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Toxicological information

Eye irritation

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
eye irritation: in vitro / ex vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
06 July 2015 to 07 July 2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed in accordance with OECD & EU test guidelines in compliance with GLP.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2015
Report Date:
2015

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 437 (Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants)
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU method B.47 (Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
solid: pellets
Details on test material:
Identification: 2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate]
Appearance: White to off white pellet
Batch: T3J07001
Purity/Composition: 97.8%
Test substance storage: At room temperature
Stable under storage conditions until: 11 September 2017 (retest date)
Test substance handling: No specific handling conditions required
Chemical name (IUPAC): 2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate]
Trade name: NAUGARD® 412S
CAS Number: 29598-76-3
Molecular formula: C65H124O8S4
Molecular weight: 1161.94
pH (1% in water, indicative range): 7.30-7.66 (determined by WIL Research Europe)

Test animals / tissue source

Species:
other: Bovine eyes
Strain:
not specified
Details on test animals or tissues and environmental conditions:
Test System: Bovine eyes were used as soon as possible after slaughter.
Rationale: In the interest of sound science and animal welfare, a sequential testing strategy is recommended to minimise the need of in vivo testing (1-6). As a consequence a validated and accepted in vitro test for eye irritation should be performed before in vivo tests are conducted. One of the proposed validated in vitro eye irritation tests is the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test.
Source: Bovine eyes from young cattle were obtained from the slaughterhouse (Vitelco, -'s Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands), where the eyes were excised by a slaughterhouse employee as soon as possible after slaughter but within 4 hours.
Transport: Eyes were collected and transported in physiological saline in a suitable container under cooled conditions.

Test system

Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Controls:
yes, concurrent positive control
yes, concurrent negative control
Amount / concentration applied:
323.8 to 375.2 mg.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
240 minutes
Observation period (in vivo):
90 minutes
Duration of post- treatment incubation (in vitro):
Corneas were incubated in a horizontal position for 240 ± 10 minutes at 32 ± 1°C
Number of animals or in vitro replicates:
3 corneas per test group (test substance, negative control, positive control).
Details on study design:
Test substance preparation
Since a correction factor was not applicable for this test, no correction was made for the purity/composition of the test substance.
Since no workable suspension of the test substance in physiological saline could be obtained, the test substance was used as delivered by the sponsor and added pure on top of the corneas. Before application the test substance was crushed and ground in a mortar with pestle to improve the consistency.

Reference substances
Negative control: A negative control, physiological saline (Eurovet Animal Health, Bladel, The Netherlands) was included to detect non-specific changes in the test system and to provide a baseline for the assay endpoints.
Positive control: 20% (w/v) Imidazole (Merck Schuchardt DHG, Germany) [CAS Number 288-32-4] solution prepared in physiological saline.

Preparation of corneas
The eyes were checked for unacceptable defects, such as opacity, scratches, pigmentation and neovascularization by removing them from the physiological saline and holding them in the light. Those exhibiting defects were discarded.
The isolated corneas were stored in a petri dish with cMEM (Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (Life Technologies, Bleiswijk, The Netherlands) containing 1% (v/v) L-glutamine (Life Technologies) and 1% (v/v) Foetal Bovine Serum (Life Technologies)). The isolated corneas were mounted in a corneal holder (one cornea per holder) of MC2 (Clermont-Ferrand, France) with the endothelial side against the O-ring of the posterior half of the holder. The anterior half of the holder was positioned on top of the cornea and tightened with screws. The compartments of the corneal holder were filled with cMEM of 32 ± 1°C. The corneas were incubated for the minimum of 1 hour at 32 ± 1°C.

Cornea selection and Opacity reading
After the incubation period, the medium was removed from both compartments and replaced with fresh cMEM. Opacity determinations were performed on each of the corneas using an opacitometer (OP-KIT, MC2, Clermont-Ferrand, France). The opacity of each cornea was read against an air filled chamber, and the initial opacity reading thus determined was recorded. Corneas that had an initial opacity reading higher than 7 were not used. Three corneas were selected at random for each treatment group.

