Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Currently viewing:

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Justification for type of information:
Experimental test result using OECD guideline.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
This study was designed to assess the effect of test material on the growth of green alga Chlorella vulgaris. The study was conducted in accordance with “OECD guideline for testing of chemicals No. 201- Alga, growth inhibition test”.

GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
yes
Details on test solutions:
The test solution was prepared in aseptic condition. The test item was prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200 mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring for 24 hours to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations were chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit.
The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. To have a better growth and visibility of cells, the initial of the culture was kept 1 X 10E4cells/ml. Care was taken to have a homogeneous solution for the experiment.
Test organisms (species):
Chlorella vulgaris
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Strain: No data
- Source (laboratory, culture collection): National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur
- Age of inoculum (at test initiation): 1x10E4 cell/ml
- Method of cultivation: no data

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period:no data
- Culturing media and conditions (same as test or not):no data
- Any deformed or abnormal cells observed: no
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
72 h
Post exposure observation period:
No data available
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
22 ° C ± 2°C.
Dissolved oxygen:
No data available
Salinity:
No data available
Conductivity:
No data available
Nominal and measured concentrations:
6.25mg/l,12.5mg/l, 25mg/l, 50mg/l, 100mg/l, 200mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: All the tests were carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized.
- Type : No data available
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 60ml
- Aeration: No data available
- Type of flow-through (e.g. peristaltic or proportional diluter): No data available
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): No data available
- Initial cells density: 13.625 x10E4 cells/mL
- Control end cells density: No data available
- No. of organisms per vessel: No data available
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): Two replicates
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): Three replicates
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): No data available

GROWTH MEDIUM
- Standard medium used: Yes
- The medium to be used for the growth of algae was Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM). It is a medium composed of macronutrients, micronutrien ts, alkaline EDTA solution and Iron solution. Stock solution of each of these was prepared separately and then a complete medium was prepared and sterilized. De-ionized water was used to prepare the BBM.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Sterile test conditions: yes
- Adjustment of pH: yes
- Photoperiod: 16 Hour Light Period : 8 Hour Dark Period
- Light intensity and quality: White Fluorescent Light (1500Lux)
- RPM speed: 120 Revolutions per minute

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
- Determination of cell counting: Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer.
Microscopic observations : The cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer.
Spectrophotometer: The absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate.
- Chlorophyll measurement: No
- Other: EC50 value was determined.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Test concentrations: Six test concentration were: 6.25mg/l,12.5mg/l,25mg/l,50mg/l,100mg/l,200mg/l

Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
72 h
Dose descriptor:
EC0
Effect conc.:
200 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth rate
Details on results:
Control vessels: The microscopic observations were noted down in each of the control vessel. All the cells appeared healthy, round and green throughout the study duration in the control. Also, the drift in pH in the control vessels did not increase by >1.5 units when observed on 72 hours as
compared to 0 hours. The average pH drift observed in the control vessels was 0.44 units.

Test vessels: The effect of the test item on the green algae Chlorella vulgaris culture was observed at nominal test concentration of >6.25 mg/L,12.5 mg/L,25 mg/L,50 mg/L,100 mg/L,200 mg/L. All the six concentrations were in geometric series spaced by a factor of 2.
The microscopic observations were also noted in each of the test vessel. All the cells appeared healthy, round and green throughout the study duration and no significant changes were observed up to the concentration of 200 mg/l. EC50 was found to be >200 mg/l graphically through probit
analysis.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) was determined.

Table 1: Showing the values of average specific growth rate and percentage inhibition after an interval of 72 hours

 

CONTROL

6.25 mg/l

12.5 mg/l

25 mg/l

50 mg/l

100 mg/l

200 mg/l

Average

Specific

R1

0.608

R1

0.423

R1

0.419

R1

0.400

R1

0.375

R1

0.353

R1

0.319

Growth rate (μ

)

R2

0.586

R2

0.441

R2

0.408

R2

0.392

R2

0.357

R2

0.329

R2

0.297

R3

0.612

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean of Avg.

Specific

growth rate

0.602

0.432

0.414

0.396

0.366

0.341

0.308

Percentage

Inhibition (%I)

_

28.202

31.301

34.254

39.208

43.440

48.868

Table 2: Depicting pH values at 0 Hours and after 72 Hours of test item exposure to algae

Test vessels and

test concentration

0 Hours

72 Hours

CONTROL

Replicate1

6.99

7.37

Replicate2

6.98

7.43

Replicate3

6.99

7.50

Average

6.99

7.43

CAS No.93-00-5

6.25mg/l

Replicate1

7.09

7.06

Replicate2

7.10

7.08

12.5mg/l

Replicate1

7.08

7.20

Replicate2

7.12

7.22

25mg/l

 

 

Replicate1

7.14

7.33

Replicate2

7.16

7.30

50mg/l

Replicate1

7.11

7.35

Replicate2

7.13

7.31

100mg/l

Replicate1

6.96

7.29

Replicate2

6.92

7.30

200mg/l

Replicate1

6.64

6.98

Replicate2

6.62

6.95

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
After 72 hours of exposure to test item to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was found to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis.
Executive summary:

The study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Test was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test).

