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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

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Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Study meets the criteria for Klimisch score 1 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 301D) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However as this study is used in the context of a read across, Klimisch 2 is assigned.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 D (Ready Biodegradability: Closed Bottle Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic (adaptation not specified)
Details on inoculum:
Activated sludge bacteria from domestic sewage treatment plant used at about 1 drop sludge filterate inoculum basal medium.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
2 mg/L
Based on:
COD
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
other: COD
Details on study design:
Duplicate test vessels were used for the test substance, positive control and control blank. Test vessels were incubated at 20 ± 1°C.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Reference substance:
aniline
Test performance:
The positive controls were degraded by >60% within 28 days.
Parameter:
other: COD
Value:
8
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: Additional sampling conducted on days 1, 3, 6, 10, 14 and 21 days.
Results with reference substance:
Sodium benzoate 97% after 28 days; aniline 61% after 28 days.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
Both the reference substances achieved greater or equal to 60% degradation, and therefore, the test was valid.
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Conclusions:
Only 8% biodegredation was observed after 28 days, therefore this substance is not Readily Biodegradable under testing conditions.
Executive summary:

A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301D – Closed Bottle Test) was carried out using an analog of the submission substance (CAS Number 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substances sodium benzoate and aniline.

 

This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests.

 

Results Synopsis

 

There was only 8% degradation of the test substance after 28 days.

There was 97% and 61% degradation of the reference substances sodium benzoate and aniline after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Study meets the requirements for Klimisch code 1 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 301F) and was conducted according to Good Laboratory Practice. However as this study is used in the context of a read across, Klimisch 2 is assigned.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 F (Ready Biodegradability: Manometric Respirometry Test)
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
None reported
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, adapted
Details on inoculum:
Supernatent from homogenised activated sludge was used as an inoculum.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
100 mg/L
Based on:
ThOD/L
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
O2 consumption
Details on study design:
The supernatent from the homogenized activated sludge was used as an innoculum. The innoculum was pre adapted to the test material for 14 days, during which the test substance was added incrementally at conc equivalent to 4, 8, and 16 mg carbon/l on days 0, 7 and 12. The targeted microbial level was 10,000 to 100,000 cells/ml. A measured volume of the inoculated mineral medium containing approximately 100 mg/l test substance was stirred continuously in a closed system for 28 days. Test vessels were incubated at 23 ± 1°C.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Test performance:
The positive control was degraded by >60% within 3 days.
Parameter:
% degradation (O2 consumption)
Value:
8.6
Sampling time:
28 d
Results with reference substance:
The reference substance was degraded by >60% within 3 days and 88.8% degraded after 28 days.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
The reference substance achived >60% degradation, therefore, the test was considered valid.
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Executive summary:

A 28 day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301F – Closed Bottle Test) was carried out using an analog of the submission substance (CAS Number 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of oxygen uptake using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was pre-adapted to the test substance for 14 days. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate.

 

This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests.

 

Results Synopsis

 

There was only 8.6% degradation of the test substance after 28 days.

There was 89% degradation of of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Study meets the criteria for Klimisch code 1 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 301B) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However as this study is used in the context of a read across, Klimisch 2 is assigned.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test)
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
None reported
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Activated sludge from domestic wastewater treatment works prepared per test guideline.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
20 other: mg C/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
CO2 evolution
Details on study design:
Triplicate test vessels were used for the test substance, positive control and the control blank. Test vessels were incubated at 20-23°C.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Test performance:
The positive control was degraded by >60% within 28 days.
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
1.5
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: With additional sampling on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24
Results with reference substance:
89.2% after 28 days.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
The reference substance achieved greater than or equal to 60% degradation, and therefore, the test is considered valid.
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Executive summary:

A 28 day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301B – Modified Sturm Test) was carried out using an analogue of the submission substance (CAS Number 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of carbon dioxide evolution using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate.

 

 This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests.

 

Results Synopsis

 

There was only 1.5% degradation of the test substance after 28 days.

There was 89% degradation of of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

Endpoint:
biodegradation in water: ready biodegradability
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: see 'Remark'
Remarks:
Study meets the criteria for Klimisch score 1 because it followed an internationally recognised method (OECD Guideline 301B) and was carried out to Good Laboratory Practice. However as this study is used in the context of a read across, Klimisch 2 is assigned.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 301 B (Ready Biodegradability: CO2 Evolution Test)
Deviations:
no
Remarks:
None reported
GLP compliance:
yes
Oxygen conditions:
aerobic
Inoculum or test system:
activated sludge, domestic, non-adapted
Details on inoculum:
Activated sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant prepared per test guideline.
Duration of test (contact time):
28 d
Initial conc.:
20 other: mg C/L
Based on:
test mat.
Parameter followed for biodegradation estimation:
CO2 evolution
Details on study design:
Triplicate test vessels were used for the test substance, positive control and control blank. Test vessels were incubated at 20-23°C.
Reference substance:
benzoic acid, sodium salt
Parameter:
% degradation (CO2 evolution)
Value:
9.1
Sampling time:
28 d
Remarks on result:
other: With additional sampling on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 17, 20 and 24
Results with reference substance:
86.1% degradation after 28 days.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Remarks:
The reference substance achieved greater ir equal to 60% degradation, and therefore, the test was considered valid
Interpretation of results:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed
Executive summary:

A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301B – Modified Sturm Test) was carried out using an analogue of the submission substance. The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of carbon dioxide evolution using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate.

 

This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests.

 

Results Synopsis

 

There was only 9.1% degradation of the test substance after 28 days.

There was 86% degradation of of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

Description of key information

Several biodegradation in water screening tests were found that were performed on analog and structurally similar substances. These include studies performed according to OECD Guidelines 301D, 301F and 301B. None of these available studies showed ready biodegradation after 28 days.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Biodegradation in water:
under test conditions no biodegradation observed

Additional information

Four biodegradation in water screening tests were found that were performed on analog and structurally similar substances. These include studies performed according to OECD Guidelines 301D, 301F and 301B. None of these available studies showed ready biodegradation after 28 days.

1) A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301D – Closed Bottle Test) was carried out using an analog of the submission substance (CASN 70024-71-4; benzenesulfonic acid C16-C24 alkaryl derivative, calcium salt. The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substances sodium benzoate and aniline. There was only 8% degradation of the test substance after 28 days. There was 97% and 61% degradation of the reference substances sodium benzoate and aniline after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

2) A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301F – Closed Bottle Test) was carried out using an analog of the submission substance (CASN 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of oxygen uptake using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was pre-adapted to the test substance for 14 days. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate. This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests. There was only 8.6% degradation of the test substance after 28 days. There was 89% degradation of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

3) A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301B – Modified Sturm Test) was carried out using an analogue of the submission substance (CASN 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of carbon dioxide evolution using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate. This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests. There was only 1.5% degradation of the test substance after 28 days. There was 89% degradation of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.

4) A 28-day aerobic ready biodegradability study (to OECD Guideline No. 301B – Modified Sturm Test) was carried out using an analogue of the submission substance (CASN 70024-71-4). The effects of the test substance on ready biodegradability were assessed based on the measurement of carbon dioxide evolution using an activated sludge inoculum (from a domestic wastewater plant) that was not pre-adapted to the test substance. Test performance was evaluated using the reference substance sodium benzoate. This toxicity study is classified as reliable without restriction (Klimisch Code 1) and satisfies the guideline requirement for biodegradation in water-screening tests. There was only 9.1% degradation of the test substance after 28 days. There was 86% degradation of the reference substance sodium benzoate after 28 days meaning the test was considered valid.