Treatment of corneas and opacity measurements
The medium from the anterior compartment was removed and 750 μl of the negative control and 20% (w/v) Imidazole solution (positive control) were introduced onto the epithelium of the cornea. The test substance was weighed in a bottle and applied directly on the corneas in such a way that the cornea was completely covered (323.8 to 375.2 mg).The holder was slightly rotated, with the corneas maintained in a horizontal position, to ensure uniform distribution of the solutions over the entire cornea. Corneas were incubated in a horizontal position for 240 ± 10 minutes at 32 ± 1°C. After the incubation the solutions and the test compound were removed and the epithelium was washed at least three times with MEM with phenol red (Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium Life Technologies). Possible pH effects of the test substance on the corneas were recorded. Each cornea was inspected visually for dissimilar opacity patterns. The medium in the posterior compartment was removed and both compartments were refilled with fresh cMEM and the opacity determinations were performed.

Opacity measurement
The opacitometer determined the difference in the light transmission between each control or treated cornea and an air filled chamber. The numerical opacity value (arbitrary unit) was displayed and recorded. The change in opacity for each individual cornea (including the negative control) was calculated by subtracting the initial opacity reading from the final post-treatment reading. The corrected opacity for each positive control or test substance treated cornea was calculated by subtracting the average change in opacity of the negative control corneas from the change in opacity of each positive control or test substance treated cornea.
The mean opacity value of each treatment group was calculated by averaging the corrected opacity values of the treated corneas for each treatment group.

Application of sodium fluorescein
Following the final opacity measurement, permeability of the cornea to Na-fluorescein (Merck) was evaluated.
The medium of both compartments (anterior compartment first) was removed. The posterior compartment was refilled with fresh cMEM. The anterior compartment was filled with 1 ml of 5 mg
Na-fluorescein/ml cMEM solution (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Germany). The holders were slightly rotated, with the corneas maintained in a horizontal position, to ensure uniform distribution of the sodium-fluorescein solution over the entire cornea. Corneas were incubated in a horizontal position for 90 ± 5 minutes at 32 ± 1°C.

Permeability determinations
After the incubation period, the medium in the posterior compartment of each holder was removed and placed into a sampling tube labelled according to holder number. 360 μl of the medium from each sampling tube was transferred to a 96-well plate. The optical density at 490 nm (OD490) of each sampling tube was measured in triplicate using a microplate reader (TECAN Infinite® M200 Pro Plate Reader). Any OD490 that was 1.500 or higher was diluted to bring the OD490 into the acceptable range (linearity up to OD490 of 1.500 was verified before the start of the experiment). OD490 values of less than 1.500 were used in the permeability calculation.
The mean OD490 for each treatment was calculated using cMEM corrected OD490 values. If a dilution was performed, the OD490 of each reading was corrected for the mean negative control OD490 before the dilution factor was applied to the readings.

Electronic data capture
Observations/measurements in the study were recorded electronically using the following programme: Magellan Tracker 7.0 (TECAN, Austria) for optical density measurement.

Results and discussion

In vitro

Results
Irritation parameter:
in vitro irritation score
Run / experiment:
Single exposure, 240 minutes of treatment
Value:
0.7
Vehicle controls validity:
valid
Negative controls validity:
valid
Positive controls validity:
valid
Remarks on result:
no indication of irritation

Any other information on results incl. tables

Summary of opacity, permeability and in vitro scores

Treatment

Mean Opacity

Mean Permeability

Mean In vitro Irritation Score1,2

Negative control

0.0

0.000

0.0

Positive control

113.3

2.729

154.3

Test substance

-0.7

0.001

-0.7

1Calculated using the negative control mean opacity and mean permeability values.

2In vitro irritancy score (IVIS) = mean opacity value + (15 x mean OD490value).

 

INDIVIDUAL OPACITY, PERMEABILITY AND IN VITRO SCORES

 

Opacity score

Treatment

Opacity before treatment

Opacity after treatment

Final Opacity1

Negative control corrected Final Opacity2

Mean Opacity

 

Negative control

2

3

1

0.0

0.0

1

3

2

1.0

2

2

0

-1.0

 

Mean final opacity: 1.0

 

 

Positive control

1

99

98

97.0

113.3

1

115

114

113.0

4

135

131

130.0

 

Test substance

2

2

0

-1.0

-0.7

1

1

0

-1.0

3

4

1

0.00

1Final Opacity = Opacity after treatment – Opacity before treatment

2Negative control correct Final Opacity = Final opacity – Mean final opacity negative control

 

Permeability score individual values (corrected)

Treatment

Dilution factor

OD4901

OD4902

OD4903

Average OD

Final OD

Mean final negative control

 

Negative control

1

0.032

0.032

0.036

0.033

0.033

0.022

1

0.015

0.016

0.018

0.016

0.016

1

0.015

0.016

0.018

0.016

0.016

 

