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Short-term toxicity to fish

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017); to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine on fish in a 96 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in Pimephales promelas on the basis of mortality effect was estimated to be 140.24 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of this EC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) does not exhibit short term toxicity to fish.

Short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017); to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine in aquatic invertebrate (Daph nia magna) in a 48 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in daphnia magna on a intoxication effect was estimated to be 142.21 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of this EC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the subst ance, it is concluded that 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615 -66 -7) does not exhibit toxicity to aquatic invertebrate (daphnia magna).

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017), to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine on algae in a 96 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) on a growth rate effect was estimated to be 110.65 mg/L in a 72 hour study. Thus on the basis of EC50 value and by considering the CLP criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that the substance ‘2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7)’ does not exhibit toxicity to aquatic algae.

Toxicity to microorganisms

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3, to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) in microorganis m (tetrahymena pyriformis) in a 48 hours of exposure. The inhibition growth concentration (IGC50) of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine in microorganism (Tetrahy mena pyriformis) on the basis of growth inhibition effect was estimated to be 510.58 mg/L.

Additional information

Short-term toxicity to fish

Various studies including predicted results from the validated model and experimental study from a peer-reviewed journal for toxicity to fish with the target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its relevant read across substance 4-methyl-m-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 95-80-7) by considering its structure-activity relationships, were summarized as follows:

 

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017); to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine on fish in a 96 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in Pimephales promelas on the basis of mortality effect was estimated to be 140.24 mg/L.

 

In addition, based on the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Predictive Model version 1.11 (2017), the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in fish was estimated to be 4337.28 mg/L on the basis of mortality effect in a 96 hour study.

 

Moreover, the study was designed by Holcombe,G.W. et al. (Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.28(3): 287-297) to assess the toxic effects of the test compound 4-methyl-m-phenylenediamine on Oryzias latipes (Japanese Medaka) fish in a 96 hours of exposure. 50% mortality was observed. Thus, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test substance, 4-methyl-m-phenylenediamine, in Oryzias latipes on the basis of mortality effect was considered to be 912.0 (797 to 1040) mg/L.

Based on the above predicted and experimental studies for target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its read across substance 4-methyl-m-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 95-80-7), the effective concentration EC50 value was found to be 140.24 mg/L and LC50 value was found to be in the range of 912.0 to 4337.28 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of this EC50 and LC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) does not exhibit short term toxicity to fish.

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

Various studies including predicted results from the validated model and experimental study from a peer-reviewed journal for toxicity to aquatic invertebrate with the target substance 2-chloro-p-phenyl enediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its relevant read across substance aniline (CAS No. 62-53-3) by considering its structure-activity relationships, were summarized as follows:

 

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017); to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine in aquatic invertebrate (Daphni a magna) in a 48 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in daphnia magna on a intoxication effect was estimated to be 142.21 mg/L.

 

In addition, based on the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Predictive Model version 1.11 (2016), the median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenedi amine, in aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna) was estimated to be 2095.96 mg/L on the basis of mortality effect in a 48 hour study.

 

Moreover, this test was carried out bySlooff,W. (Aquat. Toxicol.4:73-82,1983)on Gammarus pulex (Scud) with the substance aniline (CAS No.- 62-53-3) in a 48 hours of exposure. The lethal concentration to 50% of test organisms was determined. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the test substance, aniline, in aquatic invertebrate Scenedesmus subspicatus was determined to be 112.0 mg/L on the basis of mortality effect in a 48 hours study.

 

Based on the above predicted and experimental studies for target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylene diamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its read across substance aniline (CAS No. 62-53-3), the effective concentration EC50 value was found to be 142.21 mg/L and LC50 value was found to be in the range of 112.0 to 2095.96 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of this EC50 and LC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) does not exhibit toxicity to aquatic invertebrate.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

Various studies including predicted results from the validated model and experimental study from a peer-reviewed journal for toxicity to aquatic algae with the target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylenediam ine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its relevant read across substance 2-chloroaniline (CAS No. 95-51-2) by considering its structure-activity relationships, were summarized as follows:

 

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3 (2017), to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine on algae in a 96 hours of exposure. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) on a growth rate effect was estimated to be 110.65 mg/L in a 72 hour study.

 

In addition, based on the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) Predictive Model version 1.11 (2017), the median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine, in a green algae was estimated to be 801.51 mg/L on the basis of growth rate effect in a 96 hour study.

Moreover, the test was carried out by Kuhn,R. et al. (Water Res.24(1): 31-38, 1990) on Scenedesmus subspicatus with the substance 2-chloroaniline (CAS No.- 95-51-2) in a 72 hours of exposure. The effective concen tration to 50% of test organisms was determined. The median effective concentration (EC50) for the test substance, 2-chloroaniline, in aquatic green algae Scenedesmus subspicatus was determined to be 150.0 mg/L on the basis of population effect in a 72 hours study.

 

Based on the above predicted and experimental studies for target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylene diamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its read across substance 2-chloroaniline (CAS No. 95-51-2), the effective concentration EC50 value was found to be in the range of 110.65 mg/L and 801.51 mg/L. Thus, on the basis of this EC50 value and according to CLP Criteria for aquatic classification of the substance, it is concluded that 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) does not exhibit toxicity to aquatic algae.

Toxicity to microorganisms

Various studies including predicted results from validated model and experimental study from a peer-reviewed journal for toxicity to microorganism with the target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and the relevant read across substances 3-chloroaniline (CAS No.- 108-42-9) and 2-chloroaniline (CAS No. 95-51-2) by considering its structure-activity relationships, were summarized as follows: 

 

A study was predicted using OECD QSAR toolbox version 3.3, to assess the toxicity effect of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) in microorganism (tetrahymena pyriformis) in a 48 hours of exposure. The inhibition growth concentration (IGC50) of 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine in microorganism (Tetrahy mena pyriformis) on the basis of growth inhibition effect was estimated to be 510.58 mg/L.

 

A test was developed by Jaworska, J.S. et. al (Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 29, 200-213) using Escherichia coli in order to determine the toxicity of 3-chloroaniline (CAS No.- 108-42-9). Escherichia coli was exposed for 12 h. The concentration of the chemical, at which the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli observed (EC50), was determined.The median effective concentration (EC50) of 3-chloroaniline in microorganism (Escherichia coli) in a 12 hr study on the basis of growth inhibition effect was observed to be 343 mg/L.

 

Moreover, a toxicity test using Tetrahymena pyriformis as test organism was determined by Yoshioka,Y. et al. (Sci. Total Environ.43(1/2): 149-157) for 2-chloroaniline (CAS No. 95-51-2). The ciliate tetrahymena pyriformis was exposed for 24 hours. The 24-h EC50 (concentration at which 50% of the tetrahymena pyriformis population has died after 24 h of exposure) was found to be 200 mg/L.

 

Thus, based on the above predicted and experimental studies for target substance 2-chloro-p-phenylenediamine (CAS No. 615-66-7) and to its read across substances 3-chloroaniline (CAS No.- 108-42-9) and 2-chloroaniline (CAS No. 95-51-2), the inhibition growth concentration (IGC50) was found to be 510.58 mg/L and EC50 value was found to be in the range of 200.0 to 343.0 mg/L on the basis of various effects (growth inhibition and population effect) in a 12 to 48 hours of exposure.