The CORROSITEX™ test system was purchased from Invitro International, Irvine, CA 92614.

Qualification test:
This stage was carried out to ensure the sample is compatible with the CORROSITEX™ test system. 100 mg of the test substance was added to the Qualify test tube, shaken and left to stand for one minute. A colour change or change in consistency of the CDS indicates that the test material is qualified for the assay.

Categorisation test:
To establish the category cut-off times for the sample, 100 mg of the test substance was added to tubes labelled A and B. After shaking, a colour change observed in either tube was matched to the corresponding CORROSITEX™ colour charts. Test material with high acid/alkaline reserves are defined as category 1, and those with low acid/alkaline reserves as category 2. If no colour is observed, or if the test item is strongly coloured, a CONFIRM reagent is used followed by pH testing.

Classification test:
The test was performed in vials that came pre-filled with the CDS. Four replicate vials were used for the test substance. The CDS vials were warmed to room temperature (17-25 deg C) before use. A BIOBARRIER membrane disc was placed on top of a vial filled with CDS. 500 mg of the test item was placed on top of the BIOBARRIER membrane disc and starting time recorded. This was repeated with the remaining test vials, staggering each start time. The vials were observed for a colour-change reaction. The exact time to react was recorded for each vial.

Testing of positive and negative control substances:
Positive (nitric acid and phosphoric acid) and negative (citric acid) control substances were tested following the same procedure as the test substance assay. The expected reaction time ranges of the positive and negative control substances are within 3 minutes, 3 - 60 minutes and >60 minutes, respectively.

Data compilation:
The CORROSITEX™ time was calculated for each replicate by subtracting the start time from the detection time. The mean CORROSITEX™ time was calculated for the four test vials. Using the corrosivity assignment time table the appropriate Packing Group Classification was assigned.

Results and discussion

In vitro

Irritation / corrosion parameter:
other: CORROSITEX time (minutes)
Run / experiment:
mean of 4 replicates
Vehicle controls validity:
not applicable
Negative controls validity:
Positive controls validity:
Remarks on result:
positive indication of irritation

Any other information on results incl. tables

Qualification/categorisation test:

The test substance was compatible with the CORROSITEX™ test system. As the sample was intensely coloured, any colour-change reaction in the categorisation tubes was indistinct. Based on pH measurement the test substance was assigned to Category 1.


Positive and negative control test substances:

The reaction times of positive controls nitric acid and phosphoric acid were 1.97 and 16.42 minutes, respectively. The reaction time of the negative control was 67.67 minutes. The acceptance criteria for the control substances were therefore fulfilled.



The mean time of the test substance to activate the CDS was 12.83 minutes.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
Category 1B (corrosive) based on GHS criteria
Migrated information
In an in vitro membrane barrier test (CORROSITEX™ Assay), conducted according to OECD guidelines and to GLP, tris(nitrato-O)nitrosylruthenium(II) (solid) displayed a mean breakthrough time of 12.83 minutes. The test substance is classified as "corrosive" sub category 1B, according to UN GHS criteria, as the mean time to activate the CDS was between 3-60 minutes (category 1).
Executive summary:

In a good quality GLP study, conducted according to OECD test guideline 435, the potential of tris(nitrato-O)nitrosyl ruthenium(II) (solid) to induce skin corrosion was assessed in the "in vitro membrane barrier test (CORROSITEX™ Assay)".


The test item was placed on top of a BIOBARRIER membrane which was sat on a chemical detection system (CDS) in a vial. Corrosivity is determined on the ability (measured by the time taken) of a chemical to break through the barrier and subsequently activate the underlying CDS (as seen by a colour or consistency change).


The mean time required for tris(nitrato-O)nitrosyl ruthenium(II) (solid) to activate the CDS was 12.83 minutes (mean of 4 replicates). The test substance is therefore classified as "corrosive" sub category 1B, according to UN GHS criteria, as the mean time to activate the CDS was between 3 -60 minutes (category 1).