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Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Biodegradation study was carried out for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test) under aerobic conditions. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 22% by DOC removal parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 98 -33 -9). If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediement is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), it indicates that the chemical 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid is not persistent in sediment. 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-Amino-3-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 98 -33 -9) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 64.9 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-Amino-3-methylbenzenesulfonic acid in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

Additional information

Biodegradation in water: screening tests

Various study and predicted data for the target compound 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9) and the study for its read across substance were reviewed for the biodegradation end point which are summarized as below:

 

In an experimental key study (D. Brown and B. Hamburger, 1987), biodegradation experiment was carried out for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9). The study was performed according to OECD Guideline 302 B (Inherent biodegradability: Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test) under aerobic conditions. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 22% by DOC removal parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid was considered to be inherently biodegradable in nature.

 

In a supporting study for test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9) from peer reviewed journal (D. Brown and B. Hamburger, 1987), biodegradation study was carried out for 28 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9). The study was performed according to EPA OTS 796.3180 (Ready Biodegradability: Modified AFNOR Test) under aerobic conditions. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 2 and 12% by DOC removal parameter in 28 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid was considered to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

Another supporting biodegradation study (D. Brown and B. Hamburger, 1987) was carried out for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of the test substance 4 - Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9). Activated sludge was used as an inoculum and the study was performed under anaerobic conditions at a temperature of 35°C for a period of approx. 100 days. Samples of the aqueous phase were analyzed either qualitatively or quantitatively by an appropriate chromatographic method for the presence of certain of the expected aromatic amine metabolites. The percentage degradation of test substance was determined to be 0% by appropriate chromatography method and DOC analysis in approx. 100 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid was considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

 

Estimation Programs Interface Suite (EPI suite, 2017) was run to predict the biodegradation potential of the test compound 4-Amino-3-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS no. 98 -33 -9) in the presence of mixed populations of environmental microorganisms. The biodegradability of the substance was calculated using seven different models such as Linear Model, Non-Linear Model, Ultimate Biodegradation Timeframe, Primary Biodegradation Timeframe, MITI LInear Model, MITI Non-Linear Model and Anaerobic Model (called as Biowin 1-7, respectively) of the BIOWIN v4.10 software. The results indicate that 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid is expected to be not readily biodegradable.

For read across substance 2-amino-5-methylbenzene sulfonic acid (CAS no. 88 -44 -8) (J-CHECK, 2016), biodegradation study was conducted for 14 days for evaluating the percentage biodegradability of substance 2-amino-5-methylbenzene sulfonic acid. Concentration of inoculum i.e, activated sludge used was 30 mg/l and initial test substance conc. used in the study was 100 mg/l, respectively. The percentage degradation of substance was determined to be <0 and 0% by BOD, O2 consumption, TOC removal, Test mat. analysis and UV-Vis parameter in 14 days. Thus, based on percentage degradation, 2-amino-5-methylbenzene sulfonic acid is considered to be not readily biodegradable in water.

 

On the basis of above results for target chemical 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (frompeer reviewed journal and EPI Suite) and read across substance from authortiative database (J-CHECK, 2016), it can be concluded that the test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid can be expected to be not readily biodegradable in nature.

Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests

Estimation Programs Interface (EPI Suite, 2017) prediction model was run to predict the half-life in water and sediment for the test compound 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 98 -33 -9). If released in to the environment, 35% of the chemical will partition into water according to the Mackay fugacity model level III and the half-life period of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid in water is estimated to be 37.5 days (900 hrs). The half-life (37.5 days estimated by EPI suite) indicates that the chemical is not persistent in water and the exposure risk to aquatic animals is moderate to low whereas the half-life period of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid in sediment is estimated to be 337.5 days (8100 hrs). However, as the percentage release of test chemical into the sediement is less than 1% (i.e, reported as 0.0835%), it indicates that the chemical 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid is not persistent in sediment. 

Biodegradation in soil

The half-life period of 4-Amino-3-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (CAS No. 98 -33 -9) in soil was estimated using Level III Fugacity Model by EPI Suite version 4.1 estimation database (EPI suite, 2017). If released into the environment, 64.9 % of the chemical will partition into soil according to the Mackay fugacity model level III. The half-life period of 4-Amino-3-methylbenzenesulfonic acid in soil is estimated to be 75 days (1800 hrs). Based on this half-life value of 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid, it is concluded that the chemical is not persistent in the soil environment and the exposure risk to soil dwelling animals is moderate to low.

On the basis of available information, the test substance 4 -Amino-3 -methylbenzenesulfonic acid can be considered to be not readily biodegradable in nature.