Positive control

6

0.392

0.390

0.392

0.391

2.348

 

6

0.351

0.351

0.350

0.351

2.104

6

0.691

0.680

0.695

0.689

4.132

 

Test substance

1

0.008

0.005

0.005

0.006

0.006

1

0.038

0.041

0.039

0.039

0.039

1

0.023

0.023

0.024

0.023

0.023

 

Permeability score individual values (corrected)

Treatment

Dilution factor

Negative control corrected OD49011

Negative control corrected OD49021

Negative control corrected OD49031

Negative control corrected OD490Average

Negative control corrected final OD490

Average OD

 

Negative control

1

0.010

0.010

0.014

0.011

0.011

0.000

1

-0.007

-0.006

-0.004

-0.006

-0.006

1

-0.007

-0.006

-0.004

-0.006

-0.006

 

Positive control

6

0.370

0.368

0.370

0.369

2.216

2.729

6

0.329

0.329

0.328

0.329

1.972

6

0.669

0.658

0.673

0.667

4.000

 

Test substance

1

-0.014

-0.017

-0.017

-0.016

-0.016

0.001

1

0.016

0.019

0.017

0.017

0.017

1

0.001

0.001

0.002

0.001

0.001

1OD490values corrected for the mean final negative control permeability (0.022).

 

In Vitro irritancy score

Treatment

Negative control corrected Final Opacity

Negative control corrected Final OD490

In vitro Irritancy Score1

 

Negative control

0.0

0.011

0.2

1.0

-0.006

0.9

-1.0

-0.006

-1.1

 

Positive control

97.0

2.216

130.2

113.0

1.972

142.6

130.0

4.000

190.0

 

Test substance

-1.0

-0.016

-1.2

-1.0

0.017

-0.7

0.0

0.001

0.0

1In vitro irritancy score (IVIS) = opacity value + (15 x OD490value).

 

HISTORICAL CONTROL DATA

Historical control data for the BCOP studies

 

Negative control

Positive control

Opacity

Permeability

In vitro Irritancy Score

In vitro Irritancy Score

Range

-3 – 2

-0.056 – 0.050

-3.3 – 2.1

68 – 135

Mean

-0.22

0.00

-0.28

95.22

SD

0.94

0.01

0.95

18.75

N

94

96

93

73

SD = Standard deviation

N = Number of observations

The above mentioned historical control data range of the controls were obtained by collecting all data over the period of April 2012 to April 2015.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
study cannot be used for classification
Remarks:
Migrated information
Conclusions:
2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate] did not induce ocular irritation through both endpoints, resulting in a mean in vitro irritancy score of -0.7 after 240 minutes of treatment.
Executive summary:

Evaluation of the eye hazard potential of 2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate] using the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test (BCOP test).

The report describes the potency of chemicals to induce serious eye damage using isolated bovine corneas. The eye damage of the test substance was tested through topical application for approximately 240 minutes.

 

The study procedures described in the report were based on the most recent OECD and EC guidelines:

- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals; Guideline no. 437: " Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage”(adopted July 26, 2013).

- European Community (EC). Commission regulation (EC) No. 440/2008, Part B: Methods for the Determination of Toxicity and other health effects, Guideline B.47 “Bovine corneal opacity and permeability method for identifying ocular corrosives and severe irritants ". Official Journal of the European Union No. L324; Amended by EC No. 1152/2010 No. L142, 09 December 2010.

 

Batch T3J07001 of the test substance consisted of a white to off white pellet with a purity of 97.8%. Since no workable suspension in physiological saline could be obtained, the test substance was used as delivered and added pure on top of the corneas (323.8 to 375.2 mg).

 

The negative control responses for opacity and permeability with an IVIS ranging from -1.1 to 0.9 were less than the upper limits of the laboratory historical range indicating that the negative control did not induce irritancy on the corneas. The mean in vitro irritancy score of the positive control (20% (w/v) Imidazole) was 154 and above the historical positive control current mean plus two standard deviations. It was therefore concluded that the test conditions were adequate and that the test system functioned properly.

 

2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate] did not induce ocular irritation through both endpoints, resulting in a mean in vitro irritancy score of -0.7 after 240 minutes of treatment.

 

Since 2,2-Bis[[3-(dodecylthio)-1-oxopropoxy]methyl]propane-1,3-diyl bis[3-(dodecylthio)propionate] induced an IVIS ≤ 3, no classification is required for eye irritation or serious eye damage.