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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Hydrolysis

Inaccordance with column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test chemical is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation in water

28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test chemical (Experimental study report, 2018). The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 78.31%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 45.18% on 7 days & 59.03% on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.07 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.64 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 65.24%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 15% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent / not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.153%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 84.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (8100 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

In accordance with column 2 of Annex IX of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test chemical has a low potential for bioaccumulation based on logKow ≤ 3.

Adsorption / desorption

The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals (Experimental study report, 2017). A test item solution was prepared by accurately weighing 5 mg of test item and diluted with ACN up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 500 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 4.93. The reference substances were chosen according to Functional similarity with the test substance and calibration graph prepared. The reference substances were 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), Aniline, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene having Koc value ranging from 1.9 to 2.75. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 2.0625 ± 0.000at 25°C.This logKoc value indicates that the test chemical has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

Additional information

Hydrolysis

Inaccordance with column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test chemical is readily biodegradable.

Biodegradation in water

Various experimental studies of the test chemical were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study from study report (2018), 28-days Closed Bottle test following the OECD guideline 301 D to determine the ready biodegradability of the test item. The study was performed at a temperature of 20°C. The test system included control, test item and reference item. Polyseed were used for this study. The concentration of test and reference item (Sodium Benzoate) chosen for both the study was 4 mg/L, while that of inoculum was 32 ml/l. OECD mineral medium was used for the study. ThOD (Theoretical oxygen demand) of test and reference item was determined by calculation. % degradation was calculated using the values of BOD and ThOD for test item and reference item. The % degradation of procedure control (reference item) was also calculated using BOD & ThOD and was determined to be 78.31%. Degradation of Sodium Benzoate exceeds 45.18% on 7 days & 59.03% on 14th day. The activity of the inoculum was thus verified and the test can be considered as valid. The BOD28 value of test chemical was observed to be 1.07 mgO2/mg. ThOD was calculated as 1.64 mgO2/mg. Accordingly, the % degradation of the test item after 28 days of incubation at 20 ± 1°C according to Closed Bottle test was determined to be 65.24%. Based on the results, the test item, under the test conditions, was considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Another biodegradation study was conducted for 6 days at 30°C for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of test chemical (BERND NORTEMANN et. al., 1986). Initial test substance conc. used in the study was 1786 mg/l. The percentage degradation of test chemical was determined to be >90% by HPLC in 6 days, Thus, based on percentage degradation, test chemical can be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

On the basis of above results for test chemical, it can be concluded that the test chemical can be considered to be readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment

Estimation Programs Interface (2018) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test chemical. If released in to the environment, 15% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of test chemical in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is persistent / not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of test chemical in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediment is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.153%), indicates that test chemical is not persistent in sediment.

 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of test chemical in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (2018). If released into the environment, 84.8% of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of test chemical in soil is estimated to be 75 days (8100 hrs). Based on this half-life value of test chemical, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test chemical can be considered to be readily biodegradablein nature.

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

In accordance with column 2 of Annex IX of the REACH regulation, testing for this endpoint is scientifically not necessary and does not need to be conducted since the test chemical has a low potential for bioaccumulation based on logKow ≤ 3.

Adsorption / desorption

The adsorption coefficient Koc in soil and in sewage sludge of test chemical was determined by the Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method according to OECD Guideline No. 121 for testing of Chemicals (Experimental study report, 2017). A test item solution was prepared by accurately weighing 5 mg of test item and diluted with ACN up to 10 ml. Thus, the test solution concentration was 500 mg/l. The pH of test substance was 4.93. The reference substances were chosen according to Functional similarity with the test substance and calibration graph prepared. The reference substances were 4-methylaniline(p-Tolouidine), Aniline, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Naphthalene having Koc value ranging from 1.9 to 2.75. The Log Koc value of test chemical was determined to be 2.0625 ± 0.000at 25°C.This logKoc value indicates that the test chemical has a low sorption to soil and sediment and therefore have moderate migration potential to ground water.

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