Test was carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized. The test solution was prepared in aseptic condition. The test item  was prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200 mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring for 24 hours to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations were chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit.The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. To have a better growth and visibility of cells, the initial of the culture was kept 1 X 10E4cells/ml.

For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined.

Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer. For microscopic observations the cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer. By spectrophotometer the absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate.

As per OECD 201, the biomass in the control cultures should have increased exponentially by a factor of at least 16 within the 72 hr test period. This corresponds to a specific growth rate of 0.92 per day. Thus, the observed specific growth rate in the control cultures during the experiment was 0.358 per day. Secondly the mean coefficient of variation for section by section specific growth rates (days 0-1, 1-2 & 2-3, for 72 hr tests) in the control cultures must not exceed 35%. Thus, the observed mean coefficient of variation in the control cultures during the experiment was 33.42%. Thirdly the coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the whole test period in replicate control cultures must not exceed 10%. Thus, the observed coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the experiment in control cultures was 8.26%. Hence, the test is considered valid as per OECD guideline, 201

After 72 hours of exposure to test item to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be concluded that the chemical was not toxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Description of key information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

The study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Test was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test).

Test was carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized.The test solution was prepared in aseptic condition. The test item  was prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200 mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring for 24 hours to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations were chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit.The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. To have a better growth and visibility of cells, the initial of the culture was kept 1 X 10E4cells/ml.

For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined.

Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer. For microscopic observations the cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer. By spectrophotometer the absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate.

As per OECD 201, the biomass in the control cultures should have increased exponentially by a factor of at least 16 within the 72 hr test period. This corresponds to a specific growth rate of 0.92 per day. Thus, the observed specific growth rate in the control cultures during the experiment was 0.358 per day. Secondly the mean coefficient of variation for section by section specific growth rates (days 0-1, 1-2 & 2-3, for 72 hr tests) in the control cultures must not exceed 35%. Thus, the observed mean coefficient of variation in the control cultures during the experiment was 33.42%. Thirdly the coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the whole test period in replicate control cultures must not exceed 10%. Thus, the observed coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the experiment in control cultures was 8.26%. Hence, the test is considered valid as per OECD guideline, 201

After 72 hours of exposure to test item to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be concluded that the chemical was not toxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50 for freshwater algae:
200 mg/L

Additional information

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria:

The study was designed to assess the toxic effects of the test compound on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Test was conducted in compliance with the OECD guideline 201 (Alga, Growth Inhibition Test).

Test was carried out in 100mL conical flasks which were carefully autoclaved and sterilized.The test solution was prepared in aseptic condition. The test item  was prepared by adding 50 mg of test item in 250 ml of BBM to get the final concentration of 200 mg/L. This stock solution was kept for stirring for 24 hours to obtain a homogenous solution for the experiment. The test concentrations were chosen according to the available data of the test item. The concentrations chosen were set up to the water solubility limit.The remaining test solutions were prepared by dilution from the above stock solution. To have a better growth and visibility of cells, the initial of the culture was kept 1 X 10E4cells/ml.

For the assessment of algal growth, the test was conducted in replicates. The control flask was maintained in triplicates as recommended in the OECD guideline and the test concentration were selected in geometric series which were maintained in duplicates. To obtain a quantitative concentration-response relationship by regression analysis, a linearizing transformation of the response data into probit was performed. Using the same, effective concentration (EC) were determined.

Algal growth was calculated daily by counting the cells microscopically with the help of haemocytometer. For microscopic observations the cultures were observed daily with the help of a microscope to verify a normal and healthy appearance of the algal culture and also to observe any abnormal appearance of the algae (as may be caused by the exposure of the test item). Apart from this, the cell count of each test vessel was also noted with the help of a microscope and haemocytometer. By spectrophotometer the absorbance values of each test vessel and control vessel was noted at 680nm.The BBM was taken as blank for both control and test vessels. The absorbance value of each vessel was in line with the average specific growth rate.

As per OECD 201, the biomass in the control cultures should have increased exponentially by a factor of at least 16 within the 72 hr test period. This corresponds to a specific growth rate of 0.92 per day. Thus, the observed specific growth rate in the control cultures during the experiment was 0.358 per day. Secondly the mean coefficient of variation for section by section specific growth rates (days 0-1, 1-2 & 2-3, for 72 hr tests) in the control cultures must not exceed 35%. Thus, the observed mean coefficient of variation in the control cultures during the experiment was 33.42%. Thirdly the coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the whole test period in replicate control cultures must not exceed 10%. Thus, the observed coefficient of variation of average specific growth rates during the experiment in control cultures was 8.26%. Hence, the test is considered valid as per OECD guideline, 201

After 72 hours of exposure to test item to various nominal test concentrations, EC50 was determine to be >200 mg/l graphically and through probit analysis. Based on the EC50, it can be concluded that the chemical was not toxic and can be consider to be not classified as per the CLP classification criteria.